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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028184/native-kcc2-interactome-reveals-pacsin1-as-a-critical-regulator-of-synaptic-inhibition
#1
Vivek Mahadevan, C Sahara Khademullah, Zahra Dargaei, Jonah Chevrier, Pavel Uvarov, Julian Kwan, Richard D Bagshaw, Tony Pawson, Andrew Emili, Yves De Koninck, Victor Anggono, Matti Airaksinen, Melanie A Woodin
KCC2 is a neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter essential for establishing the Cl(-) gradient required for hyperpolarizing inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS). KCC2 is highly localized to excitatory synapses where it regulates spine morphogenesis and AMPA receptor confinement. Aberrant KCC2 function contributes to human neurological disorders including epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Using functional proteomics, we identified the KCC2-interactome in the mouse brain to determine KCC2-protein interactions that regulate KCC2 function...
October 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990565/-calpain-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-treating-spasticity-after-a-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Vanessa Plantier, Frédéric Brocard
After a spinal cord injury (SCI), patients develop spasticity, a motor disorder characterized by hyperreflexia and stiffness of muscles. Spasticity results from alterations in motoneurons with an upregulation of their persistent sodium current (I NaP), simultaneously with a disinhibition caused by a reduction of expression of chloride (Cl(-)) co-transporters KCC2. Until recently the origin of alterations was unknown. After reviewing pathophysiology of spasticity, the manuscript relates our recent work showing a tight relationship between the calpain-dependent proteolysis of voltage-gated sodium channels, the upregulation of I NaP and spasticity following SCI...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982596/subsequent-maternal-separation-exacerbates-neurobehavioral-abnormalities-in-rats-neonatally-exposed-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#3
Jiaojiao Yang, Lingsha Ju, Min Jia, Hui Zhang, Xiaoru Sun, Muhuo Ji, Jianjun Yang, Anatoly E Martynyuk
Several recent studies suggest that in the human population, a routine, short anesthetic in otherwise healthy infants is void of neurodevelopmental insult. On the other hand, many human retrospective epidemiological studies report evidence of cognitive abnormalities in children after testing those who had different anesthesia-requiring procedures in early childhood. We tested in a rat model whether post-anesthesia stressful environmental factors can contribute to developmental abnormalities that were initiated by a relatively short exposure to sevoflurane, the most widely used anesthetic in pediatric anesthesia, whose polyvalent actions include enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) activity...
October 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973889/simultaneous-two-photon-imaging-of-intracellular-chloride-concentration-and-ph-in-mouse-pyramidal-neurons-in-vivo
#4
Sebastian Sulis Sato, Pietro Artoni, Silvia Landi, Olga Cozzolino, Riccardo Parra, Enrico Pracucci, Francesco Trovato, Joanna Szczurkowska, Stefano Luin, Daniele Arosio, Fabio Beltram, Laura Cancedda, Kai Kaila, Gian Michele Ratto
Intracellular chloride ([Cl(-)]i) and pH (pHi) are fundamental regulators of neuronal excitability. They exert wide-ranging effects on synaptic signaling and plasticity and on development and disorders of the brain. The ideal technique to elucidate the underlying ionic mechanisms is quantitative and combined two-photon imaging of [Cl(-)]i and pHi, but this has never been performed at the cellular level in vivo. Here, by using a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor that includes a spectroscopic reference (an element insensitive to Cl(-) and pH), we show that ratiometric imaging is strongly affected by the optical properties of the brain...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968430/preferential-activation-of-hif-2%C3%AE-adaptive-signalling-in-neuronal-like-cells-in-response-to-acute-hypoxia
#5
Miguel A S Martín-Aragón Baudel, Mick T Rae, Mark G Darlison, Amy V Poole, Jennifer A Fraser
Stroke causes severe neuronal damage as disrupted cerebral blood flow starves neurons of oxygen and glucose. The hypoxia inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) orchestrate oxygen homeostasis and regulate specific aspects of hypoxic adaptation. Here we show the importance of HIF-2α dependant signalling in neuronal adaptation to hypoxic insult. PC12 and NT2 cells were differentiated into neuronal-like cells using NGF and retinoic acid, and exposed to acute hypoxia (1% O2). Gene and protein expression was analysed by qPCR and immunoblotting and the neuronal-like phenotype was examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964752/inhibition-of-nkcc1-promotes-axonal-growth-and-motor-recovery-in-ischemic-rats
