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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913808/sortilins-in-neuropathic-pain
#1
M Richner, O J Bjerrum, Y De Koninck, A Nykjaer, C B Vaegter
Background/aims The molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are incompletely understood, but recent data suggest that down-regulation of the chloride extruding co-transporter KCC2 in spinal cord sensory neurons is critical: Following peripheral nerve injury, activated microglia in the spinal cord release BDNF, which stimulates neuronal TrkB receptors and ultimately results in the reduction of KCC2 levels. Consequently, neuronal intracellular chloride ion concentration increases, impairing GABAA-receptor mediated inhibition...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884650/origin-of-slow-spontaneous-resting-state-neuronal-fluctuations-in-brain-networks
#2
Giri P Krishnan, Oscar C González, Maxim Bazhenov
Resting- or baseline-state low-frequency (0.01-0.2 Hz) brain activity is observed in fMRI, EEG, and local field potential recordings. These fluctuations were found to be correlated across brain regions and are thought to reflect neuronal activity fluctuations between functionally connected areas of the brain. However, the origin of these infra-slow resting-state fluctuations remains unknown. Here, using a detailed computational model of the brain network, we show that spontaneous infra-slow (<0.05 Hz) activity could originate due to the ion concentration dynamics...
June 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884458/locally-reducing-kcc2-activity-in-the-hippocampus-is-sufficient-to-induce-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Matt R Kelley, Ross A Cardarelli, Joshua L Smalley, Thomas A Ollerhead, Peter M Andrew, Nicholas J Brandon, Tarek Z Deeb, Stephen J Moss
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is the most common form of epilepsy, believed to arise in part from compromised GABAergic inhibition. The neuronal specific K+ /Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) is a critical determinant of the efficacy of GABAergic inhibition and deficits in its activity are observed in mTLE patients and animal models of epilepsy. To test if reductions of KCC2 activity directly contribute to the pathophysiology of mTLE, we locally ablated KCC2 expression in a subset of principal neurons within the adult hippocampus...
June 5, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872336/dexmedetomidine-attenuates-persistent-postsurgical-pain-by-upregulating-k-cl-cotransporter-2-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn-in-rats
#4
Shuhong Dai, Yu Qi, Jie Fu, Na Li, Xu Zhang, Juan Zhang, Wei Zhang, Haijun Xu, Hai Zhou, Zhengliang Ma
Background: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) could have an analgesic effect on pain transmission through the modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In addition, KCC2-induced shift in neuronal Cl- homeostasis is crucial for postsynaptic inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors. Accumulating evidence shows that nerve injury, peripheral inflammation and stress activate the spinal BDNF/TrkB signal, which results in the downregulation of KCC2 transport and expression, eventually leads to GAGAergic disinhibition and hyperalgesia...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793500/perinatal-pb-2-exposure-alters-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-the-neurodevelopmental-gaba-shift-in-postnatal-rats
#5
Lorenz S Neuwirth, Greg R Phillips, Abdeslem El Idrissi
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb2+ ) is an environmental neurotoxicant that disrupts neurodevelopment, communication, and organization through competition with Ca2+ signaling. How perinatal Pb2+ exposure affects Ca2+ -related gene regulation remains unclear. However, Ca2+ activates the L-Type voltage sensitive calcium channel β-3 subunit (Ca-β3), which autoregulates neuronal excitability and plays a role in the GABA-shift from excitatory-to-inhibitory neurotransmission. METHOD: A total of eight females (n = 4 Control and n = 4 Perinatal) and four males (n = 2 Control and n = 2 Perinatal) rats were used as breeders to serve as Dams and Sires...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782876/chloride-cotransporter-kcc2-is-essential-for-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-scn
#6
A H O Olde Engberink, J H Meijer, S Michel
One of the principal neurotransmitters of the central nervous system is GABA. In the adult brain, GABA is predominantly inhibitory, but there is growing evidence indicating that GABA can shift to excitatory action depending on environmental conditions. In the mammalian central circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) GABAergic activity shifts from inhibition to excitation when animals are exposed to long day photoperiod. The polarity of the GABAergic response (inhibitory versus excitatory) depends on the GABA equilibrium potential determined by the intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i )...
May 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729285/chloride-transporters-and-gaba-polarity-in-developmental-neurological-and-psychiatric-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Joran T Schulte, Corette J Wierenga, Hilgo Bruining
Neuronal chloride regulation is a determinant factor for the dynamic tuning of GABAergic inhibition during and beyond brain development. This regulation is mainly dependent on the two co-transporters K+ /Cl- co-transporter KCC2 and Na+ /K+ /Cl- co-transporter NKCC1, whose activity can decrease or increase neuronal chloride concentrations respectively. Altered expression and/or activity of either of these co-transporters has been associated with a wide variety of brain disorders including developmental disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia and stroke...
