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Extrapyramidal syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412910/aripiprazole-a-drug-that-displays-partial-agonism-and-functional-selectivity
#1
Erin W Tuplin, Matthew R Holahan
The treatment of schizophrenia is challenging due to the wide range of symptoms (positive, negative, cognitive) associated with the disease. Typical antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors are effective in treating positive symptoms, but extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) are a common occurrence. Atypical antipsychotics targeting 5-TH2A and D2 receptors are more effective at treating cognitive and negative symptoms compared to typical antipsychotics, but these drugs also result in side-effects such as metabolic syndromes...
April 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378511/dissociation-of-reward-and-effort-sensitivity-in-methcathinone-induced-parkinsonism
#2
Trevor T-J Chong, Valerie Bonnelle, Kai-Riin Veromann, Julius Juurmaa, Pille Taba, Olivia Plant, Masud Husain
Methcathinone-induced Parkinsonism is a recently described extrapyramidal syndrome characterized by globus pallidus and substantia nigra lesions, which provides a unique model of basal ganglia dysfunction. We assessed motivated behaviour in this condition using a novel cost-benefit decision-making task, in which participants decided whether it was worth investing effort for reward. Patients showed a dissociation between reward and effort sensitivity, such that pallidonigral complex dysfunction caused them to become less sensitive to rewards, while normal sensitivity to effort costs was maintained...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344764/atypical-antipsychotics-recent-research-findings-and-applications-to-clinical-practice-proceedings-of-a-symposium-presented-at-the-29th-annual-european-college-of-neuropsychopharmacology-congress-19-september-2016-vienna-austria
#3
REVIEW
Robin Murray, Christoph U Correll, Gavin P Reynolds, David Taylor
Available evidence suggests that second-generation atypical antipsychotics are broadly similar to first-generation agents in terms of their efficacy, but may have a more favourable tolerability profile, primarily by being less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms. However, atypical antipsychotics are variably associated with disturbances in the cardiometabolic arena, including increased body weight and the development of metabolic syndrome, which may reflect differences in their receptor binding profiles...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320181/ataxic-form-of-autosomal-recessive-pex10-related-peroxisome-biogenesis-disorders-with-a-novel-compound-heterozygous-gene-mutation-and-characteristic-clinical-phenotype
#4
Toru Yamashita, Jun Mitsui, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Shigeo Takashima, Hiroshi Umemura, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Takashi Matsukawa, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Yoshimura, Koichiro Doi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Koji Abe
Peroxisome biogenesis factor 10 (PEX10) is involved in the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins, and the mutation of this gene causes 3 subtypes of peroxisome biogenesis disorders, namely Zellweger syndrome (severe), neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (moderate) and an ataxic form (mild). Here, we report 3 siblings of the ataxic form with cerebellar ataxia, mild mental retardation, and 3 additional characteristic features: mydriasis, hyperreflexia and involuntary head movement. All 3 siblings are compound heterozygous for a previously reported mutation, c...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273704/-clinical-and-genetic-characteristics-of-children-with-leigh-syndrome
#5
F Fang, Y Shen, D M Shen, Z M Liu, C H Ding, W C Zhang, S Z Sun, J L Lyu, T L Han, X H Wang, W H Zhang, X Y Yang, J W Li, H S Wu
Objective: To investigate the clinically and genetic characteristics of children with Leigh syndrome. Method: Patients with clinically diagnosed Leigh syndrome(LS)in the department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2013 to February 2016 underwent the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) detecting with next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The clinical data of gene confirmed cases were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The differences in the onset age, clinical manifestations, lactic acid level and MRI results between the mtDNA variation and nDNA variation were compared and analyzed...
March 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272307/blood-biomarkers-predict-the-cognitive-effects-of-aripiprazole-in-patients-with-acute-schizophrenia
#6
Hikaru Hori, Reiji Yoshimura, Asuka Katsuki, Kiyokazu Atake, Ryohei Igata, Yuki Konishi, Hiroki Beppu, Hirotaka Tominaga
Aripiprazole has been reported to exert variable effects on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated biological markers, clinical data, and psychiatric symptoms in order to identify factors that influence cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia undergoing aripiprazole treatment. We evaluated cognitive function in 51 patients with schizophrenia using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), as well as background information, psychiatric symptoms, plasma catecholamine metabolites-homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)-, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258683/-patient-with-creutzfeld-jakob-disease-a-case-report
#7
Żanna Pastuszak, Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz, Adam Stępień, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Joanna Klimczuk, Agnieszka Rolewska, Dariusz Galbarczyk
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare syndrome of central nervous system caused by infectious protein called prion. There are four types of CJD: sporadic (sCJD), familial (fCJD), jatrogenic (jCJD) and variant (vCJD). The most frequent symptoms are rapidly progressing dementia, mioclonias, akinetic mutism and signs of cerebellum dysfunction. In sCJD, MRI often shows high signal intensity in the putamen and caudate nucleus on T2-weighted images while in vCJD pulvinar sign is often observed. 70% patients with CJD often has characteristic generalized periodic sharp wave pattern in electroencephalography...
