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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665982/oscillatory-activity-and-cortical-coherence-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#1
Muhammad Nazmuddin, D L Marinus Oterdoom, J Marc C van Dijk, Jonathan C van Zijl, Anne K Kampman, Gea Drost, Teus van Laar, Martijn Beudel
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is a new potential treatment for Parkinson's Disease dementia (PDD) and other types of dementia. To get a better understanding of this structure, its local neurophysiological properties and cortical connectivity patterns were studied. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded DBS local field potentials (LFPs) and electroencephalography (EEG) in two patients with PDD. Both patients had DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with one or more distal contacts close to or inside the NBM...
March 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665699/characterizing-signals-within-lesions-and-mapping-brain-network-connectivity-after-traumatic-axonal-injury-a-7-tesla-resting-state-fmri-study
#2
Seul Lee, Jonathan R Polimeni, Collin M Price, Brian L Edlow, Jennifer A McNab
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-FMRI) has been widely used to map brain functional connectivity, but it is unclear how to probe connectivity within and around lesions. Here we characterize RS-FMRI signal time-course properties and evaluate different seed placements within and around hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury lesions. RS-FMRI was performed on a 7 Tesla scanner in a patient who recovered consciousness after traumatic coma and in three healthy controls. Eleven lesions in the patient were characterized in terms of: 1) temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR); 2) physiological noise, through comparison of noise regressors derived from the white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gray matter (GM); and 3) seed-based functional connectivity...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665457/three-dimensional-geometrical-and-topological-characteristics-of-grains-in-conventional-and-grain-boundary-engineered-316l-stainless-steel
#3
Tingguang Liu, Shuang Xia, Bangxin Zhou, Qin Bai, Gregory S Rohrer
The three-dimensional microstructures of a conventional 316L stainless steel and the same material after grain boundary (GB) engineering have been measured by serial sectioning coupled with electron backscatter diffraction mapping. While it is well known that GB engineered materials are differentiated from conventional materials because of the proportion of coincidence site lattice boundaries, the size of their twin-related domains, and their reduced random boundary connectivity, this work provides a quantitative comparison of the geometrical and topological characteristics of grains in 316L stainless steel before and after GB engineering...
April 10, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663135/when-tractography-meets-tracer-injections-a-systematic-study-of-trends-and-variation-sources-of-diffusion-based-connectivity
#4
Dogu Baran Aydogan, Russell Jacobs, Stephanie Dulawa, Summer L Thompson, Maite Christi Francois, Arthur W Toga, Hongwei Dong, James A Knowles, Yonggang Shi
Tractography is a powerful technique capable of non-invasively reconstructing the structural connections in the brain using diffusion MRI images, but the validation of tractograms is challenging due to lack of ground truth. Owing to recent developments in mapping the mouse brain connectome, high-resolution tracer injection-based axonal projection maps have been created and quickly adopted for the validation of tractography. Previous studies using tracer injections mainly focused on investigating the match in projections and optimal tractography protocols...
April 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662702/the-ipsilateral-vestibulothalamic-tract-in-the-human-brain
#5
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Although there are a few studies of portions of the vestibular system such as the vestibulocerebellar tract and the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN), no study of the ipsilateral vestibulothalamic tract (VTT) (originating from the VN and mainly connecting to the lateral thalami nuclei) has been reported. In the current study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigate the reconstruction method and characteristics of the ipsilateral VTT in normal subjects. Thirty-three subjects were recruited for this study...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662444/distinctive-correspondence-between-separable-visual-attention-functions-and-intrinsic-brain-networks
#6
Adriana L Ruiz-Rizzo, Julia Neitzel, Hermann J Müller, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Finke
Separable visual attention functions are assumed to rely on distinct but interacting neural mechanisms. Bundesen's "theory of visual attention" (TVA) allows the mathematical estimation of independent parameters that characterize individuals' visual attentional capacity (i.e., visual processing speed and visual short-term memory storage capacity) and selectivity functions (i.e., top-down control and spatial laterality). However, it is unclear whether these parameters distinctively map onto different brain networks obtained from intrinsic functional connectivity, which organizes slowly fluctuating ongoing brain activity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662091/asymmetric-wave-transmission-through-one-dimensional-lattices-with-cubic-quintic-nonlinearity
#7
Muhammad Abdul Wasay