#6
X P Mu, H B Wang, X Cheng, L Yang, X Y Sun, H L Qu, S S Zhao, Z K Zhou, T T Liu, T Xiao, B Song, J Jolkkonen, C S Zhao
Bumetanide is a selective inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-co-transporter 1(NKCC1). We studied whether bumetanide could affect axonal growth and behavioral outcome in stroke rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham-operated rats treated with vehicle or bumetanide, and ischemic rats treated with vehicle or bumetanide. Endothelin-1 was used to induce focal cerebral ischemia. Bumetanide administration (i.c.v.) started on postoperative day 7 and continued for 3 weeks. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the right imotor cortex on postoperative day 14 to trace corticospinal tract (CST) fibers sprouting into the denervated cervical spinal cord...
September 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962859/neonatal-maternal-separation-delays-the-gaba-excitatory-to-inhibitory-functional-switch-by-inhibiting-kcc2-expression
#7
Minami Furukawa, Takao Tsukahara, Kazuo Tomita, Haruki Iwai, Takahiro Sonomura, Shouichi Miyawaki, Tomoaki Sato
The excitatory-to-inhibitory functional switch of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; GABA switch), which normally occurs in the first to the second postnatal week in the hippocampus, is necessary for the development of appropriate central nervous system function. A deficit in GABAergic inhibitory function could cause excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) neuron imbalance that is found in many neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we examined whether neonatal stress can affect the timing of the GABA functional switch and cause disorders during adolescence...
September 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928398/bumetanide-treatment-during-early-development-rescues-maternal-separation-induced-susceptibility-to-stress
#8
Die Hu, Zhou-Long Yu, Yan Zhang, Ying Han, Wen Zhang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia. Early life stress, such as maternal separation, can have long-term effects on the development of the central nervous system and pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we found that maternal separation increased the susceptibility to stress in adolescent rats, increased the expression of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) on postnatal day 14, and increased the expression of K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits on postnatal day 40 in the hippocampus...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888841/implications-of-the-n-terminal-heterogeneity-for-the-neuronal-k-cl-cotransporter-kcc2-function
#9
Marika Markkanen, Anastasia Ludwig, Stanislav Khirug, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Shetal Soni, Leonard Khiroug, Eric Delpire, Claudio Rivera, Matti S Airaksinen, Pavel Uvarov
The neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 maintains the low intracellular chloride concentration required for the fast hyperpolarizing responses of the inhibitory neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. The two KCC2 isoforms, KCC2a and KCC2b differ by their N-termini as a result of alternative promoter usage. Whereas the role of KCC2b in mediating the chloride transport is unequivocal, the physiological role of KCC2a in neurons has remained obscure. We show that KCC2a isoform can decrease the intracellular chloride concentration in cultured neurons and attenuate calcium responses evoked by application of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol...
November 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885452/microrna-mediated-downregulation-of-potassium-chloride-cotranspoter-and-vesicular-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-transporter-expression-in-spinal-cord-contributes-to-neonatal-cystitis-induced-visceral-pain-in-rats
#10
Jian Zhang, James Yu, Pradeep Kannampalli, Linghui Nie, Hui Meng, Bidyut K Medda, Reza Shaker, Jyoti N Sengupta, Banani Banerjee
Loss of GABAergic inhibition in pain pathways has been considered to be a key component in the development of chronic pain. In the present study, we intended to examine whether miR-92b-mediated posttranscriptional dysregulation of spinal potassium chloride cotransporter (KCC2) and vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter (VGAT) plays a major role in the development and maintenance of long-term visceral hyperalgesia in neonatal zymosan-treated rats. Neonatal cystitis was induced by transurethral zymosan administration from postnatal (P) days 14 to 16 (protocol 1)...
