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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220316/edge-based-defocus-blur-estimation-with-adaptive-scale-selection
#1
Ali Karaali, Claudio Rosito Jung
Objects that do not lie at the focal distance of a digital camera generate defocused regions in the captured image. This paper presents a new edge-based method for spatially varying defocus blur estimation using a single image based on reblurred gradient magnitudes. The proposed approach initially computes a scale-consistent edge map of the input image and selects a local reblurring scale aiming to cope with noise, edge mis-localization, and interfering edges. An initial blur estimate is computed at the detected scale-consistent edge points and a novel connected edge filter is proposed to smooth the sparse blur map based on pixel connectivity within detected edge contours...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220303/locally-aggressive-connective-tissue-tumors
#2
Mrinal M Gounder, David M Thomas, William D Tap
In this review, we highlight the complexities of the natural history, biology, and clinical management of three intermediate connective tissue tumors: desmoid tumor (DT) or aggressive fibromatosis, tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) or diffuse-type pigmented villonodular synovitis (dtPVNS), and giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). Intermediate histologies include tumors of both soft tissue and bone origin and are locally aggressive and rarely metastatic. Some common aspects to these tumors are that they can be locally infiltrative and/or impinge on critical organs, which leads to disfigurement, pain, loss of function and mobility, neurovascular compromise, and occasionally life-threatening consequences, such as mesenteric, bowel, ureteral, and/or bladder obstruction...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217310/about-the-connectivity-of-dual-scale-media-based-on-micro-structure-based-regional-analysis-of-nmr-flow-propagators
#3
Yong Zheng, Igor Shikhov, Louis Kpamsar Gbayan, Ji-Youn Arns, Christoph H Arns
The characterisation of heterogeneous porous media at multiple length scales typically requires the classification of structure at some scale to allow the calculation of effective transport properties at a scale relevant for macroscopic description. While such a classification may be derived from various imaging methods, a shortcoming is often the simultaneous characterisation of the connectivity between regions representing different micro-structure. In this work we combine NMR based flow propagators with the simulations performed on corresponding reconstructed structure, and relate the NMR measurements to their simulated global and local representations to study fluid transport locally and the exchange between micro- and macro-porous regions...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216104/simplified-freeform-optics-design-for-complicated-laser-beam-shaping
#4
Zexin Feng, Brittany D Froese, Rongguang Liang, Dewen Cheng, Yongtian Wang
Control of the optical fields of laser beams, i.e., laser beam shaping, is of great importance to many laser applications. Freeform optics offers plenty of advantages for complex beam shaping requirements, including precise beam control, energy efficiency, compact structure, and relatively low cost. We present a modified ray-mapping method to simplify the freeform optics design for complicated optical field control and achieve a challenging task of producing two prescribed beam profiles on two successive target planes...
November 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215690/impact-of-material-shade-and-distance-from-light-curing-unit-tip-on-the-depth-of-polymerization-of-composites
#5
André L Faria-E-Silva, Christopher Fanger, Lillian Nguyen, Demetri Howerton, Carmem S Pfeifer
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the composite shade and distance from the light-curing unit (LCU) tip on the irradiance reaching the bottom of composite disks and on the depth of polymerization. Composites of three shades (opaque - OXDC, bleach - BXL, and A2) were inserted into molds with 3-mm of thickness positioned over a spectrometer and photo-activated with the LCU (Bluephase) tip placed at 0 or 1 cm from the composite surface. The mean irradiance reaching the bottom of composite was recorded during the entire photo-activation (30 s)...
