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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438830/sample-and-substrate-preparation-for-exploring-living-neurons-in-culture-with-quantitative-phase-imaging
#1
REVIEW
Sébastien A Lévesque, Jean-Michel Mugnes, Erik Bélanger, Pierre Marquet
Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has recently emerged as a powerful new quantitative microscopy technique suitable for the noninvasive exploration of the structure and dynamics of transparent specimens, including living cells in culture. Indeed, the quantitative phase signal (QPS), induced by transparent living cells, can be detected with a nanometric axial sensitivity, and contains a wealth of information about both cell morphology and content. However, QPS is also sensitive to various sources of experimental noise...
February 10, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422838/kcc2-dependent-steady-state-intracellular-chloride-concentration-and-ph-in-cortical-layer-2-3-neurons-of-anesthetized-and-awake-mice
#2
Juan C Boffi, Johannes Knabbe, Michaela Kaiser, Thomas Kuner
Neuronal intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) influences a wide range of processes such as neuronal inhibition, membrane potential dynamics, intracellular pH (pHi) or cell volume. Up to date, neuronal [Cl-]i has predominantly been studied in model systems of reduced complexity. Here, we implemented the genetically encoded ratiometric Cl- indicator Superclomeleon (SCLM) to estimate the steady-state [Cl-]i in cortical neurons from anesthetized and awake mice using 2-photon microscopy. Additionally, we implemented superecliptic pHluorin (SE-pHluorin) as a ratiometric sensor to estimate the intracellular steady-state pH (pHi) of mouse cortical neurons in vivo...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393204/distribution-and-cellular-localization-of-kcc2-in-the-ferret-neocortex
#3
Francis T Djankpa, Oluwole B Akinola, Sharon L Juliano
KCC2 (a brain-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter) affects development of the cerebral cortex, including aspects of neuronal migration and cellular maturation and differentiation. KCC2 also modulates chloride homeostasis by influencing the switch of GABA from depolarizing in young neurons to hyperpolarizing in mature neurons. We describe the expression pattern, regional distribution, and cellular colocalization of KCC2 in the ferret cortex in normal kits and those treated with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)...
January 31, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382760/restoring-gabaergic-inhibition-rescues-memory-deficits-in-a-huntington-s-disease-mouse-model
#4
Zahra Dargaei, Jee Yoon Bang, Vivek Mahadevan, C Sahara Khademullah, Simon Bedard, Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Jun Chul Kim, Melanie A Woodin
Huntington's disease (HD) is classically characterized as a movement disorder, however cognitive impairments precede the motor symptoms by ∼15 y. Based on proteomic and bioinformatic data linking the Huntingtin protein (Htt) and KCC2, which is required for hyperpolarizing GABAergic inhibition, and the important role of inhibition in learning and memory, we hypothesized that aberrant KCC2 function contributes to the hippocampal-associated learning and memory deficits in HD. We discovered that Htt and KCC2 interact in the hippocampi of wild-type and R6/2-HD mice, with a decrease in KCC2 expression in the hippocampus of R6/2 and YAC128 mice...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343707/sensory-neuronal-p2rx4-receptors-controls-bdnf-signaling-in-inflammatory-pain
#5
Sarah Lalisse, Jennifer Hua, Manon Lenoir, Nathalie Linck, François Rassendren, Lauriane Ulmann
Chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pains are major public health concerns. Potential therapeutic targets include the ATP-gated purinergic receptors (P2RX) that contribute to these pathological types of pain in several different cell types. The purinergic receptors P2RX2 and P2RX3 are expressed by a specific subset of dorsal root ganglion neurons and directly shape pain processing by primary afferents. In contrast the P2RX4 and P2RX7 are mostly expressed in myeloid cells, where activation of these receptors triggers the release of various pro-inflammatory molecules...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317612/gamma-oscillatory-activity-in-vitro-a-model-system-to-assess-pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-comorbidity-between-autism-and-epilepsy
#6
D Subramanian, E Pralong, R T Daniel, A G Chacko, R Stoop, K S Babu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit remarkable comorbidity, but for reasons not clearly understood. To reveal a common pathophysiological mechanism, we here describe and characterize an in vitro epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampus that exhibits common features with in vivo activity in rodent ASD models. We discovered the development of this activity in the CA1 region of horizontal slices after prolonged interictal-like epileptiform activity in the CA3 region that was provoked by incubation in high potassium artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274996/cortical-control-of-aggression-gaba-signalling-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#7
Amanda Jager, Houshang Amiri, Natalia Bielczyk, Sabrina van Heukelum, Arend Heerschap, Armaz Aschrafi, Geert Poelmans, Jan K Buitelaar, Tamas Kozicz, Jeffrey C Glennon
Reduced top-down control by cortical areas is assumed to underlie pathological forms of aggression. While the precise underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive, it seems that balancing the excitatory and inhibitory tones of cortical brain areas has a role in aggression control. The molecular mechanisms underpinning aggression control were examined in the BALB/cJ mouse model. First, these mice were extensively phenotyped for aggression and anxiety in comparison to BALB/cByJ controls. Microarray data was then used to construct a molecular landscape, based on the mRNAs that were differentially expressed in the brains of BALB/cJ mice...