September 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844001/activation-of-5-ht2a-receptors-restores-kcc2-function-and-reduces-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Irene Sánchez-Brualla, Pascale Boulenguez, Cécile Brocard, Sylvie Liabeuf, Annelise Viallat-Lieutaud, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina, Frédéric Brocard
Downregulation of the potassium chloride cotransporter type 2 (KCC2) after a spinal cord injury (SCI) disinhibits motoneurons and dorsal horn interneurons causing spasticity and neuropathic pain, respectively. We showed recently (Bos et al., 2013) that specific activation of 5-HT2A receptors by TCB-2 [(4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl)methylamine hydrobromide] upregulates KCC2 function, restores motoneuronal inhibition and reduces SCI-induced spasticity. Here, we tested the potential analgesic effect of TCB-2 on central (thoracic hemisection) and peripheral [spared nerve injury (SNI)] neuropathic pain...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814402/molecular-insights-into-the-normal-operation-regulation-and-multisystemic-roles-of-k-cl-cotransporter-3-kcc3
#12
Alexandre P Garneau, Andrée-Anne Marcoux, Rachelle Frenette-Cotton, Fabrice Mac-Way, Julie L Lavoie, Paul Isenring
Long before the molecular identity of the Na(+)-dependent K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters was uncovered in the mid-nineties, a Na(+)-independent K(+)-Cl(-) cotransport system was also known to exist. It was initially observed in sheep and goat red blood cells where it was shown to be ouabain-insensitive and to increase in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). After it was established between the early and mid-nineties, the expressed sequence tag (EST) databank was found to include a sequence that was highly homologous to those of the Na(+)-dependent K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803659/seizing-control-of-kcc2-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Yvonne E Moore, Matt R Kelley, Nicholas J Brandon, Tarek Z Deeb, Stephen J Moss
Deficits in GABAergic inhibition result in the abnormal neuronal activation and synchronization that underlies seizures. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for transforming a normal brain into an epileptic one remain largely unknown. Hyperpolarizing inhibition mediated by type A GABA (GABAA) receptors is dependent on chloride extrusion by the neuron-specific type 2K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2). Loss-of-function mutations in KCC2 are a known cause of infantile epilepsy in humans and KCC2 dysfunction is present in patients with both idiopathic and acquired epilepsy...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790892/a-critical-period-for-the-rapid-modification-of-synaptic-properties-at-the-vpm-relay-synapse
#14
Libiao Pan, Junhua Yang, Qian Yang, Xiaomeng Wang, Liya Zhu, Yali Liu, Huifang Lou, Chou Xu, Ying Shen, Hao Wang
In addition to cortical areas, the thalamus also displays plasticity during a critical period in early life. Since most sensory information is transmitted to the cortex via the thalamus, it will be of significant interest to understand the precise time window and underlying mechanisms of this critical period in the thalamus. By using in vitro whole-cell patch recording in acute brain slices, we found that VPm relay synapses were only sensitive to whisker deprivation from postnatal day 11 (P11) to P14. Whisker deprivation initiated within the P11 to P14 window significantly reduced the amplitude of AMPAR-EPSCs, but not NMDAR-EPSCs when recorded 24 h after whisker removal...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747093/prochlorperazine-increases-kcc2-function-and-reduces-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Sylvie Liabeuf, Laetitia Stuhl-Gourmand, Florian Gackière, Renzo Mancuso, Irene Sanchez Brualla, Philippe Marino, Frédéric Brocard, Laurent Vinay
In mature neurons, low intracellular chloride level required for inhibition is maintained by the potassium-chloride cotransporter, KCC2. Impairment of Cl(-) extrusion after KCC2 dysfunction has been involved in many central nervous system disorders, such as seizures, neuropathic pain, or spasticity, after a spinal cord injury (SCI). This makes KCC2 an appealing drug target for restoring Cl(-) homeostasis and inhibition in pathological conditions. In the present study, we screen the Prestwick Chemical Library(®) and identify conventional antipsychotics phenothiazine derivatives as enhancers of KCC2 activity...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677029/the-role-of-k-cl-cotransporter-2-in-neuropathic-pain
#16
Tomoya Kitayama
The pain sensory system normally functions under a fine balance between excitation and inhibition. When this balance is perturbed for some reason, it leads to neuropathic pain. There is accumulating evidence that attributes this pain generation to specific dysfunctions of the inhibitory system in the spinal cord. One possible mechanism leading to the induction of these dysfunctions is the down-regulation of K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter-2 (KCC2) expression. In fact, various neuropathic pain models indicate a decrease of KCC2 expression in the spinal cord...