September 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214661/reverse-mapping-method-for-complex-polymer-systems
#6
Jakub Krajniak, Zidan Zhang, Sudharsan Pandiyan, Eric Nies, Giovanni Samaey
We present a comprehensive approach for reverse mapping of complex polymer systems in which the connectivity is created by the simulation of chemical reactions at the coarse-grained scale. Within the work, we use a recently developed generic adaptive reverse mapping procedure that we adapt to handle the varying connectivity structure resulting from the chemical reactions. The method is independent of the coarse-grained and fine-grained force-fields by design and relies only on a single control parameter. We employ the approach to reverse map four different systems: a three-component epoxy network, a trimethylol melamine network, a hyperbranched polymer, and a polyethylene terephthalate...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214207/what-is-the-role-of-the-film-viewer-the-effects-of-narrative-comprehension-and-viewing-task-on-gaze-control-in-film
#7
John P Hutson, Tim J Smith, Joseph P Magliano, Lester C Loschky
Film is ubiquitous, but the processes that guide viewers' attention while viewing film narratives are poorly understood. In fact, many film theorists and practitioners disagree on whether the film stimulus (bottom-up) or the viewer (top-down) is more important in determining how we watch movies. Reading research has shown a strong connection between eye movements and comprehension, and scene perception studies have shown strong effects of viewing tasks on eye movements, but such idiosyncratic top-down control of gaze in film would be anathema to the universal control mainstream filmmakers typically aim for...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213031/-neuronet-restructuring-in-focal-and-generalized-epilepsy-according-to-resting-state-fmri
#8
L A Mayorova, I S Samotaeva, N N Lebedeva, R V Luzin, V V Gaskin, F K Rider, A M Teplyshova, R G Akzhigitov, A B Guekht
AIM: To compare neuronet restructuring in focal and generalized epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients, aged from 18 to 65 years, with the diagnosis of epilepsy, including 63 patients with focal epilepsy and 14 with generalized epilepsy, were examined. A control group included 23 healthy people. Neuronet restructuring was studied using fMRI. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: According to resting state fMRI, there were between-group differences in spatial organization (activity map) of the brain structures as well as in the results of cross-correlation analysis of interaction maps of resting-state networks...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212778/the-identification-of-64-novel-genetic-loci-provides-an-expanded-view-on-the-genetic-architecture-of-coronary-artery-disease
#9
Pim van der Harst, Niek Verweij
Rationale: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex phenotype driven by genetic and environmental factors. 97 genetic risk loci have been identified so far, but the identification of additional susceptibility loci might be important to enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of CAD. Objective: To expand the number of genome-wide significant loci, catalog functional insights, and enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of CAD. Methods and Results: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 34,541 CAD cases and 261,984 controls of UK biobank Resource followed by replication in 88,192 cases and 162,544 controls from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D...
December 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212266/ews-fli1-and-rna-helicase-a-interaction-inhibitor-yk-4-279-inhibits-growth-of-neuroblastoma
#10
Wenjing Sun, Yesenia Rojas, Hao Wang, Yang Yu, Yongfeng Wang, Zhenghu Chen, Kimal Rajapakshe, Xin Xu, Wei Huang, Saurabh Agarwal, Roma H Patel, Sarah Woodfield, Yanling Zhao, Jingling Jin, Hong Zhang, Angela Major, M John Hicks, Jason M Shohet, Sanjeev A Vasudevan, Cristian Coarfa, Jianhua Yang, Jed G Nuchtern
Treatment failure in high risk neuroblastoma (NB) is largely due to the development of chemotherapy resistance. We analyzed the gene expression changes associated with exposure to chemotherapy in six high risk NB tumors with the aid of the Connectivity Map bioinformatics platform. Ten therapeutic agents were predicted to have a high probability of reversing the transcriptome changes associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Among these agents, initial screening showed the EWS-FLI1 and RNA helicase A interaction inhibitor YK-4-279, had obvious cytotoxic effects on NB cell lines...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210066/the-interictal-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-network