February 20, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255435/the-effect-of-long-acting-paliperidone-palmitate-once-monthly-on-negative-and-depressive-symptoms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-switched-from-previous-unsuccessful-treatment-with-oral-aripiprazole
#8
Andreas Schreiner, Paul Bergmans, Pierre Cherubin, Ludger Hargarter
BACKGROUND: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are generally harder to recognize, more difficult to treat than positive symptoms, and have a significant impact on patient functioning and overall outcomes. Treatment with aripiprazole may be associated with benefits on negative symptoms and functioning given its partial agonism to the dopamine D2 receptor. The aim of this subanalysis was to explore the impact of flexibly dosed, long-acting paliperidone palmitate once monthly (PP1M) on negative and depressive symptoms, disorganized thoughts, anxiety, extrapyramidal symptoms, and patient functioning in nonacute adult patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral aripiprazole monotherapy...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228797/femoral-neck-s-fracture-in-fahr-s-syndrome-case-report
#9
Marcello Sallì, Antonio D'Arienzo, Mariella Bonanno, Salvatore Morello, Antonino Sanfilippo, Giulia Letizia Mauro, Michele D'Arienzo
Fahr's syndrome, also known as "Bilateral Striopallidodentate Calcinosis" (BSPDC) primitive, is a rare neurological disease characterized by the presence of idiopathic, bilateral, symmetrical and abnormal deposition of calcium in areas of the brain that control movements including the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, nuclei of thalamus and semi-oval center. We describe a case of a 76-year-old male patient underwent reduction and fixation of a subtrochanteric fracture with intramedullary nail...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219485/acute-antipsychotic-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Simon Tarp, Dorte Glintborg, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Anders Fink-Jensen, Christoph Ulrich Correll, Robin Christensen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of antipsychotics for youth with early-onset schizophrenia using network meta-analytic methods combining direct and indirect trial data. METHOD: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov and selected randomized controlled trials allocating youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders to a (non-clozapine) antipsychotic versus placebo or another antipsychotic...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217166/multifocal-myoclonus-as-a-heralding-manifestation-of-wilson-disease
#11
Rajesh Verma, Vikram V Holla, Suchit Pandey, Imran Rizvi
Wilson disease (WD) is one of the few curable movement disorders that manifests with varied presentations so that WD needs to be considered in any patient with a movement disorder under the age of 50 years. Although WD is one of the causes of myoclonus, it is rarely seen in WD and usually as an associated finding. We report a case of an adolescent female patient of WD who presented with cortical multifocal myoclonus of 6-month duration with later development of generalized dystonia, extrapyramidal syndrome, and cognitive decline...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199071/effect-of-antipsychotic-type-and-dose-changes-on-tardive-dyskinesia-and-parkinsonism-severity-in-patients-with-a-serious-mental-illness-the-cura%C3%A3-ao-extrapyramidal-syndromes-study-xii
#12
Charlotte L Mentzel, P Roberto Bakker, Jim van Os, Marjan Drukker, Glenn E Matroos, Hans W Hoek, Marina A J Tijssen, Peter N van Harten
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of current treatment recommendations for parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia (TD) severity in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: We present an 18-year prospective study including all 223 patients with SMI (as defined by the 1987 US National Institute of Mental Health, which were based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria) receiving care from the only psychiatric hospital of the former Netherlands Antilles. Eight clinical assessments (1992-2009) focused on movement disorders and medication use...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196698/-when-and-how-prescribe-antipsychotics
#13
S Tebeka, G Airagnes, F Limosin
Antipsychotics are commonly prescribed in the general population since they have many indications. They can be used in acute care such as agitation or behavior disorders, or to treat more characterized psychiatric disorders like psychotic or mood disorders. Consequently, any practitioner will have to prescribe or renew a prescription of antipsychotics. These treatments require a benefit/risk balance assessment taking into account the specific context of each patient. Indeed, antipsychotics have many side effects, mainly neurological (extrapyramidal syndrome, dyskinesia, akathisia), metabolic and cardiac...
