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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040762/effects-of-schizophrenia-polygenic-risk-scores-on-brain-activity-and-performance-during-working-memory-subprocesses-in-healthy-young-adults
#1
Jacob A Miller, Matthew A Scult, Emily Drabant Conley, Qiang Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Ahmad R Hariri
Recent work has begun to shed light on the neural correlates and possible mechanisms of polygenic risk for schizophrenia. Here, we map a schizophrenia polygenic risk profile score (PRS) based on genome-wide association study significant loci onto variability in the activity and functional connectivity of a frontoparietal network supporting the manipulation versus maintenance of information during a numerical working memory (WM) task in healthy young adults (n = 99, mean age = 19.8). Our analyses revealed that higher PRS was associated with hypoactivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during the manipulation but not maintenance of information in WM (r2 = ...
October 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040741/identification-of-new-protein-protein-and-protein-dna-interactions-linked-with-wood-formation-in-populus-trichocarpa
#2
H Earl Petzold, Stephen B Rigoulot, Chengsong Zhao, Bidisha Chanda, Xiaoyan Sheng, Mingzhe Zhao, Xiaoyan Jia, Allan W Dickerman, Eric P Beers, Amy M Brunner
Cellular processes, such as signal transduction and cell wall deposition, are organized by macromolecule interactions. Experimentally determined protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and protein-DNA interactions (PDIs) relevant to woody plant development are sparse. To begin to develop a Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray wood interactome, we applied the yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assay in different ways to enable the discovery of novel PPIs and connected networks. We first cloned open reading frames (ORFs) for 361 genes markedly upregulated in secondary xylem compared with secondary phloem and performed a binary Y2H screen with these proteins...
October 10, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#3
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036375/uranium-in-soil-and-gamma-dose-rate-as-proxies-for-the-indoor-radon-risk-situation-in-belgium
#4
F Tondeur, G Cinelli, B Dehandschutter
Radon risk maps are usually based either on indoor radon data, or on measurements of soil gas radon and soil permeability. If these data are not available or not sufficient, it was suggested that other data could be used as an approximate substitute (a proxy) to the missing information, like the concentration of 238U or 226Ra in soils or the terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR). We examine here the correlation between airborne measurements of soil U and indoor radon, and between airborne U and TGDR, and their link with affected/unaffected areas...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031848/local-national-and-regional-viral-haemorrhagic-fever-pandemic-potential-in-africa-a-multistage-analysis
#5
David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease...
October 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031602/microstructural-mri-basis-of-the-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#6
G Olivito, M Lupo, C Iacobacci, S Clausi, S Romano, M Masciullo, M Molinari, M Cercignani, M Bozzali, M Leggio
Spinocerebellarataxiatype2(SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebellum. The particular atrophy pattern results in some typical clinical features mainly including motor deficits. In addition, the presence of cognitive impairments, involving language, visuospatial and executive functions, has been also shown in SCA2 patients and it is now widely accepted as a feature of the disease. The aim of the study is to investigate the microstructural patterns and the anatomo-functional substrate that could account for the cognitive symptomatology observed in SCA2 patients...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031500/transcription-and-signaling-regulators-in-developing-neuronal-subtypes-of-mouse-and-human-enteric-nervous-system
#7
Fatima Memic, Viktoria Knoflach, Khomgrit Morarach, Rebecca Sadler, Catia Laranjeira, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Erik Sundström, Vassilis Pachnis, Ulrika Marklund
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates gastrointestinal function via different subtypes of neurons, organized into fine-tuned neural circuits. It is not clear how cell diversity is created within the embryonic ENS-information required for development of cell-based therapies and models of enteric neuropathies. We aimed to identify proteins that regulate ENS differentiation and network formation. METHODS: We generated and compared RNA expression profiles of the entire ENS, ENS progenitor cells, and non-ENS gut cells of mice, collected at embryonic days 11...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030038/a-system-map-for-the-ionic-liquid-stationary-phase-1-12-di-tripropylphosphonium-dodecane-bis-trifluoromethylsulfonyl-imide-for-gas-chromatography
#8
Nicole Lenca, Colin F Poole
The solvation parameter model is used to prepare a system map for the retention of volatile organic compounds on the ionic liquid stationary phase 1,12-di(tripropylphosphonium)dodecane bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (SLB-IL60) by gas chromatography over the temperature range 80-280°C. Retention is governed by dispersion, dipole-type and hydrogen-bonding interactions with a different temperature dependence. The hydrogen-bond acidity of the SLB-IL60 column is unexpected since the stationary phase contains no hydrogen-bond acid groups and is not obviously connected to contributions from the deactivated column wall...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029883/brain-sexual-differentiation-and-effects-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-in-transpeople-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-study
#9
Nienke M Nota, Sarah M Burke, Martin den Heijer, Remi S Soleman, Cornelis B Lambalk, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Dick J Veltman, Baudewijntje P Kreukels
OBJECTIVES: It is hypothesized that transpeople show sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Various structural neuroimaging studies provide support for this notion, but little is known about the sexual differentiation of functional resting-state networks in transpeople. In this study we therefore aimed to determine whether brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns in transpeople are sex-typical or sex-atypical, before and after the start of cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT). METHODS: We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance data in 36 transpeople (22 with female sex assigned at birth), first during gonadal suppression, and again four months after start of CHT, and in 37 cisgender people (20 females), both sessions without any hormonal intervention...
