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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130220/-current-research-progress-and-thinking-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#1
Ning Li, Hongliang Tian
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as fecal bacteriotherapy or fecal infusion, consists of injection of a liquid filtrate of feces from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient individual. FMT has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by reestablishment of a wide diversity of intestinal flora. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment guideline from American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) recommends that FMT can be used as the treatment protocols of relapse CDI...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128016/extracorporeal-life-support-in-lung-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Darryl Abrams, Daniel Brodie, Selim M Arcasoy
Extracorporeal life support in lung transplantation has been associated with poor posttransplant outcomes. However, recent advances have resulted in more favorable posttransplant outcomes. The increased use of this technology must be weighed against the risks inherent in its use, especially when complications arising in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-dependent patients result in loss of transplant candidacy, leaving them with no viable alternative for long-term support. Existing and emerging data support the judicious use of this technology in carefully selected patients at high-volume transplant and ECMO centers that prioritize minimization of sedation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation, and early mobilization...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107728/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-object-recognition-and-anxiety-like-activity-are-age-and-strain-dependent-in-mice
#3
C R Kasten, Y Zhang, S L Boehm
Use of exogenous cannabinoids disrupts the fine-tuned endocannabinoid receptor system, possibly leading to alterations in cognition, memory, and emotional processes that endure long after cannabinoid use has stopped. Long-term adolescent use may uniquely disrupt these behaviors when compared to adult use. The current study explored the acute and long-term behavioral effects of six 10mg/kg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) injections across the adolescent or early adult period in male inbred C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mice...
October 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099938/nyx-2925-is-a-novel-nmda-receptor-specific-spirocyclic-%C3%AE-lactam-that-modulates-synaptic-plasticity-processes-associated-with-learning-and-memory
#4
M Amin Khan, David R Houck, Amanda L Gross, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Cassia Cearley, Torsten M Madsen, Roger A Kroes, Patric K Stanton, Jeffrey Burgdorf, Joseph R Moskal
Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are one member of a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity processes associated with learning and have become attractive therapeutic targets for diseases such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and neuropathic pain. NYX-2925 ((2S, 3R)-3-hydroxy-2-((R)-5-isobutyryl-1-oxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)butanamide) is one member of a spiro--lactam-based chemical platform that mimics some of the dipyrrolidine structural features of rapastinel (formerly GLYX-13: threonine-proline-proline-threonine) and is distinct from known NMDAR agonists or antagonists such as D-cycloserine, ketamine, MK-801, kynurenic acid or ifenprodil...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098837/-pharmacokinetics-of-mercury-after-oral-administration-of-cinnabaris-and-fufang-niuhuang-xiaoyan-capsule-in-rats
#5
Xiao-Ni Song, Yu-Ting Lu, Dan-Yi Yang, Sheng Wang, Tai-Jun Hang, Min Song
Fufang Niuhuang Xiaoyan capsule was a classical compound prescription with the efficacy of heat-clearing, detoxification, sedation and anti-inflammation, with cinnabaris as one of its active ingredients. The study focuses on the pharmacokinetics of mercury in rats after oral administration of cinnabaris and Fufang Niuhuang Xiaoyan capsule, in order to explore the effect of combined traditional Chinese medicines on mercury metabolism. In this study, the method of nitric-perchloric acid digestion system coupled with cold atomic-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) was adopted to accurately determine mercury in whole blood of rats...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096573/drug-related-problems-and-changes-in-drug-utilization-after-medication-reviews-in-nursing-homes-in-oslo-norway
#6
Amura Francesca Fog, Gunnar Kvalvaag, Knut Engedal, Jørund Straand
OBJECTIVE: We describe the drug-related problems (DRPs) identified during medication reviews (MRs) and the changes in drug utilization after MRs at nursing homes in Oslo, Norway. We explored predictors for the observed changes. DESIGN: Observational before-after study. SETTING: Forty-one nursing homes. INTERVENTION: MRs performed by multidisciplinary teams during November 2011 to February 2014. SUBJECTS: In all, 2465 long-term care patients...
