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Alexey Ostroumov, Alyse M Thomas, Blake A Kimmey, Jordan S Karsch, William M Doyon, John A Dani
Stress is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural mechanisms underlying interactions between stress and alcohol remain largely unknown. Addictive drug reinforcement and stress signaling involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to stress attenuates alcohol-induced dopamine responses and increases alcohol self-administration. The blunted dopamine signaling resulted from ethanol-induced excitation of GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area...
October 4, 2016: Neuron
Chia-Kai Liu, Wen-Tzu Liao, Yu-Chi Chu, Chien-Hui Yang, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Hsien Wu, Chung-Ren Lin
BACKGROUND:  Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment offers pain relief for patients suffering from chronic pain who do not respond well to conventional treatments. We tested whether PRF treatment attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. Epigenetic modification of potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) gene expression was examined to elucidate the potential contributing mechanism. METHODS:  Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with CFA into the plantar surface of the left hind paw to induce inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Yung-Jen Huang, Kuan H Lee, Lauren Murphy, Sandra M Garraway, James W Grau
Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Brahim Tighilet, Sophie Dutheil, Marina I Siponen, Arnaud J Noreña
While many studies have been devoted to investigating the homeostatic plasticity triggered by cochlear hearing loss, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these central changes remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of reactive neurogenesis after unilateral cochlear nerve section in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of cats. We found a strong cell proliferation in all the CN sub-divisions ipsilateral to the lesion. Most of the newly generated cells survive up to 1 month after cochlear deafferentation in all cochlear nuclei (except the dorsal CN) and give rise to a variety of cell types, i...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Juen-Haur Hwang, Yin-Ching Chan
BACKGROUND: Although the activity of tinnitus-related ion co-transporter are known, their mRNA expressions has seldom been reported. We aimed to investigate the mRNA expressions of tinnitus-related ion co-transporter genes, and treatment effects of Spirulina. METHODS: The mRNA expressions of K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2) and Na-K-2Cl co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) genes in the cochlea and brain of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate...
2016: BMC Neurology
Fushun Wang, Xiaowei Wang, Lee A Shapiro, Maria L Cotrina, Weimin Liu, Ernest W Wang, Simeng Gu, Wei Wang, Xiaosheng He, Maiken Nedergaard, Jason H Huang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not only a leading cause for morbidity and mortality in young adults (Bruns and Hauser, Epilepsia 44(Suppl 10):210, 2003), but also a leading cause of seizures. Understanding the seizure-inducing mechanisms of TBI is of the utmost importance, because these seizures are often resistant to traditional first- and second-line anti-seizure treatments. The early post-traumatic seizures, in turn, are a contributing factor to ongoing neuropathology, and it is critically important to control these seizures...
September 1, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Yuta Matsumura, Tomohiro Yamashita, Atsushi Sasaki, Eriko Nakata, Keita Kohno, Takahiro Masuda, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Toshiyasu Imai, Yasushi Kuraishi, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue
Accumulating evidence indicates that purinergic P2X4 receptors (P2X4R: cation channels activated by extracellular ATP) expressed in spinal microglia are crucial for pathological chronic pain caused by nerve damage, suggesting a potential target for drug discovery. We identified NP-1815-PX (5-[3-(5-thioxo-4H-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl]-1H-naphtho[1, 2-b][1,4]diazepine-2,4(3H,5H)-dione) as a novel antagonist selective for P2X4R with high potency and selectivity compared with other P2XR subtypes. In in vivo assay for acute and chronic pain, intrathecal administration of NP-1815-PX produced an anti-allodynic effect in mice with traumatic nerve damage without affecting acute nociceptive pain and motor function (although its oral administration did not produce the effect)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kenkichi Tsuruga, Toshikazu Hashimoto, Ryoko Kato, Rui Kato, Yousuke Uchida, Tetsutaro Hase, Yuji Morimoto
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is released from activated microglia during neuropathic pain and is hypothesized to downregulate the expression of the potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) via the TrkB receptor. Previous studies reported that KCC2 is downregulated 5 min after the plantar injection of formalin in rats; however, the mechanism behind this decrease in KCC2 expression during acute inflammatory pain remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether the TrkB receptor contributes to the expression of KCC2 during the acute pain...
