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Fetal mri

V V Ashraf, J Prijesh, R Praveenkumar, K Saifudheen
Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an underestimated condition. The purpose of this study is to improve its awareness and early diagnosis. We report five cases of WE secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. Classic triad of encephalopathy, ataxia, and ocular signs was seen in four out of five patients. Two unusual features noted in this series were papilledema in one patient and severe sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in one patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was abnormal in all the five patients, and high signal in medial thalamus and surrounding the aqueduct was the most common abnormality (5/5)...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Kanika Gupta, Bhuvaneswari Venkatesan, Kiruba Shankar Manoharan, Vaithianathan Rajalakshmi, Maya Menon
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome is a rare fetal anomaly with characteristic constellation of prenatal findings on ultrasound and MRI. The typical triad of imaging features are enlarged and echogenic lungs, flattening or inversion of diaphragm and fetal hydrops. Early prenatal recognition of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome by ultrasound and/or MRI is mandatory for the appropriate perinatal management. We report a case of a male fetus with typical imaging findings of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome on ultrasound and MRI at 19 weeks of gestation...
August 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Anna Maria Pinto, Valentina Imperatore, Laura Bianciardi, Margherita Baldassarri, Paolo Galluzzi, Simone Furini, Giovanni Centini, Alessandra Renieri, Francesca Mari
Orofacial clefts are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies and can occur as an isolated defect or be associated with other anomalies such as posterior fossa anomalies as a part of several genetic syndromes. We report two consecutive voluntary pregnancy interruptions in a nonconsanguineous couple following the fetal ultrasound finding of cleft lip and palate and posterior fossa anomalies confirmed by means of post-termination examination on the second fetus. The quantitative fluorescent PCR, the karyotype, and the comparative genomic hybridization-array analysis after amniocentesis were normal...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Dysmorphology
Gregory A Vorona, Susan M Lanni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Bryn Putbrese, Anne Kennedy
Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a nonspecific finding on fetal imaging. Identification of the specific etiology is important as it affects prognosis and may even change the course of current or future pregnancies. In this review we will focus on the application of fetal MRI to demonstrate intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic brain injury as opposed to other causes of VM. MRI is able to identify the specific etiology of ventriculomegaly with much more sensitivity and specificity than ultrasound and should be considered whenever VM is identified on obstetric ultrasound...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Bryon A Mueller, Sarah N Mattson, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Kenneth L Jones, Christopher J Boys, Kelvin O Lim, Edward P Riley, Elizabeth R Sowell
: Consistent with well-documented structural and microstructural abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), recent studies suggest that functional connectivity (FC) may also be disrupted. We evaluated whole-brain FC in a large multi-site sample, examined its cognitive correlates, and explored its potential to objectively identify neurodevelopmental abnormality in individuals without definitive dysmorphic features. Included were 75 children with PAE and 68 controls from four sites...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sepideh Sefidbakht, Sakineh Dehghani, Maryam Safari, Homeira Vafaei, Maryam Kasraeian
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US), especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. OBJECTIVES: We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seven (107) pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Mohamed Ali Abdelkader, Wafaa Ramadan, Amir A Gabr, Ahmed Kamel, Rasha W Abdelrahman
PURPOSE: To determine the sonographic criteria for diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), using both gray scale ultrasound, and tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective multicenter study, recruiting patients at risk of fetal ICH over four years. All cases with fetal ICH had serial ultrasound assessments, including TUI, fetal and postnatal MRIs. RESULTS: 21 patients were diagnosed with fetal ICH, 2 cases had extracerebral (subdural) hemorrhage, 16 cases had intracerebral (intraventricular) hemorrhage and 3 cases had combined hemorrhage...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Shiri Shinar, Gustavo Malinger, Zvi Leibovitz, Liat Ben-Sira, Esther Leshinsky-Silver, Liat Gindes, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Dvora Kidron, Dorit Lev
INTRODUCTION: We report the rare finding of recurrent periventricular pseudocysts (PVPC) in consecutive pregnancies in 4 families and their postnatal outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the databases of 3 large ultrasound units searching for the diagnosis of PVPC in 2 pregnancies of the same patient. RESULTS: The first case of recurrent PVPC was diagnosed in 2011 and since then 3 additional families were diagnosed (8 cases of PVPC all in all)...
October 7, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Owen J Arthurs, A Rega, F Guimiot, N Belarbi, J Rosenblatt, V Biran, M Elmaleh, G Sebag, M Alison
OBJECTIVES: Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is a sensitive method to assess brain maturation or detect brain lesions, providing Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values as a measure of water diffusion. Abnormal ADC values are seen in ischemic brain lesions, such as acute or chronic hypoxia. The aim of this study was to assess whether ADC values in the fetal brain were different in a group of fetuses exposed to severe vascular intrauterine growth restriction, compared to normal controls...
October 5, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Swati Vishwanathan, Michael Lucke, Indu G Poornima
A woman aged 22 years with a history of lupus presented in the 18th week of pregnancy with hypertensive emergency and flash pulmonary oedema. Bedside echocardiogram revealed severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with an ejection fraction (EF) of 25% and pericardial effusion. Laboratories revealed hypocomplementemia, proteinuria, elevated C reactive protein and anti-DS-DNA, raising concern for a lupus flare. Cardiac MRI showed an acute intramyocardial oedematous process, consistent with lupus carditis, and further worsening of LVEF to 13%...
