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Trace elements

K Fink, H-J Busch
BACKGROUND: Administration of selenium, a trace element with antioxidative properties, has been shown to be beneficial in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the influence of selenium treatment on the outcome of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) following cardiac arrest. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed selenium plasma levels, neurological performance by Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC), and survival to discharge of 28 resuscitated patients receiving selenium treatment of any cause 24, 48, or 72 h after CPR...
March 19, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
D A Kenny, C J Byrne
The advent of genomic selection has led to increased interest within the cattle breeding industry to market semen from young bulls as early as possible. However, both the quantity and quality of such semen is dictated by the age at which these animals reach puberty. Enhancing early life plane of nutrition of the bull stimulates a complex biochemical interplay involving metabolic and neuroendocrine signalling and culminating in enhanced testicular growth and development and earlier onset of sexual maturation...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Nneka Alozie, Natalie Heaney, Chuxia Lin
A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of biochar on the behaviour of soil-borne arsenic and metals that were mobilized by three low-molecular-weight organic acids. In the presence of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid at a molar concentration of 0.01M, the surface of biochar was protonated, which disfavours adsorption of the cationic metals released from the soil by organic acid-driven mobilization. In contrast, the oxyanionic As species were re-immobilized by the protonated biochar effectively...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simon Pouil, Rachel J Clausing, Marc Metian, Paco Bustamante, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui Bottein
Essential nutrients are critical for physiological processes of organisms. In fish, they are obtained primarily from the diet, and their transfer and accumulation are known to be impacted by environmental variables such as water temperature, pH and salinity, as well as by diet composition and matrices. Yet, prey items consumed by fish may also contain toxic compounds such as marine toxins associated with harmful algae. These biotoxins have the potential to affect essential trace element assimilation in fish through chemical interactions such as the formation of trace element-toxin complexes or by affecting general fish physiology as in the modification of ion-specific transport pathways...
March 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Lisa Ito, Takayuki Omori, Minoru Yoneda, Toru Yamaguchi, Ryuta Kobayashi, Yoshio Takahashi
The sediments of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, consist of bioclastic materials, including foraminifera and coral debris. The sedimentary depth profiles of elements showed that various elements including zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were enriched in the upper layers of the islands of Majuro Atoll. Carbon-14 dating revealed that the sedimentation of the upper layer was completed before 1670 and 542 cal BP in Laura and Calalen, respectively. The enriched elements could be categorized by their origins: (a) terrestrial elements transported as dust (aluminum (Al) and rare earth elements (REEs)); (b) anthropogenic elements (Zn and Cu); and (c) elements supplied by seabirds (phosphorus (P))...
March 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Trajče Stafilov, Robert Šajn, Mila Arapčeska, Ivan Kungulovski, Jasminka Alijagić
The results of the systematic study of the spatial distribution of trace metals in surface soil over the Bitola region, Republic of Macedonia, known for its coal mine and thermo-electrical power plant activities are reported. The investigated region (3200 km2 ) is covered by a sparse sampling grid of 5 × 5 km, but in the urban zone and around the thermoelectric power plant the sampling grid is denser (1 × 1 km). In total, 229 soil samples from 149 locations were collected including top-soil (0-5 cm) and bottom-soil samples (20-30 cm and 0-30 cm)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Hui-Hu Li, Gang Ren, Li-Min Chen, Guo-Yue Zhong
Glues medicines is a special kind of traditional Chinese medicine.As the market demand is large, the raw materials are in short supply and lacks proper quality evaluation technology, which causes inconsistent quality of products on the market. Its authentic identification and evaluation stay a problem to be solved. In this paper, the research progress of the methods and techniques of the evaluation of the identification and quality of glues medicines were reviewed. The researches of medicinal glue type identification and quality evaluation mainly concentrated in four aspects of medicinal materials of physical and chemical properties, trace elements, organic chemicals and biological genetic methods and techniques...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
J-P Suuronen, M Sayab
Zircon is the most widely used mineral in petrochronology and provides key information about magmatic and crustal differentiation history of plutonic rocks, transport paths of clastic material 'from source to sink' and significantly contributes in the reconstruction of enigmatic planetary-scale tectonic episodes since the Archaean. However, detailed textural analysis of this accessory mineral has always been hampered by two-dimensional (2D) analytical limitations. With the advancements in X-ray nanotomography technology, it is now possible to non-destructively, yet digitally, cut, visualize, compare and quantify internal textures within zircons, their growth and zoning patterns and chemical distribution of trace elements in three dimensions (3D)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tommaso Filippini, Silvia Cilloni, Marcella Malavolti, Federica Violi, Carlotta Malagoli, Marina Tesauro, Ilaria Bottecchi, Angela Ferrari, Luciano Vescovi, Marco Vinceti