May 2, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729247/ionic-plasticity-and-pain-the-loss-of-descending-serotonergic-fibers-after-spinal-cord-injury-transforms-how-gaba-affects-pain
#8
Yung-Jen Huang, James W Grau
Activation of pain (nociceptive) fibers can sensitize neural circuits within the spinal cord, inducing an increase in excitability (central sensitization) that can foster chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. In adult animals, the co-transporter KCC2 maintains a low intracellular concentration of the anion Cl- . As a result, when the GABA-A receptor is engaged, Cl- flows in the neuron which has a hyperpolarizing (inhibitory) effect...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596900/role-of-nitric-oxide-and-wnk-spak-osr1-kcc2-signaling-in-daily-changes-in-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-rat-dorsal-raphe-neurons
#9
Mi Jung Kim, Hye Jin Yang, Younghoon Kim, Insug Kang, Sung Soo Kim, Young-Wuk Cho
Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) act as wake-inducing neurons in the sleep-wake cycle and are controlled by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synaptic inputs. We investigated daily changes in GABAergic inhibition of the rat DRN neurons and the role of nitric oxide (NO) and cation-chloride co-transporters in the GABAergic action. Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) was co-expressed in 74% of serotonergic DRN neurons and nNOS expression was higher during daytime (the sleep cycle) than that during nighttime (the wake cycle)...
June 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568893/kcc2-gabaa-pathway-correlates-with-the-analgesic-effect-of-electro-acupuncture-in-cci-rats
#10
Si-Si Li, Wen-Zhan Tu, Cheng-Qian Jia, Xia Jiang, Xin-Ru Qian, Guan-Hu Yang, Qi-Miao Hu, Wen-Ci Chen, Bin Lu, Song-He Jiang
Potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) has been indicated to serve a crucial role during chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Following the emergence of NP, γ‑aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor‑mediated signaling may be further impaired by the changes of KCC2 chloride anion gradient. In the present study, the authors investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on the behavior and the expression of KCC2 and GABAA receptor γ2 subunit in the spinal cord of chronic constriction injury (CCI) model rats...
May 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482000/suppression-of-hdac2-in-spinal-cord-alleviates-mechanical-hyperalgesia-and-restores-kcc2-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-bone-cancer-pain
#11
Xinran Hou, Yingqi Weng, Tongxuan Wang, Bihan Ouyang, Yalin Li, Zongbin Song, Yundan Pan, Zhong Zhang, Wangyuan Zou, Changsheng Huang, Qulian Guo
Epigenetic modulation participates in the mechanism of multiple types of pathological pain, so targeting the involved regulators may be a promising strategy for pain treatment. Our previous research identified the analgesic effect of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of bone cancer pain (BCP) via restoration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expression. However, the specific types of HDACs contributing to BCP have not been explored. The present study investigated the expression pattern of some common HDACs and found that HDAC2 was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner in the lumbar spinal cord of BCP rats...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438830/sample-and-substrate-preparation-for-exploring-living-neurons-in-culture-with-quantitative-phase-imaging
#12
REVIEW
Sébastien A Lévesque, Jean-Michel Mugnes, Erik Bélanger, Pierre Marquet
Quantitative-phase imaging (QPI) has recently emerged as a powerful new quantitative microscopy technique suitable for the noninvasive exploration of the structure and dynamics of transparent specimens, including living cells in culture. Indeed, the quantitative-phase signal (QPS), induced by transparent living cells, can be detected with a nanometric axial sensitivity, and contains a wealth of information about both cell morphology and content. However, QPS is also sensitive to various sources of experimental noise...