December 20, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274662/inability-to-suppress-the-stress-induced-activation-of-the-hpa-axis-during-the-peripartum-period-engenders-deficits-in-postpartum-behaviors-in-mice
#8
Laverne Camille Melón, Andrew Hooper, Xuzhong Yang, Stephen J Moss, Jamie Maguire
The stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is normally suppressed during pregnancy. Dysregulation of the HPA axis has been proposed to play a role in postpartum depression. However, direct investigation into the relationship between the HPA axis and postpartum depression has been hindered by the lack of useful animal models. Building on our discovery of a role for the K+/Cl-co-transporter, KCC2, in the GABAergic regulation of CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), critical for mounting the body's physiological response to stress, we assessed the role of KCC2 in the regulation of the HPA axis during pregnancy and the postpartum period...
December 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273603/tenuous-inhibitory-gabaergic-signaling-in-the-reticular-thalamus
#9
Peter M Klein, Adam Lu, Megan E Harper, Hannah M McKown, Jessica Morgan, Mark P Beenhakker
Maintenance of a low intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) is critical for enabling inhibitory neuronal responses to GABAA receptor-mediated signaling. Cl- transporters, including KCC2, and extracellular impermeant anions ([A]o) of the extracellular matrix are both proposed to be important regulators of [Cl-]i Neurons of the reticular thalamic (RT) nucleus express reduced levels of KCC2, indicating that GABAergic signaling may produce excitation in RT neurons. However, by performing perforated patch recordings and calcium imaging experiments in rats (male and female), we find that [Cl-]i remains relatively low in RT neurons...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218745/expression-of-the-potassium-chloride-co-transporter-kcc2-within-the-avian-song-system
#10
Christopher E Vaaga, Kimberly E Miller, Agnes L Bodor, David J Perkel
Songbirds learn to produce vocalizations early in life by listening to, then copying the songs of conspecific males. The anterior forebrain pathway, homologous to a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, is essential for song learning. The projection between the striato-pallidal structure, Area X, and the medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamic nucleus (DLM) is strongly hyperpolarizing in adults, due to a very negative chloride reversal potential (Person and Perkel, 2005). The chloride reversal potential is determined, in part, by the expression level of a neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter, KCC2, which is developmentally upregulated in mammals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216044/reply-to-the-small-molecule-clp257-does-not-modify-activity-of-the-k-cl-co-transporter-kcc2-but-does-potentiate-gabaa-receptor-activity
#11
Martin Gagnon, Marc J Bergeron, Jimena Perez-Sanchez, Isabel Plasencia-Fernández, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Antoine G Godin, Annie Castonguay, Robert P Bonin, Yves De Koninck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216042/the-small-molecule-clp257-does-not-modify-activity-of-the-k-cl-co-transporter-kcc2-but-does-potentiate-gabaa-receptor-activity
#12
Ross A Cardarelli, Karen Jones, Lucie I Pisella, Heike J Wobst, Lisa J McWilliams, Paul M Sharpe, Matthew P Burnham, David J Baker, Ilona Chudotvorova, Justine Guyot, Liliya Silayeva, Danielle H Morrow, Niek Dekker, Stephen Zicha, Paul A Davies, Jörg Holenz, Mark E Duggan, John Dunlop, Robert J Mather, Qi Wang, Igor Medina, Nicholas J Brandon, Tarek Z Deeb, Stephen J Moss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212780/excitatory-gabaergic-action-and-increased-vasopressin-synthesis-in-hypothalamic-magnocellular-neurosecretory-cells-underlie-the-high-plasma-level-of-vasopressin-in-diabetic-rat
#13
Young-Beom Kim, Woong Bin Kim, Won Woo Jung, Xiangyan Jin, Yoon Sik Kim, Byoungjae Kim, Hee Chul Han, Gene D Block, Christopher S Colwell, Yang In Kim
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased plasma levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) which may aggravate hyperglycemia and nephropathy. However, the mechanisms by which DM may cause the increased AVP levels are not known. Electrophysiological recordings in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) slices from streptozotocin-induced DM model (STZ) rats and vehicle-treated control rats revealed that GABA functions generally as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the AVP neurons of STZ rats, whereas it evoked usually inhibitory responses in the cells of control animals...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197650/kcc2-epileptiform-synchronization-and-epileptic-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Graziella Di Cristo, Patricia N Awad, Shabnam Hamidi, Massimo Avoli
The K+-Cl- co-transporter KCC2 is a neuron-specific, Cl- extruder that uses K+ gradient for maintaining low intracellular [Cl-]. It is indeed well established that sustaining an outwardly-directed electrochemical Cl- gradient across the neuronal membrane is fundamental for a proper function of postsynaptic GABAA receptor signaling. In particular, studies in the last two decades have shown that KCC2 activity is important to maintain a hyperpolarizing GABAergic neurotransmission. Conversely, low KCC2 activity should lead to depolarizing, and under specific conditions, excitatory GABAergic transmission...