This study provides the dietary intakes of six trace elements (cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc), generally characterized by both nutritional and toxicological features depending on their exposure. Being diet the most relevant source of exposure to trace elements in non-professionally exposed subjects, we measured content of these trace elements in foods composing the typical Italian diet using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and assessing dietary habits using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire we eventually estimated dietary daily intake of trace elements in a Northern Italian community...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yongping Liu, Shanshan Liu, Jinyuan Mao, Sichen Piao, Jing Qin, Shiqiao Peng, Xiaochen Xie, Haixia Guan, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate serum trace elements in Graves' disease (GD) patients with or without orbitopathy in Northeast China. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease (HyGD) ( n = 66), GD patients with euthyroid status or subclinical thyroidism after treatment (EUGD) ( n = 55), GO patients with euthyroid status or subclinical thyroidism after treatment (GO) ( n = 57), and normal controls (NC) ( n = 66) were enrolled in this study...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Hichem Moulahoum, Belkacem Mohamed Amine Boumaza, Meriem Ferrat, Andras-Laszlo Nagy, Diana Elena Olteanu, Abdelkader Bounaama, Simona Clichici
Zinc is a trace element widely known for its marked antioxidant properties. To gain more insight into the site- and time- specific mechanisms by which it induces chemoprevention, this study was elaborated over a pre-cancerous model of colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer was induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in mice (20 mg/kg for 2 weeks) and groups of animals were supplemented with or without zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 , 200 mg/L) in drinking water for 4, 10 or 14 weeks. Colon tissues were collected for pathological observation, analyzing aberrant crypt (AC) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formations, multiplicity and distribution...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Aubrey L Galusha, Pamela C Kruger, Lyn J Howard, Patrick J Parsons
Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are exposed to potentially toxic elements, which may accumulate in bone. Bone samples collected from seven PN patients (average = 14 years) and eighteen hip/knee samples were analyzed for Al as part of a previous investigation. Yttrium was serendipitously detected in the PN bone samples, leading to the present investigation of rare earth elements (REEs). A method for quantitating fifteen REEs in digested bone was developed based on tandem ICP-MS (ICP-MS/MS) to resolve spectral interferences...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Joanna Suliburska, Katarzyna Skrypnik, Monika Szulińska, Justyna Kupsz, Paweł Bogdański
BACKGROUND: Hypotensive therapy leads to a number of trace elements metabolism disturbances. Zinc balance is frequently affected by antihypertensive treatment. AIM: To evaluate the effect of a hypotensive treatment, modified diet and zinc supplementation on mineral status and selected biochemical parameters in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients on monotherapy. METHODS: In the first stage, arterial hypertension in ninety-eight human subjects was diagnosed...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Stefania Squadrone, Paola Brizio, Cecilia Mancini, Maria Cesarina Abete, Alfredo Brusco
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a neurological disorder characterized by cerebellar dysfunction. The possible association between metals and neurodegenerative diseases is under constant investigation, with particular focus on their involvement in oxidative stress and their potential role as biomarkers of these pathologies. Whole blood samples of SCA2 patients and of healthy individuals were subjected to multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Reduced levels of manganese and copper were found in SCA2 patients, while zinc and vanadium concentrations were significantly higher in patients compared to controls...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Fengmei Ban, Andy Baker, Christopher E Marjo, Wuhui Duan, Xianglei Li, Jinxian Han, Katie Coleborn, Rabeya Akter, Ming Tan, Gurinder Nagra
Stalagmites play an important role in paleoclimatic reconstructions from seasonal to orbital time scales as230 Th-dating can provide an accurate absolute age. Additionally, seasonal trace element and optical layers can provide a precise age. We analyzed the seasonal variability of multiple trace elements on a stalagmite (XMG) in Shihua Cave, Beijing and compared them with results from laminae counting. The results show that (1) the polished section of the topmost part of XMG has obvious bi-optical layers under a conventional transmission microscope, however, laminae are not observed using this method in the rest of the sample, and (2) The variations of P/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, U/Ca and Mg/Ca show seasonal cycles throughout the sample...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guanrui Wu, Zhe Li, Wen Ju, Xiaomei Yang, Xiaofeng Fu, Xibao Gao
Although selenium, which is a necessary trace element for the human body, has been considered to be beneficial to the cardiovascular system and helpful to lower blood pressure, more and more evidence shows that high amounts of selenium are a risk factor for hypertension. A random multistage sampling which included the cluster method was performed; a total of 9076 urban and rural residents between 18 and 80 years old in the Shandong province of China were investigated by questionnaire, physical examination, and laboratory tests...
March 13, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Mohammad Ibrahim, Musadiq Ibrahim, Niaz Muhammad, Muhammad Ishaq Ali Shah, Gerlânia de Oliveira Leite, Joao B T Rocha
Selenium (Se) is a dietary essential trace element with important biological roles. It is a nutrient related to the complex metabolic and enzymatic functions. Organoselenium compounds have been reported to have anti-ulcer activity and used as drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The antiulcer activity of binapthyl diselenide (NapSe)2 was investigated in ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. A number of markers of oxidative stress were examined in rats stomach including thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), non-protein thiol groups (NPSH) and ascorbic acid...
March 13, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Bruna Mariáh da S E Silva, Gundisalvo P Morales, Ana Lúcia N Gutjahr, Kelson do C Freitas Faial, Bruno S Carneiro
In this study, trace element concentrations were measured in chelipod and gill samples of the crab U. cordatus by induced coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The element average concentrations between the structures were statistically compared. Gill concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in female crabs, while in chelipods, Pb concentrations were higher in males. The concentration of Zn in crabs from Curuçá City were higher than the recommended by health agencies, but the provisional tolerable daily intake value (PTDI), for Zn and Cu, showed only 10 and 23% contribution, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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