November 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095778/short-term-propofol-infusion-and-associated-effects-on-serum-lactate-in-pediatric-patients
#7
Sean Indra, Haitham Haddad, Mary Ann OʼRiordan
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine if short-duration procedural sedation in children with propofol is related to an adverse metabolic stress response measured by serum lactate. Propofol infusion syndrome is associated with high-dose and long-duration infusion. It has not been studied with short-duration, outpatient propofol administration. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal study that included 50 patients between the ages of 2 and 18 years who were undergoing outpatient procedural sedation with propofol at a pediatric sedation unit...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073744/a-retrospective-study-of-long-acting-risperidone-use-to-support-treatment-adherence-in-youth-with-conduct-disorder
#8
Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya, Hatice Aksu, Börte Gürbüz Özgür
Objective: Risperidone has been widely used to control aggression and conduct disorder (CD) in youth; however, treatment compliance is a major problem in CD. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of long-acting risperidone (LAR) in treating nonadherent cases. Methods: The medical records of children and adolescents who had CD and were nonadherent to conventional drugs and psychosocial interventions (and therefore taking LAR) were reviewed. Informed consent on offlabel use of LAR was obtained from the parents...
November 30, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054510/safety-and-efficiency-in-a-canadian-outpatient-gynaecological-surgical-centre
#9
Caroline E Lee, Annette Epp
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe safety and efficiency outcomes for patients undergoing procedures at the Women's Health Centre, an outpatient gynaecological surgical centre in Saskatoon, SK. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of surgical outpatient health records was conducted for the period of July 2014 to June 2015. Data were abstracted using a standardized data form for patient admissions during the study period. Primary outcomes of interest included procedure time, lead time (registration to discharge), complication rates, readmission rates, and reoperation rates...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052383/-toxicity-of-mineral-chinese-medicines-containing-mercury-element
#10
REVIEW
Xiao-Ye Wang, Rui-Chao Lin, Shi-Fen Dong, Jun Guan, Lu Sun, Jian-Mei Huang
Mineral Chinese medicine is the distinctive part of the Chinese traditional medicine. The mineral Chinese medicines containing mercury elements such as cinnabaris, calomelas and hydrargyri oxydum rubrum are widely applied in the clinical conditions because of their efficacy of sedative, sterilization, removing necrotic tissue and promoting granulation. However, the rationality and security of clinical application are questioned because of the toxic effect caused by mercury compounds. This paper would summarize the efficacy of the mineral Chinese medicines containing mercury element, as well as their hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, embryotoxicity, and neurotoxicity effect and mechanisms...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036295/psychotropic-medications-prescribing-trends-in-adolescents-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#11
Chin-Yen Tsai, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Mohaimenul Islam, Wan-Shan Hsieh, Shing-Hwa Juan, Jiang-Chen Chen, Hafsah Arshed Ali Khan, Wen-Shan Jian
Objective: To describe psychotropic medications prescription patterns among adolescents in Taiwan; focusing on age, gender, duration of treatments and various classes of psychotropic medications. Design: A retrospective description analysis. Setting: Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. Participants: Twelve to seventeen years' patients treated with psychotropic medications. Intervention: None...
September 20, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030928/pharmacokinetics-of-s-ketamine-during-prolonged-sedation-at-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#12
Robert B Flint, Carole N M Brouwer, Anne S C Kränzlin, Loraine Lie-A-Huen, Albert P Bos, Ron A A Mathôt
BACKGROUND: S-ketamine is the S(+)-enantiomer of the racemic mixture ketamine, an anesthetic drug providing both sedation and analgesia. In clinical practice, significant interpatient variability in drug effect of S-ketamine is observed during long-term sedation. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic variability of S-ketamine in children aged 0-18 years during long-term sedation. Twenty-five children (median age: 0.42 years, range: 0...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977099/fluid-overload-in-children-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation
#13
Clarice Laroque Sinott Lopes, Jefferson Pedro Piva
Patients admitted to an intensive care unit are prone to cumulated fluid overload and receive intravenous volumes through the aggressive resuscitation recommended for septic shock treatment, as well as other fluid sources related to medications and nutritional support. The liberal liquid supply strategy has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Although there are few prospective pediatric studies, new strategies are being proposed. This non-systematic review discusses the pathophysiology of fluid overload, its consequences, and the available therapeutic strategies...