October 4, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Anna I Blazejewska, Sharmishtaa Seshamani, Susan K McKown, Jason S Caucutt, Manjiri Dighe, Christopher Gatenby, Colin Studholme
PURPOSE: Maximization of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) contrast requires the echo time of the MR sequence to match the T2* value of the tissue of interest, which is expected to be higher in the fetal brain compared with the brain of a child or an adult. METHODS: T2* values of the cortical plate/cortical gray matter tissue in utero in healthy fetuses from mid-gestation onward (20-36 gestational weeks) were measured using 3D T2* maps calculated from 2D dual-echo T2*-weighted data corrected for between-slice motion and reconstructed in 1...
October 3, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo, Renato Santana Aguiar, Melania Maria Ramos Amorim, Monica B Arruda, Fabiana de Oliveira Melo, Suelem Taís Clementino Ribeiro, Alba Gean Medeiros Batista, Thales Ferreira, Mayra Pereira Dos Santos, Virgínia Vilar Sampaio, Sarah Rogéria Martins Moura, Luciana Portela Rabello, Clarissa Emanuelle Gonzaga, Gustavo Malinger, Renato Ximenes, Patricia Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Leila Chimelli, Paola Paz Silveira, Rodrigo Delvechio, Luiza Higa, Loraine Campanati, Rita M R Nogueira, Ana Maria Bispo Filippis, Jacob Szejnfeld, Carolina Moreira Voloch, Orlando C Ferreira, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Amilcar Tanuri
Importance: Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. Objective: To describe the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Li-Xia Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Ming-Feng Zhang
PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Hoa Pham, Yohan Van de Looij, Miguel Bernal, Jerome Mairesse, Elodie Zana-Taieb, Marina Colella, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Julien Pansiot, Florent Dumont, Stéphane Sizonenko, Pierre Gressens, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Mickael Tanter, Charlie Demene, Daniel Vaiman, Olivier Baud
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major complication of human pregnancy, frequently resulting from placental vascular diseases and prenatal malnutrition, and is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes throughout life. However, the mechanisms linking poor fetal growth and neurocognitive impairment are unclear. Here, we aimed to correlate changes in gene expression induced by FGR in rats and abnormal cerebral white matter maturation, brain microstructure, and cortical connectivity in vivo. We investigated a model of FGR induced by low-protein-diet malnutrition between embryonic day 0 and birth using an interdisciplinary approach combining advanced brain imaging, in vivo connectivity, microarray analysis of sorted oligodendroglial and microglial cells and histology...
December 2016: Glia
Tally Lerman-Sagie, Zvi Leibovitz
Abnormal fetal corticogenesis results in malformations of cortical development (MCD). Abnormal cell proliferation leads to microcephaly or megalencephaly, incomplete neuronal migration results in heterotopia and lissencephaly, neuronal overmigration manifests as cobblestone malformations, and anomalous postmigrational cortical organization is responsible for polymicrogyria and focal cortical dysplasias. MCD comprises various congenital brain disorders, caused by different genetic, infectious, or vascular etiologies and is associated with significant neurological morbidity...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Teruyoshi Kageji, Takeshi Miyamoto, Yumiko Kotani, Tsuyoshi Kaji, Yoshimi Bando, Yoshifumi Mizobuchi, Kohei Nakajima, Shinji Nagahiro
PURPOSE: Craniopharyngiomas are 5-10 % of all pediatric tumors, but are seldomly encountered in the perinatal period. Only seven instances of a truly antenatal diagnosis of a congenital craniopharyngioma that subsequently underwent radical surgery have been reported. We present the case of a patient who received the diagnosis of a suprasellar tumor during the prenatal period and received radical surgery. METHODS: We report a case of a neonatal craniopharyngioma treated surgically...
September 26, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Taisa Davaus, Edward Araujo Júnior
We report a case of a fetus with an ultrasonography diagnosis of a neuroblastoma during a routine third trimester fetal scan, which presented as a hyperechogenic nodule located above the right kidney. No other abnormalities were found in the ultrasonography scan; however, the follow-up ultrasonography during the 36th week of gestation revealed that the lesion had doubled in size. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a round mass in the topography of the right adrenal gland with a low signal on T1-weighted images and slightly high signal on T2-weighted images, causing a slight inferior displacement of the kidney...
September 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Alexandra H Wallace, Stuart R Dalziel, Brett R Cowan, Alistair A Young, Kent L Thornburg, Jane E Harding
OBJECTIVE: To compare long-term cardiovascular outcomes in survivors of fetal anaemia and intrauterine transfusion with those of non-anaemic siblings. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Auckland, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Adults who received intrauterine transfusion for anaemia due to rhesus disease (exposed) and their unexposed sibling(s). EXPOSURE: Fetal anaemia requiring intrauterine transfusion...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Sevan A Vahanian, Anthony M Vintzileos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Placental implantation abnormalities (PIAs) comprise a large group of disorders associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors include prior uterine surgery/myometrial scarring and the presence of placenta previa with or without prior cesarean delivery. Newly identified risk factors include previous prelabor cesarean delivery and previous postpartum hemorrhage. PIAs contribute substantially to preterm birth with prematurity rates ranging from 38 to 82%...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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