October 10, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020091/a-novel-network-analysis-approach-reveals-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-calcium-camp-homeostasis-associated-biomarkers-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#10
Fernando Palluzzi, Raffaele Ferrari, Francesca Graziano, Valeria Novelli, Giacomina Rossi, Daniela Galimberti, Innocenzo Rainero, Luisa Benussi, Benedetta Nacmias, Amalia C Bruni, Daniele Cusi, Erika Salvi, Barbara Borroni, Mario Grassi
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is the form of neurodegenerative dementia with the highest prevalence after Alzheimer's disease, equally distributed in men and women. It includes several variants, generally characterized by behavioural instability and language impairments. Although few mendelian genes (MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72) have been associated to the FTD phenotype, in most cases there is only evidence of multiple risk loci with relatively small effect size. To date, there are no comprehensive studies describing FTD at molecular level, highlighting possible genetic interactions and signalling pathways at the origin FTD-associated neurodegeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017866/as-psoct-volumetric-microscopic-imaging-of-human-brain-architecture-and-connectivity
#11
Hui Wang, Caroline Magnain, Ruopeng Wang, Jay Dubb, Ani Varjabedian, Lee S Tirrell, Allison Stevens, Jean C Augustinack, Ender Konukoglu, Iman Aganj, Matthew P Frosch, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Bruce Fischl, David A Boas
Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) with serial sectioning has enabled the investigation of 3D structures in mouse and human brain tissue samples. By using intrinsic optical properties of back-scattering and birefringence, PSOCT reliably images cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and fiber orientations. In this study, we developed a fully automatic serial sectioning polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (as-PSOCT) system to enable volumetric reconstruction of human brain samples with unprecedented sample size and resolution...
October 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993617/a-bivariate-hypothesis-testing-approach-for-mapping-the-trait-influential-gene
#12
Garrett Saunders, Guifang Fu, John R Stevens
The linkage disequilibrium (LD) based quantitative trait loci (QTL) model involves two indispensable hypothesis tests: the test of whether or not a QTL exists, and the test of the LD strength between the QTaL and the observed marker. The advantage of this two-test framework is to test whether there is an influential QTL around the observed marker instead of just having a QTL by random chance. There exist unsolved, open statistical questions about the inaccurate asymptotic distributions of the test statistics...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992558/practical-application-of-direct-electron-detectors-to-ebsd-mapping-in-2d-and-3d
#13
K P Mingard, M Stewart, M G Gee, S Vespucci, C Trager-Cowan
The use of a direct electron detector for the simple acquisition of 2D electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps and 3D EBSD datasets with a static sample geometry has been demonstrated in a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope. The small size and flexible connection of the Medipix direct electron detector enabled the mounting of sample and detector on the same stage at the short working distance required for the FIB. Comparison of 3D EBSD datasets acquired by this means and with conventional phosphor based EBSD detectors requiring sample movement showed that the former method with a static sample gave improved slice registration...
September 28, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992072/attention-and-motivated-response-to-simulated-male-advertisement-call-activates-forebrain-dopaminergic-and-social-decision-making-network-nuclei-in-female-midshipman-fish
#14
Paul M Forlano, Roshney R Licorish, Zachary N Ghahramani, Miky Timothy, Melissa Ferrari, William C Palmer, Joseph A Sisneros
Little is known regarding the coordination of audition with decision-making and subsequent motor responses that initiate social behavior including mate localization during courtship. Using the midshipman fish model, we tested the hypothesis that the time spent by females attending and responding to the advertisement call is correlated with the activation of a specific subset of catecholaminergic (CA) and social decision-making network (SDM) nuclei underlying auditory- driven sexual motivation. In addition, we quantified the relationship of neural activation between CA and SDM nuclei in all responders with the goal of providing a map of functional connectivity of the circuitry underlying a motivated state responsive to acoustic cues during mate localization...