2016: Biomedical Research
Keisuke Kakizawa, Miho Watanabe, Hiroki Mutoh, Yuta Okawa, Miho Yamashita, Yuchio Yanagawa, Keiichi Itoi, Takafumi Suda, Yutaka Oki, Atsuo Fukuda
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the endocrine stress response. The excitability of CRH neurons is regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing neurons projecting to the PVN. We investigated the role of GABA in the regulation of CRH release. The release of CRH was impaired, accumulating in the cell bodies of CRH neurons in heterozygous GAD67-GFP (green fluorescent protein) knock-in mice (GAD67(+/GFP)), which exhibited decreased GABA content...
August 2016: Science Advances
Georgina MacKenzie, Kate K O'Toole, Stephen J Moss, Jamie Maguire
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of primary brain tumor with 30-50% of patients presenting with epilepsy. These tumor-associated seizures are often resistant to traditional antiepileptic drug treatment and persist after tumor resection. This suggests that changes in the peritumoral tissue underpin epileptogenesis. It is known that glioma cells extrude pathological concentrations of glutamate which is thought to play a role in tumor progression and the development of epilepsy. Given that pathological concentrations of glutamate have been shown to dephosphorylate and downregulate the potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, we hypothesized that glioma-induced alterations in KCC2 in the peritumoral region may play a role in tumor-associated epilepsy...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
C-R Lin, J-K Cheng, C-H Wu, K-H Chen, C-K Liu
BACKGROUND: Multiple mechanisms contribute to the stimulus-evoked pain hypersensitivity that may be experienced after peripheral inflammation. Persistent pathological stimuli in many pain conditions affect the expression of certain genes through epigenetic alternations. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the role of epigenetic modification on potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) gene expression in the persistence of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Persistent inflammatory pain was induced through the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the left hind paw of rats...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Eleni Roussa, Jan Manuel Speer, Ilona Chudotvorova, Shokoufeh Khakipoor, Sergei Smirnov, Claudio Rivera, Kerstin Krieglstein
Functional activation of the neuronal K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter KCC2 (also known as SLC12A5) is a prerequisite for shifting GABAA responses from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing during development. Here, we introduce transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) as a new regulator of KCC2 membrane trafficking and functional activation. TGF-β2 controls membrane trafficking, surface expression and activity of KCC2 in developing and mature mouse primary hippocampal neurons, as determined by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, biotinylation of surface proteins and KCC2-mediated Cl(-) extrusion...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Isabella Ferando, Guido C Faas, Istvan Mody
The synapse specificity of long-term potentiation (LTP) ensures that no interference arises from inputs irrelevant to the memory to be encoded. In hippocampi of aged (21-28 months) mice, LTP was relayed to unstimulated synapses, blemishing its synapse specificity. Diminished levels of the K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2 and a depolarizing GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic component following LTP were the most likely causes for the spreading of potentiation, unveiling mechanisms hindering information storage in the aged brain and identifying KCC2 as a potential target for intervention...
September 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Serena Notartomaso, Giada Mascio, Pamela Scarselli, Katiuscia Martinello, Sergio Fucile, Roberto Gradini, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, Ferdinando Nicoletti
The neuronal K(+)/Cl(-) symporter, KCC2, shapes synaptic responses mediated by Cl(-)-permeant GABAA receptors. Moving from the evidence that excitatory neurotransmission drives changes in KCC2 expression in cerebellar neurons, we studied the regulation of KCC2 expression by group-I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the cerebellum of adult mice. Mice lacking mGlu5 receptors showed a large reduction in cerebellar KCC2 protein levels and a loss of KCC2 immunoreactivity in Purkinje cells. Similar changes were seen in mice treated with the mGlu5 receptor antagonist, MPEP, whereas treatment with the mGlu5 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), VU0360172, increased KCC2 expression...