One dimensional lattice with an on-site cubic-quintic nonlinear response described by a cubic-quintic discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation is tested for asymmetric wave propagation. The lattice is connected to linear side chains. Asymmetry is introduced by breaking the mirror symmetry of the lattice with respect to the center of the nonlinear region. Three cases corresponding to dimer, trimer and quadrimer are discussed with focus on the corresponding diode-like effect. Transmission coefficients are analytically calculated for left and right moving waves via backward transfer map...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659125/extremely-preterm-children-exhibit-increased-interhemispheric-connectivity-for-language-findings-from-fmri-constrained-meg-analysis
#8
Maria E Barnes-Davis, Stephanie L Merhar, Scott K Holland, Darren S Kadis
Children born extremely preterm are at significant risk for cognitive impairment, including language deficits. The relationship between preterm birth and neurological changes that underlie cognitive deficits is poorly understood. We use a stories-listening task in fMRI and MEG to characterize language network representation and connectivity in children born extremely preterm (n = 15, <28 weeks gestation, ages 4-6 years), and in a group of typically developing control participants (n = 15, term birth, 4-6 years)...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656985/in-silico-analysis-of-the-potential-mechanism-of-telocinobufagin-on-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells
#9
Yi-Wu Dang, Peng Lin, Li-Min Liu, Rong-Quan He, Li-Jie Zhang, Zhi-Gang Peng, Xiao-Jiao Li, Gang Chen
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: The extractives from a ChanSu, traditional Chinese medicine, have been discovered to possess anti-inflammatory and tumor-suppressing abilities. However, the molecular mechanism of telocinobufagin, a compound extracted from ChanSu, on breast cancer cells has not been clarified. The aim of this study is to investigate the underlying mechanism of telocinobufagin on breast cancer cells. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The differentially expressed genes after telocinobufagin treatment on breast cancer cells were searched and downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), ArrayExpress and literatures...
April 5, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656926/resting-state-cerebral-blood-flow-with-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-in-developing-human-brains
#10
Feng Liu, Yunsuo Duan, Bradley S Peterson, Iris Asllani, Fernando Zelaya, David Lythgoe, Alayar Kangarlu
The development of brain circuits is coupled with changes in neurovascular coupling, which refers to the close relationship between neural activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Studying the characteristics of CBF during resting state in developing brain can be a complementary way to understand the functional connectivity of the developing brain. Arterial spin labeling (ASL), as a noninvasive MR technique, is particularly attractive for studying cerebral perfusion in children and even newborns. We have collected pulsed ASL data in resting state for 47 healthy subjects from young children to adolescence (aged from 6 to 20 years old)...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656595/pathways-of-association-from-stress-to-obesity-in-early-childhood
#11
REVIEW
Alison L Miller, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association...
April 14, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656236/advancing-systems-immunology-through-data-driven-statistical-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Linda E Fong, Andrés R Muñoz-Rojas, Kathryn Miller-Jensen
Systems biology provides an effective approach to decipher, predict, and ultimately manipulate the complex and inter-connected networks that regulate the immune system. Advances in high-throughput, multiplexed experimental techniques have increased the availability of proteomic and transcriptomic immunological datasets, and as a result, have also accelerated the development of new data-driven computational algorithms to extract biological insight from these data. This review highlights how data-driven statistical models have been used to characterize immune cell subsets and their functions, to map the signaling and intercellular networks that regulate immune responses, and to connect immune cell states to disease outcomes to generate hypotheses for novel therapeutic strategies...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655937/the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-a-neural-crossroads-between-abstract-and-concrete-knowledge
#13
Pasquale Anthony Della Rosa, Eleonora Catricalà, Matteo Canini, Gabriella Vigliocco, Stefano F Cappa
Evidence from both neuropsychology and neuroimaging suggests that different types of information are necessary for representing and processing concrete and abstract word meanings. Both abstract and concrete concepts, however, conjointly rely on perceptual, verbal and contextual knowledge, with abstract concepts characterized by low values of imageability (IMG) (low sensory-motor grounding) and low context availability (CA) (more difficult to contextualize). Imaging studies supporting differences between abstract and concrete concepts show a greater recruitment of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) for abstract concepts, which has been attributed either to the representation of abstract-specific semantic knowledge or to the request for more executive control than in the case of concrete concepts...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650504/interactive-two-way-mhealth-interventions-for-improving-medication-adherence-an-evaluation-using-the-behaviour-change-wheel-framework
#14
Nicole Chiang, Michael Guo, K Rivet Amico, Lou Atkins, Richard T Lester
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory...