#11
Suganya Karunakaran, Matthew J Rollo, Kamin Kim, Jessica A Johnson, Giridhar P Kalamangalam, Behnaam Aazhang, Nitin Tandon
OBJECTIVE: Identification of patient-specific epileptogenic networks is critical to designing successful treatment strategies. Multiple noninvasive methods have been used to characterize epileptogenic networks. However, these methods lack the spatiotemporal resolution to allow precise localization of epileptiform activity. We used intracranial recordings, at much higher spatiotemporal resolution, across a cohort of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) to delineate features common to their epileptogenic networks...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209203/linking-inter-individual-variability-in-functional-brain-connectivity-to-cognitive-ability-in-elderly-individuals
#12
Rui Li, Shufei Yin, Xinyi Zhu, Weicong Ren, Jing Yu, Pengyun Wang, Zhiwei Zheng, Ya-Nan Niu, Xin Huang, Juan Li
Increasing evidence suggests that functional brain connectivity is an important determinant of cognitive aging. However, the fundamental concept of inter-individual variations in functional connectivity in older individuals is not yet completely understood. It is essential to evaluate the extent to which inter-individual variability in connectivity impacts cognitive performance at an older age. In the current study, we aimed to characterize individual variability of functional connectivity in the elderly and to examine its significance to individual cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208367/the-role-of-epcam-in-tumor-progression-and-the-clinical-prognosis-of-endometrial-carcinoma
#13
Kuo-Chang Wen, Pi-Lin Sung, Yu-Ting Chou, Chih-Ming Pan, Peng-Hui Wang, Oscar Kuang-Sheng Lee, Cheng-Wen Wu
OBJECTIVE: EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as an epithelial marker in endometrial tissues. However, the correlation between EpCAM and endometrial carcinoma (EC) is not clear. METHODS: This study investigated the association between EpCAM and EC. Immunohistochemistry staining and bioinformatics analysis disclosed the clinical importance of low EpCAM expression. The migratory ability of cells expressing low EpCAM levels was studied in transwell invasion assays in vitro and an orthotopic intra-uterine tumor injection model in vivo...
December 2, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206104/science-forum-the-human-cell-atlas
#14
Aviv Regev, Sarah A Teichmann, Eric S Lander, Ido Amit, Christophe Benoist, Ewan Birney, Bernd Bodenmiller, Peter J Campbell, Piero Carninci, Menna Clatworthy, Hans Clevers, Bart Deplancke, Ian Dunham, James Eberwine, Roland Eils, Wolfgang Enard, Andrew Farmer, Lars Fugger, Berthold Göttgens, Nir Hacohen, Muzlifah Haniffa, Martin Hemberg, Seung K Kim, Paul Klenerman, Arnold Kriegstein, Ed Lein, Sten Linnarsson, Emma Lundberg, Joakim Lundeberg, Partha Majumder, John C Marioni, Miriam Merad, Musa Mhlanga, Martijn Nawijn, Mihai Netea, Garry Nolan, Dana Pe'er, Anthony Phillipakis, Chris P Ponting, Stephen R Quake, Wolf Reik, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Joshua R Sanes, Rahul Satija, Ton N Schumacher, Alex K Shalek, Ehud Shapiro, Padmanee Sharma, Jay W Shin, Oliver Stegle, Michael R Stratton, Michael J T Stubbington, Fabian J Theis, Matthias Uhlen, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Allon Wagner, Fiona M Watt, Jonathan S Weissman, Barbara J Wold, Ramnik J Xavier, Nir Yosef
The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology)...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205633/a-combined-connectivity-mapping-and-pharmacoepidemiology-approach-to-identify-existing-medications-with-breast-cancer-causing-or-preventing-properties
#15
John Busby, Liam Murray, Ken Mills, Shu-Dong Zhang, Fabio Liberante, Chris R Cardwell
PURPOSE: We applied a novel combined connectivity mapping and pharmacoepidemiological approach to identify medications that alter breast cancer risk. METHODS: The connectivity mapping process identified 6 potentially cancer-causing (meloxicam, azithromycin, rizatriptan, citalopram, rosiglitazone, and verapamil) and 4 potentially cancer-preventing (bendroflumethiazide, sertraline, fluvastatin, and budesonide) medications that were suitable for pharmacoepidemiological investigation...