September 28, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969310/what-do-recent-human-studies-tell-us-about-the-association-between-anaesthesia-in-young-children-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#14
J D O'Leary, D O Warner
Anaesthetic and sedative drugs transiently disrupt normal neural activity to facilitate healthcare procedures in children, but they can also cause long-term brain injury in experimental animal models. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently advised that repeated or lengthy exposures to anaesthetic and sedative drugs prior to 3 yr of age have the potential to harm the development of children's brains and added warnings to these drug labels. Paediatric anaesthesia toxicity could represent a significant public health issue, and concern about this potential injury in children has become an important issue for families, paediatric clinicians and healthcare regulators...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950826/long-term-effects-of-early-exposure-to-stress-pain-opioids-and-anaesthetics-on-pain-sensitivity-and-neurocognition
#15
Gerbrich E van den Bosch, Monique van Dijk, Dick Tibboel, Jurgen C de Graaff
Background Experimental studies have shown that neonatal exposure to stress, pain, opioids and anaesthetics may cause histologic and morphologic changes in the central nervous system with associated functional and behavioural changes in the long term. An important question is whether this holds true for humans also - and in particular for sick neonates who often are exposed to pain and receive anaesthetics and sedatives. Methods In this narrative review, we evaluate the effects of neonatal exposure to stress, pain, opioids and anaesthetics in infancy and childhood in animals and in preterm born and term born humans on pain sensitivity, brain morphology, cognition and behaviour later in life...
September 26, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946761/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-asenapine-maintenance-therapy-in-adults-with-an-acute-manic-or-mixed-episode-associated-with-bipolar-i-disorder
#16
Armin Szegedi, Suresh Durgam, Mary Mackle, Sung Yun Yu, Xiao Wu, Maju Mathews, Ronald P Landbloom
OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the efficacy and safety of asenapine in preventing recurrence of any mood episode in adults with bipolar I disorder. METHOD: Adults with an acute manic or mixed episode per DSM-IV-TR criteria were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled trial consisting of an initial 12- to 16-week open-label period and a 26-week double-blind randomized withdrawal period. The target asenapine dosage was 10 mg b.i.d. in the open-label period but could be titrated down to 5 mg b...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936700/prescription-of-sedative-drugs-during-hospital-stay-a-swiss-prospective-study
#17
Laurence Schumacher, Maria Dobrinas, Damien Tagan, Annelore Sautebin, Anne-Laure Blanc, Nicolas Widmer
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of prescriptions for sedative drugs has increased significantly, as has their long-term use. Moreover, sedative use is frequently initiated during hospital stays. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe new prescriptions of sedative drugs during hospital stays and evaluate their maintenance as discharge medication. METHODS: This observational prospective study took place in an internal medicine ward of a Swiss hospital over a period of 3 months in 2014...
December 2017: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924156/primary-and-secondary-non-adherence-to-osteoporotic-medications-after-hip-fracture-in-spain-the-prev2fo-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Aníbal García-Sempere, Isabel Hurtado, José Sanfélix-Genovés, Clara L Rodríguez-Bernal, Rafael Gil Orozco, Salvador Peiró, Gabriel Sanfélix-Gimeno
Osteoporotic medication after hip fracture is widely recommended by clinical practice guidelines, and medication adherence is essential to meet clinical trial risk reduction figures in the real world. We assessed primary and secondary non-adherence to osteoporosis medications in patients discharged following a hip fracture and identified factors associated with secondary non-adherence. From a population-based retrospective cohort of 19,405 patients aged 65 years and over discharged from a hip fracture in the region of Valencia (Spain) from January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2012, we followed, over a minimum of 365 days, 4,856 patients with at least one osteoporotic medication prescribed within the first six months after discharge...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916346/radiofrequency-ablation-of-t1a-renal-cell-carcinomas-within-renal-transplant-allografts-oncologic-outcomes-and-graft%C3%A2-viability
#19
Derek W Cool, John R Kachura
PURPOSE: To evaluate oncologic outcomes and graft viability after percutaneous RF ablation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) developing within renal transplant allografts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-institution, retrospective study reviewed all patients treated with RF ablation for RCC between February 2004 and May 2016. Ten patients were identified (age 49.6 y ± 12.6; 9 men, 1 woman) with 12 biopsy-confirmed RCC tumors within the allograft (all T1a, mean diameter 2...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888583/food-and-drug-administration-warning-on-anesthesia-and-brain-development-implications-for-obstetric-and-fetal-surgery
#20
Olutoyin A Olutoye, Byron Wycke Baker, Michael A Belfort, Oluyinka O Olutoye
There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as nonhuman primates suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On Dec. 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, and the intravenous agents propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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