February 10, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193195/assessing-the-burden-of-treatment-emergent-adverse-events-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-medications
#14
Pierre-Michel Llorca, Christophe Lançon, Ann Hartry, T Michelle Brown, Dana B DiBenedetti, Siddhesh A Kamat, Clément François
BACKGROUND: Treatment of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) show improved efficacy and reduced side effect burden compared with older antipsychotic medications. However, a risk of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) remains. TEAEs are hard to quantify and perspectives on the importance of TEAEs differ across patients and between patients and physicians. The current study is a qualitative assessment that investigates TEAEs of AAPs from both patient and physician perspectives to provide better understanding of the occurrence and burden of TEAEs associated with these medications...
February 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183359/unexpected-extrapyramidal-symptoms-and-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-exertional-heatstroke-with-fulminant-liver-failure-a-case-report
#15
Jie Jiao, Feihu Zhou, Hongjun Kang, Chao Liu, Mengmeng Yang, Jie Hu
BACKGROUND: Exertional heatstroke is a life-threatening condition with high mortality because of the rapid progress of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome even if aggressive treatments are initiated rapidly. Mild to moderate hepatic injury is common in exertional heatstroke, while fulminant liver failure is rare. Extrapyramidal symptoms and pulmonary aspergillosis secondary to liver failure induced by exertional heatstroke have never been reported in prior cases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old Han Chinese man presented with exertional heatstroke with fulminant liver failure, subsequent pulmonary aspergillosis, and extrapyramidal symptoms...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137957/loss-of-function-mutations-in-the-atp13a2-park9-gene-cause-complicated-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-spg78
#16
Alejandro Estrada-Cuzcano, Shaun Martin, Teodora Chamova, Matthis Synofzik, Dagmar Timmann, Tine Holemans, Albena Andreeva, Jennifer Reichbauer, Riet De Rycke, Dae-In Chang, Sarah van Veen, Jean Samuel, Ludger Schöls, Thorsten Pöppel, Danny Mollerup Sørensen, Bob Asselbergh, Christine Klein, Stephan Zuchner, Albena Jordanova, Peter Vangheluwe, Ivailo Tournev, Rebecca Schüle
Hereditary spastic paraplegias are heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive spasticity of the lower limbs due to degeneration of the corticospinal motor neurons. In a Bulgarian family with three siblings affected by complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia, we performed whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping and identified a homozygous p.Thr512Ile (c.1535C > T) mutation in ATP13A2. Molecular defects in this gene have been causally associated with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (#606693), an autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset parkinsonism, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (#606693), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigments...
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999880/-pathomechanisms-and-clinical-aspects-of-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#17
K Bürger, T Arzberger, J Stephan, J Levin, D Edbauer
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) includes a spectrum of heterogeneous clinical and neuropathological diseases. In a strict sense this includes the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and both variants can be associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS). In a broader sense FTLD also includes progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). In recent years the strong genetic component of FTLD has become increasingly clear...
February 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992257/agitation-management-in-pediatric-males-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#18
Lauren T Schumacher, Andrea P Mann, James G MacKenzie
OBJECTIVES: Severe agitation is a common symptom in pediatric cases of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis-an autoimmune encephalitis with prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms. Agitation is a major barrier to treatment of the underlying disease process and increases patients' risk of harming themselves and others. Furthermore, male patients often have undetectable tumors and are especially at risk for extended hospitalization, but have been infrequently studied...
December 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987553/molecular-imaging-of-extrapyramidal-movement-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Kirk A Frey
Extrapyramidal movement disorders including Parkinson disease, multiple systems atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration are neurodegenerative syndromes with distinct neuropathological changes, indicating differing underlying etiologies. Clinical features that may distinguish among these conditions are often absent, particularly early after the onset of symptoms. Therapy is presently limited, and there are no established disease-modifying or neuroprotective interventions. Advances in therapeutics will depend on the early and accurate diagnostic classification of patients...
January 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941358/simvastatin-adjunct-therapy-for-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Soode Tajik-Esmaeeli, Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Niloofar Abbasi, Seyed V Shariat, Farzin Rezaei, Bahman Salehi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
We investigated the effects of simvastatin adjunctive therapy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this double-blind trial, inpatients with chronic schizophrenia were clinically stabilized on a constant dose of risperidone for at least 4 weeks before the study and were then randomized to receive risperidone (4-6 mg/day) plus either simvastatin (40 mg/day) (n=33) or placebo (n=33) for 8 weeks. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to measure the negative, positive, and general symptoms of schizophrenia at baseline and every 2 weeks...
March 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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