November 29, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184062/molecular-architecture-of-potassium-chloride-co-transporter-kcc2
#15
Morgane Agez, Patrick Schultz, Igor Medina, David J Baker, Matthew P Burnham, Ross A Cardarelli, Leslie C Conway, Kelly Garnier, Stefan Geschwindner, Anders Gunnarsson, Eileen J McCall, Alexandre Frechard, Stéphane Audebert, Tarek Z Deeb, Stephen J Moss, Nicholas J Brandon, Qi Wang, Niek Dekker, Anass Jawhari
KCC2 is a neuron specific K+-Cl- co-transporter that controls neuronal chloride homeostasis, and is critically involved in many neurological diseases including brain trauma, epilepsies, autism and schizophrenia. Despite significant accumulating data on the biology and electrophysiological properties of KCC2, structure-function relationships remain poorly understood. Here we used calixarene detergent to solubilize and purify wild-type non-aggregated and homogenous KCC2. Specific binding of inhibitor compound VU0463271 was demonstrated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR)...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176664/gabaa-receptor-dependent-synaptic-inhibition-rapidly-tunes-kcc2-activity-via-the-cl-sensitive-wnk1-kinase
#16
Martin Heubl, Jinwei Zhang, Jessica C Pressey, Sana Al Awabdh, Marianne Renner, Ferran Gomez-Castro, Imane Moutkine, Emmanuel Eugène, Marion Russeau, Kristopher T Kahle, Jean Christophe Poncer, Sabine Lévi
The K+-Cl- co-transporter KCC2 (SLC12A5) tunes the efficacy of GABAA receptor-mediated transmission by regulating the intraneuronal chloride concentration [Cl-]i. KCC2 undergoes activity-dependent regulation in both physiological and pathological conditions. The regulation of KCC2 by synaptic excitation is well documented; however, whether the transporter is regulated by synaptic inhibition is unknown. Here we report a mechanism of KCC2 regulation by GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated transmission in mature hippocampal neurons...
November 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174921/embryonic-development-of-gabaergic-terminals-in-the-mouse-hypothalamic-nuclei-involved-in-feeding-behavior
#17
Masato Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Masayuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Chitoshi Takayama
The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) plays important roles in energy balance and feeding behavior in the hypothalamus. To reveal the time course of GABAergic network formation, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a GABAergic neuron marker, vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), a marker of inhibitory terminals, and K+-Cl--cotransporter2 (KCC2), which shifts GABA action from excitation to inhibition, in the developing mouse hypothalamus...
November 21, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146941/developmental-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gaba-polarity-switch-is-disrupted-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-potential-target-for-clinical-therapeutics
#18
Hayder Amin, Federica Marinaro, Davide De Pietri Tonelli, Luca Berdondini
Individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) show cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, developmental delays in childhood and risk of developing schizophrenia and autism. Despite extensive previous studies in adult animal models, a possible embryonic root of this syndrome has not been determined. Here, in neurons from a 22q11.2 DS mouse model (Lgdel (+/-)), we found embryonic-premature alterations in the neuronal chloride cotransporters indicated by dysregulated NKCC1 and KCC2 protein expression levels...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146047/maternal-immune-activation-delays-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-switch-in-offspring
#19
Irene Corradini, Elisa Focchi, Marco Rasile, Raffaella Morini, Genni Desiato, Romana Tomasoni, Michela Lizier, Elsa Ghirardini, Riccardo Fesce, Diego Morone, Isabella Barajon, Flavia Antonucci, Davide Pozzi, Michela Matteoli
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal infection and neurodevelopmental defects in progeny is well established, although the biological mechanisms and the pathogenic trajectories involved have not been defined. METHODS: Pregnant dams were injected intraperitoneally at gestational day 9 with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Neuronal development was assessed by means of electrophysiological, optical, and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid causes an imbalanced expression of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter 1 and the K+-Cl- cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
November 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143559/k-cl-co-transporter-2-kcc2-a-membrane-trafficking-perspective
#20
Bor Luen Tang
K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2/SLC12A5) is a neuronal specific cation chloride co-transporter which is active under isotonic conditions, and thus a key regulator of intracellular Cl(-) levels. It also has an ion transporter-independent structural role in modulating the maturation and regulation of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. KCC2 levels are developmentally regulated, and a postnatal upregulation of KCC2 generates a low intracellular chloride concentration that allows the neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine to exert inhibitory neurotransmission through its Cl(-) permeating channel...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
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