July 20, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990264/consistency-of-magnetoencephalographic-functional-connectivity-and-network-reconstruction-using-a-template-versus-native-mri-for-co-registration
#15
Linda Douw, Dagmar Nieboer, Cornelis J Stam, Prejaas Tewarie, Arjan Hillebrand
INTRODUCTION: Studies using functional connectivity and network analyses based on magnetoencephalography (MEG) with source localization are rapidly emerging in neuroscientific literature. However, these analyses currently depend on the availability of costly and sometimes burdensome individual MR scans for co-registration. We evaluated the consistency of these measures when using a template MRI, instead of native MRI, for the analysis of functional connectivity and network topology. METHODS: Seventeen healthy participants underwent resting-state eyes-closed MEG and anatomical MRI...
October 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988973/comparative-connectomics-mapping-the-inter-individual-variability-of-connections-within-the-regions-of-the-human-brain
#16
Csaba Kerepesi, Balázs Szalkai, Bálint Varga, Vince Grolmusz
The human braingraph, or connectome is a description of the connections of the brain: the nodes of the graph correspond to small areas of the gray matter, and two nodes are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow finds fibers between those brain areas. We have constructed 1015-vertex graphs from the diffusion MRI brain images of 392 human subjects and compared the individual graphs with respect to several different areas of the brain. The inter-individual variability of the graphs within different brain regions was discovered and described...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988040/johne-s-disease-in-cattle-an-in-vitro-model-to-study-early-response-to-infection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-using-rna-seq
#17
Rosanna Marino, Rossana Capoferri, Simona Panelli, Giulietta Minozzi, Francesco Strozzi, Erminio Trevisi, Gustavo G M Snel, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, John L Williams
Johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which affects ruminants worldwide and has a significant economic impact. MAP has also been associated with human Crohn's disease, although this connection is not well established. MAP is highly adapted for survival within host macrophages and prevents macrophage activation, blocks phagosome acidification and maturation, and attenuates presentation of antigens to the immune system. The consequence is a very long silent infection before clinical signs are observed...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986444/metabolomic-analysis-reveals-that-the-drosophila-gene-lysine%C3%A2-influences-diverse-aspects-of-metabolism
#18
Samantha L St Clair, Hongde Li, Usman Ashraf, Jonathan A Karty, Jason M Tennessen
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful model for investigating the molecular mechanisms that regulate animal metabolism. A major limitation of these studies, however, is that many metabolic assays are tedious, dedicated to analyzing a single molecule, and rely on indirect measurements. As a result, Drosophila geneticists commonly use candidate gene approaches, which, while important, bias studies towards known metabolic regulators. In an effort to expand the scope of Drosophila metabolic studies, we used the classic mutant lysine (lys) to demonstrate how a modern metabolomics approach can be used to conduct forward genetic studies...
October 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986208/dynamic-functional-connectivity-and-brain-metastability-during-altered-states-of-consciousness
#19
REVIEW
Federico Cavanna, Martina G Vilas, Matías Palmucci, Enzo Tagliazucchi
The scientific study of human consciousness has greatly benefited from the development of non-invasive brain imaging methods. The quest to identify the neural correlates of consciousness combined psychophysical experimentation with neuroimaging tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the changes in neural activity associated with conscious vs. unconscious percepts. Different neuroimaging methods have also been applied to characterize spontaneous brain activity fluctuations during altered states of consciousness, and to develop quantitative metrics for the level of consciousness...
October 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985936/applications-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-to-neurodegenerative-disease
#20
REVIEW
Juan Zhou, Siwei Liu, Kwun Kei Ng, Juan Wang
Neurodegenerative diseases target specific large-scale neuronal networks, leading to distinct behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMR imaging)-based functional connectivity method maps symptoms-associated functional network deterioration in vivo. This article summarizes accumulating functional connectivity findings supporting the network-based neurodegeneration hypothesis. Understanding of disease mechanism can further guide early detection and predictions of disease progression and inform development of more effective treatment...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
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