December 4, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204807/analysis-of-fmri-data-using-noise-diffusion-network-models-a-new-covariance-coding-perspective
#16
Matthieu Gilson
Since the middle of the 1990s, studies of resting-state fMRI/BOLD data have explored the correlation patterns of activity across the whole brain, which is referred to as functional connectivity (FC). Among the many methods that have been developed to interpret FC, a recently proposed model-based approach describes the propagation of fluctuating BOLD activity within the recurrently connected brain network by inferring the effective connectivity (EC). In this model, EC quantifies the strengths of directional interactions between brain regions, viewed from the proxy of BOLD activity...
December 4, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204347/impairment-of-consciousness-induced-by-bilateral-electrical-stimulation-of-the-frontal-convexity
#17
Imran H Quraishi, Christopher F Benjamin, Dennis D Spencer, Hal Blumenfeld, Rafeed Alkawadri
We report a case of impairment of consciousness (IOC) induced by electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) of homologous regions within the lateral frontal convexities in a patient with medically intractable epilepsy. The patient had mixed features of idiopathic generalized and focal epilepsy. On intracranial EEG recording, interictal and ictal discharges showed a high degree of synchrony across widespread bilateral fronto-parietal areas. We identified regions in the lateral frontal lobes that reliably and produced loss of consciousness by ECS...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204314/the-effect-of-botulinum-toxin-on-network-connectivity-in-cervical-dystonia-lessons-from-magnetoencephalography
#18
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Abdullah Alshammaa, Andrew Zillgitt, Susan M Bowyer, Peter LeWitt, Patricia Kaminski, Christos Sidiropoulos
Background: Pharmacological management of cervical dystonia (CD) is considered to be symptomatic in effect, rather than targeting the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a direct measure of neuronal activity, while accepted as a modality for pre-surgical mapping in epilepsy, has never been used to explore the effect of pharmacotherapy in movement disorders. Methods: Resting state MEG data were collected from patients with CD, pre- and post-botulinum toxin injections...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203898/an-interactive-framework-for-whole-brain-maps-at-cellular-resolution
#19
Daniel Fürth, Thomas Vaissière, Ourania Tzortzi, Yang Xuan, Antje Märtin, Iakovos Lazaridis, Giada Spigolon, Gilberto Fisone, Raju Tomer, Karl Deisseroth, Marie Carlén, Courtney A Miller, Gavin Rumbaugh, Konstantinos Meletis
To deconstruct the architecture and function of brain circuits, it is necessary to generate maps of neuronal connectivity and activity on a whole-brain scale. New methods now enable large-scale mapping of the mouse brain at cellular and subcellular resolution. We developed a framework to automatically annotate, analyze, visualize and easily share whole-brain data at cellular resolution, based on a scale-invariant, interactive mouse brain atlas. This framework enables connectivity and mapping projects in individual laboratories and across imaging platforms, as well as multiplexed quantitative information on the molecular identity of single neurons...
December 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201640/connectome-analysis-with-diffusion-mri-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-evaluation-using-multi-shell-multi-tissue-constrained-spherical-deconvolution
#20
Koji Kamagata, Andrew Zalesky, Taku Hatano, Maria Angelique Di Biase, Omar El Samad, Shinji Saiki, Keigo Shimoji, Kanako K Kumamaru, Kouhei Kamiya, Masaaki Hori, Nobutaka Hattori, Shigeki Aoki, Christos Pantelis
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects extensive regions of the central nervous system. In this work, we evaluated the structural connectome of patients with PD, as mapped by diffusion-weighted MRI tractography and a multi-shell, multi-tissue (MSMT) constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) method to increase the precision of tractography at tissue interfaces. The connectome was mapped with probabilistic MSMT-CSD in 21 patients with PD and in 21 age- and gender-matched controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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