July 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641949/reduced-protein-expressions-of-cytomembrane-gabaar%C3%AE-3-at-different-postnatal-developmental-stages-of-rats-exposed-prenatally-to-valproic-acid
#17
Yixin Li, Yang Zhou, Li Peng, Yong Zhao
Decreased inhibition plays an extremely important role in pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, we aimed to determine whether expression levels of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor β3 subunit (GABAARβ3), K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2), and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) related to inhibition transmission are changed in a sodium valproate-induced rat model of ASD. Decreased expression levels of membrane GABAARβ3 (m-GABAARβ3) and KCC2 as well as increased endocytosis of GABAARs were found in the model group...
June 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634406/enhancing-kcc2-function-counteracts-morphine-induced-hyperalgesia
#18
Francesco Ferrini, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Antoine G Godin, Miorie Le Quang, Yves De Koninck
Morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) is a severe adverse effect accompanying repeated morphine treatment, causing a paradoxical decrease in nociceptive threshold. Previous reports associated MIH with a decreased expression of the Cl(-) extruder KCC2 in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, weakening spinal GABAA/glycine-mediated postsynaptic inhibition. Here, we tested whether the administration of small molecules enhancing KCC2, CLP257 and its pro-drug CLP290, may counteract MIH. MIH was typically expressed within 6-8 days of morphine treatment...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496181/the-neuronal-k-cl-co-transporter-2-slc12a5-modulates-insulin-secretion
#19
Shams Kursan, Timothy S McMillen, Pavani Beesetty, Eduardo Dias-Junior, Mohammed M Almutairi, Abu A Sajib, J Ashot Kozak, Lydia Aguilar-Bryan, Mauricio Di Fulvio
Intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)]i) in pancreatic β-cells is kept above electrochemical equilibrium due to the predominant functional presence of Cl(-) loaders such as the Na(+)K(+)2Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (Slc12a2) over Cl(-)extruders of unidentified nature. Using molecular cloning, RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunolocalization and in vitro functional assays, we establish that the "neuron-specific" K(+)Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2, Slc12a5) is expressed in several endocrine cells of the pancreatic islet, including glucagon secreting α-cells, but particularly in insulin-secreting β-cells, where we provide evidence for its role in the insulin secretory response...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477354/a-de-novo-missense-mutation-in-slc12a5-found-in-a-compound-heterozygote-patient-with-epilepsy-of-infancy-with-migrating-focal-seizures
#20
T Saito, A Ishii, K Sugai, M Sasaki, S Hirose
Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) is an infantile epileptic encephalopathy characterized by refractory seizures, severe psychomotor delay, and multiple moving epileptic discharges. The genetic etiology of EIMFS is relatively homogeneous with the majority of causative mutations found in KCNT1. Currently, gene panel or whole-exome sequencing is used for testing. To verify the pathogenicity of a variant, co-segregation of the variant and the disorder in a pedigree is important; hence, de novo mutations that are judged to be deleterious may be considered pathogenic because the patients are isolated...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Genetics
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