August 3, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Séverine Stamboulian-Platel, Arnaud Legendre, Tanguy Chabrol, Jean-Claude Platel, Fabien Pernot, Venceslas Duveau, Corinne Roucard, Michel Baudry, Antoine Depaulis
Mesiotemporal lobe Epilepsy (MTLE), the most frequent form of focal epilepsy, is often drug-resistant. Enriching the epileptic focus with GABA-releasing engineered cells has been proposed as a strategy to prevent seizures. However, ex vivo data from animal models and MTLE patients suggest that, due to changes in chloride homeostasis, GABAA receptor activation is depolarizing and partly responsible for focal interictal discharges and seizure initiation. To understand how these two contradictory aspects of GABAergic neurotransmission coexist in MTLE, we used an established mouse model of MTLE presenting hippocampal sclerosis and recurrent hippocampal paroxysmal discharges (HPDs) 30-40days after a unilateral injection of kainate in the dorsal hippocampus...
July 19, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Hirotomo Saitsu, Miho Watanabe, Tenpei Akita, Chihiro Ohba, Kenji Sugai, Winnie Peitee Ong, Hideaki Shiraishi, Shota Yuasa, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Khoo Teik Beng, Shinji Saitoh, Satoko Miyatake, Mitsuko Nakashima, Noriko Miyake, Mitsuhiro Kato, Atsuo Fukuda, Naomichi Matsumoto
Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) is one of the early-onset epileptic syndromes characterized by migrating polymorphous focal seizures. Whole exome sequencing (WES) in ten sporadic and one familial case of EIMFS revealed compound heterozygous SLC12A5 (encoding the neuronal K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter KCC2) mutations in two families: c.279 + 1G > C causing skipping of exon 3 in the transcript (p.E50_Q93del) and c.572 C >T (p.A191V) in individuals 1 and 2, and c.967T > C (p...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gabriele Ruffolo, Anand Iyer, Pierangelo Cifelli, Cristina Roseti, Angelika Mühlebner, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Theresa Scholl, Johannes A Hainfellner, Martha Feucht, Pavel Krsek, Josef Zamecnik, Floor E Jansen, Wim G M Spliet, Cristina Limatola, Eleonora Aronica, Eleonora Palma
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multi-system genetic disease characterized by several neurological disorders, the most common of which is the refractory epilepsy caused by highly epileptogenic cortical lesions. Previous studies suggest an alteration of GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in TSC brain indicating an unbalance of excitation/inhibition that can explain, at least in part, the high incidence of epilepsy in these patients. Here we investigate whether TSC cortical tissues could retain GABAA and AMPA receptors at early stages of human brain development thus contributing to the generation and recurrence of seizures...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Kathrin Gödde, Olivier Gschwend, Dmytro Puchkov, Carsten K Pfeffer, Alan Carleton, Thomas J Jentsch
Synaptic inhibition in the olfactory bulb (OB), the first relay station of olfactory information, is believed to be important for odour discrimination. We interfered with GABAergic inhibition of mitral and tufted cells (M/T cells), the principal neurons of the OB, by disrupting their potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (Kcc2). Roughly, 70% of mice died around 3 weeks, but surviving mice appeared normal. In these mice, the resulting increase in the intracellular Cl(-) concentration nearly abolished GABA-induced hyperpolarization of mitral cells (MCs) and unexpectedly increased the number of perisomatic synapses on MCs...
2016: Nature Communications
Sophie Dutheil, Isabelle Watabe, Karina Sadlaoud, Alain Tonetto, Brahim Tighilet
UNLABELLED: Reactive cell proliferation occurs rapidly in the cat vestibular nuclei (VN) after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) and has been reported to facilitate the recovery of posturo-locomotor functions. Interestingly, whereas animals experience impairments for several weeks, extraordinary plasticity mechanisms take place in the local microenvironment of the VN: newborn cells survive and acquire different phenotypes, such as microglia, astrocytes, or GABAergic neurons, whereas animals eventually recover completely from their lesion-induced deficits...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Claudiu T Supuran
INTRODUCTION: Neuropathic pain affects up to 8% of the population with few therapeutic options for its management. No specific drugs are approved for its treatment. AREAS COVERED: Recent advances in understanding the pathological mechanisms of this syndrome and the biochemical/pharmacological characterization of novel drug targets, evidenced carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC inhibition as a new approach for designing antineuropathic pain agents. Expert commentary: Peripheral nerve injury negatively influences spinal γ-aminobutyric (GABA)-ergic networks via a reduction in the neuron-specific potassium-chloride (K(+)-Cl(-)) cotransporter (KCC2), which leads to neuropathic allodynia...
August 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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