March 1, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422838/kcc2-dependent-steady-state-intracellular-chloride-concentration-and-ph-in-cortical-layer-2-3-neurons-of-anesthetized-and-awake-mice
#13
Juan C Boffi, Johannes Knabbe, Michaela Kaiser, Thomas Kuner
Neuronal intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i ) influences a wide range of processes such as neuronal inhibition, membrane potential dynamics, intracellular pH (pHi ) or cell volume. Up to date, neuronal [Cl- ]i has predominantly been studied in model systems of reduced complexity. Here, we implemented the genetically encoded ratiometric Cl- indicator Superclomeleon (SCLM) to estimate the steady-state [Cl- ]i in cortical neurons from anesthetized and awake mice using 2-photon microscopy. Additionally, we implemented superecliptic pHluorin (SE-pHluorin) as a ratiometric sensor to estimate the intracellular steady-state pH (pHi ) of mouse cortical neurons in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393204/distribution-and-cellular-localization-of-kcc2-in-the-ferret-neocortex
#14
Francis T Djankpa, Oluwole B Akinola, Sharon L Juliano
KCC2 (a brain-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter) affects development of the cerebral cortex, including aspects of neuronal migration and cellular maturation and differentiation. KCC2 also modulates chloride homeostasis by influencing the switch of GABA from depolarizing in young neurons to hyperpolarizing in mature neurons. We describe the expression pattern, regional distribution, and cellular colocalization of KCC2 in the ferret cortex in normal kits and those treated with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382760/restoring-gabaergic-inhibition-rescues-memory-deficits-in-a-huntington-s-disease-mouse-model
#15
Zahra Dargaei, Jee Yoon Bang, Vivek Mahadevan, C Sahara Khademullah, Simon Bedard, Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Jun Chul Kim, Melanie A Woodin
Huntington's disease (HD) is classically characterized as a movement disorder, however cognitive impairments precede the motor symptoms by ∼15 y. Based on proteomic and bioinformatic data linking the Huntingtin protein (Htt) and KCC2, which is required for hyperpolarizing GABAergic inhibition, and the important role of inhibition in learning and memory, we hypothesized that aberrant KCC2 function contributes to the hippocampal-associated learning and memory deficits in HD. We discovered that Htt and KCC2 interact in the hippocampi of wild-type and R6/2-HD mice, with a decrease in KCC2 expression in the hippocampus of R6/2 and YAC128 mice...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343707/sensory-neuronal-p2rx4-receptors-controls-bdnf-signaling-in-inflammatory-pain
#16
Sarah Lalisse, Jennifer Hua, Manon Lenoir, Nathalie Linck, François Rassendren, Lauriane Ulmann
Chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pains are major public health concerns. Potential therapeutic targets include the ATP-gated purinergic receptors (P2RX) that contribute to these pathological types of pain in several different cell types. The purinergic receptors P2RX2 and P2RX3 are expressed by a specific subset of dorsal root ganglion neurons and directly shape pain processing by primary afferents. In contrast the P2RX4 and P2RX7 are mostly expressed in myeloid cells, where activation of these receptors triggers the release of various pro-inflammatory molecules...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317612/gamma-oscillatory-activity-in-vitro-a-model-system-to-assess-pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-comorbidity-between-autism-and-epilepsy
#17
D Subramanian, E Pralong, R T Daniel, A G Chacko, R Stoop, K S Babu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit remarkable comorbidity, but for reasons not clearly understood. To reveal a common pathophysiological mechanism, we here describe and characterize an in vitro epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampus that exhibits common features with in vivo activity in rodent ASD models. We discovered the development of this activity in the CA1 region of horizontal slices after prolonged interictal-like epileptiform activity in the CA3 region that was provoked by incubation in high potassium artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274996/cortical-control-of-aggression-gaba-signalling-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#18
Amanda Jager, Houshang Amiri, Natalia Bielczyk, Sabrina van Heukelum, Arend Heerschap, Armaz Aschrafi, Geert Poelmans, Jan K Buitelaar, Tamas Kozicz, Jeffrey C Glennon
Reduced top-down control by cortical areas is assumed to underlie pathological forms of aggression. While the precise underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive, it seems that balancing the excitatory and inhibitory tones of cortical brain areas has a role in aggression control. The molecular mechanisms underpinning aggression control were examined in the BALB/cJ mouse model. First, these mice were extensively phenotyped for aggression and anxiety in comparison to BALB/cByJ controls. Microarray data was then used to construct a molecular landscape, based on the mRNAs that were differentially expressed in the brains of BALB/cJ mice...
December 20, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274662/inability-to-suppress-the-stress-induced-activation-of-the-hpa-axis-during-the-peripartum-period-engenders-deficits-in-postpartum-behaviors-in-mice
#19
Laverne Camille Melón, Andrew Hooper, Xuzhong Yang, Stephen J Moss, Jamie Maguire
The stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is normally suppressed during pregnancy. Dysregulation of the HPA axis has been proposed to play a role in postpartum depression. However, direct investigation into the relationship between the HPA axis and postpartum depression has been hindered by the lack of useful animal models. Building on our discovery of a role for the K+/Cl-co-transporter, KCC2, in the GABAergic regulation of CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), critical for mounting the body's physiological response to stress, we assessed the role of KCC2 in the regulation of the HPA axis during pregnancy and the postpartum period...
April 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273603/tenuous-inhibitory-gabaergic-signaling-in-the-reticular-thalamus
#20
Peter M Klein, Adam C Lu, Megan E Harper, Hannah M McKown, Jessica D Morgan, Mark P Beenhakker
Maintenance of a low intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i ) is critical for enabling inhibitory neuronal responses to GABAA receptor-mediated signaling. Cl- transporters, including KCC2, and extracellular impermeant anions ([A]o ) of the extracellular matrix are both proposed to be important regulators of [Cl- ]i Neurons of the reticular thalamic (RT) nucleus express reduced levels of KCC2, indicating that GABAergic signaling may produce excitation in RT neurons. However, by performing perforated patch recordings and calcium imaging experiments in rats (male and female), we find that [Cl- ]i remains relatively low in RT neurons...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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