April 12, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650251/exploring-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-components-using-gene-expression-signatures-and-connectivity-map
#15
Minjae Yoo, Jimin Shin, Hyunmin Kim, Jihye Kim, Jaewoo Kang, Aik Choon Tan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced over thousands of years in China and other Asian countries for treating various symptoms and diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of TCM are poorly understood, partly due to the "multi-component, multi-target" nature of TCM. To uncover the molecular mechanisms of TCM, we perform comprehensive gene expression analysis using connectivity map. METHODS: We interrogated gene expression signatures obtained 102 TCM components using the next generation Connectivity Map (CMap) resource...
April 4, 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649251/linkage-mapping-of-yeast-cross-protection-connects-gene-expression-variation-to-a-higher-order-organismal-trait
#16
Tara N Stuecker, Amanda N Scholes, Jeffrey A Lewis
Gene expression variation is extensive in nature, and is hypothesized to play a major role in shaping phenotypic diversity. However, connecting differences in gene expression across individuals to higher-order organismal traits is not trivial. In many cases, gene expression variation may be evolutionarily neutral, and in other cases expression variation may only affect phenotype under specific conditions. To understand connections between gene expression variation and stress defense phenotypes, we have been leveraging extensive natural variation in the gene expression response to acute ethanol in laboratory and wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains...
April 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649209/gene-duplicates-cause-hybrid-lethality-between-sympatric-species-of-mimulus
#17
Matthew P Zuellig, Andrea L Sweigart
Hybrid incompatibilities play a critical role in the evolution and maintenance of species. We have discovered a simple genetic incompatibility that causes lethality in hybrids between two closely related species of yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus). This hybrid incompatibility, which causes one sixteenth of F2 hybrid seedlings to lack chlorophyll and die shortly after germination, occurs between sympatric populations that are connected by ongoing interspecific gene flow. Using complimentary genetic mapping and gene expression analyses, we show that lethality occurs in hybrids that lack a functional copy of the critical photosynthetic gene pTAC14...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649149/vehicular-visible-light-networks-for-urban-mobile-crowd-sensing
#18
Barbara M Masini, Alessandro Bazzi, Alberto Zanella
Crowd sensing is a powerful tool to map and predict interests and events. In the future, it could be boosted by an increasing number of connected vehicles sharing information and intentions. This will be made available by on board wireless connected devices able to continuously communicate with other vehicles and with the environment. Among the enabling technologies, visible light communication (VLC) represents a low cost solution in the short term. In spite of the fact that vehicular communications cannot rely on the sole VLC due to the limitation provided by the light which allows communications in visibility only, VLC can however be considered to complement other wireless communication technologies which could be overloaded in dense scenarios...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644521/functional-connectivity-change-between-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-ventral-attention-network-relates-to-the-impairment-of-orientation-for-time-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#19
Ken-Ichiro Yamashita, Taira Uehara, Pukovisa Prawiroharjo, Koji Yamashita, Osamu Togao, Akio Hiwatashi, Yoshihide Taniwaki, Hidetsuna Utsunomiya, Takuya Matsushita, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun-Ichi Kira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit various cognitive dysfunctions, including impairment of orientation for time (OT). The brain regions underlying OT impairment remain to be elucidated. A previous single-photon emission computed tomography study has indicated hypoperfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in relation to deterioration of OT. In this study, we investigated whole brain functional connectivity changes of PCC using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based functional connectivity with PCC was analyzed in OT-poor or OT-good AD patients, classified according to the mean OT scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination subscale...
April 12, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628801/mapping-watershed-integrity-for-the-conterminous-united-states
#20
Darren J Thornbrugh, Scott G Leibowitz, Ryan A Hill, Marc H Weber, Zachary C Johnson, Anthony R Olsen, Joseph E Flotemersch, John L Stoddard, David V Peck
Watershed integrity is the capacity of a watershed to support and maintain the full range of ecological processes and functions essential to sustainability. Using information from EPA's StreamCat dataset, we calculated and mapped an Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) for 2.6 million watersheds in the conterminous US with first-order approximations of relationships between stressors and six watershed functions: hydrologic regulation, regulation of water chemistry, sediment regulation, hydrologic connectivity, temperature regulation, and habitat provision...
February 1, 2018: Ecological Indicators
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