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Connectivity map

Milagros Ramasco-Gutiérrez, Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Sonsoles Garabato-González, Emiliano Aránguez-Ruiz, Ramón Aguirre Martín-Gil
The Public Health General Directorate of Madrid has developed a health vulnerability mapping methodology to assist regional social health teams in health planning, prioritisation and intervention based on a model of social determinants of health and an equity approach. This process began with the selection of areas with the worst social indicators in health vulnerability. Then, key stakeholders of the region jointly identified priority areas of intervention and developed a consensual plan of action. We present the outcomes of this experience and its connection with theoretical models of asset-based community development, health-integrated georeferencing systems and community health interventions...
October 20, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15;10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Wang Wei, Zhang Wei-Sheng, Alayi Ahan, Yan Ci, Zhang Wei-Wen, Cao Ming-Qin
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection) through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate...
2016: PloS One
Ryan Eshleman, Rahul Singh
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) constitute one of the leading causes of post-therapeutic death and their identification constitutes an important challenge of modern precision medicine. Unfortunately, the onset and effects of ADEs are often underreported complicating timely intervention. At over 500 million posts per day, Twitter is a commonly used social media platform. The ubiquity of day-to-day personal information exchange on Twitter makes it a promising target for data mining for ADE identification and intervention...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Chuanjun Zhuo, Jiajia Zhu, Chunli Wang, Hongru Qu, Xiaolei Ma, Wen Qin
Alterations in grey matter structure and functional connectivity (FC) are pathological features of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationship between brain structural and functional impairments in MDD remains uncertain. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) and resting-state global functional connectivity density (rs-gFCD) in MDD. Forty-five patients with MDD and 48 healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Chao-Chen Lin, Hsin-Fang Hsu, Peter Jomo Walla
The fusion of two opposing membranes is essential in biological functions such as fertilization, viral entry, membrane trafficking and synaptic transmission. Before the membrane bilayers are fully connected, at some stage a hemifusion intermediate-when the outer leaflets are merged but not the inner leaflets-is formed. However, the position of hemifusion in the energy landscape and the duration of it vary and have not been fully mapped out. To date, there has not been a way to differentiate lipid mixing of the two leaflets directly in a single experiment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Aharon Nachshon, Hanifa J Abu-Toamih Atamni, Yael Steuerman, Roa'a Sheikh-Hamed, Alexandra Dorman, Richard Mott, Juliane C Dohm, Hans Lehrach, Marc Sultan, Ron Shamir, Sascha Sauer, Heinz Himmelbauer, Fuad A Iraqi, Irit Gat-Viks
A central challenge in pharmaceutical research is to investigate genetic variation in response to drugs. The Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse reference population is a promising model for pharmacogenomic studies because of its large amount of genetic variation, genetic reproducibility, and dense recombination sites. While the CC lines are phenotypically diverse, their genetic diversity in drug disposition processes, such as detoxification reactions, is still largely uncharacterized. Here we systematically measured RNA-sequencing expression profiles from livers of 29 CC lines under baseline conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Janine Kamke, Sandra Kittelmann, Priya Soni, Yang Li, Michael Tavendale, Siva Ganesh, Peter H Janssen, Weibing Shi, Jeff Froula, Edward M Rubin, Graeme T Attwood
BACKGROUND: Enteric fermentation by farmed ruminant animals is a major source of methane and constitutes the second largest anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Reducing methane emissions from ruminants is needed to ensure sustainable animal production in the future. Methane yield varies naturally in sheep and is a heritable trait that can be used to select animals that yield less methane per unit of feed eaten. We previously demonstrated elevated expression of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway genes of methanogenic archaea in the rumens of high methane yield (HMY) sheep compared to their low methane yield (LMY) counterparts...
October 19, 2016: Microbiome
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a first-line therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) thought to induce remission through changes in the gut microbiome. With microbiome assessment largely focused on microbial taxonomy and diversity, it remains unclear to what extent EEN induces functional changes that thereby contribute to its therapeutic effect. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 15 pediatric CD patients prior to and after EEN treatment, as well as from 5 healthy controls...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
J Wu, S Dehkharghani, F Nahab, J Allen, D Qiu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Measuring cerebrovascular reactivity with the use of vasodilatory stimuli, such as acetazolamide, is useful for chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acetazolamide on the assessment of hemodynamic impairment and functional connectivity by using noninvasive resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 20-minute resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging scan was acquired with infusion of acetazolamide starting at 5 minutes after scan initiation...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Régis Hallez
To increase chances for a cell to survive in its natural environment, metabolism and cell cycle necessarily have to be interconnected. Indeed, cells need, on the one hand, to check their metabolic status before initiating a cell cycle step often energy-consuming, and, on the other hand, to complete some cell cycle steps before modifying their metabolism. Because bacteria do not differ from the rules, an increasing number of examples of connection between metabolism and cell cycle emerged these last years. Identifying metabolic enzymes as messengers coordinating metabolism and cell cycle allows the addition of another dimension to metabolic maps...
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Rama Raghavan, Stephen Hyter, Harsh B Pathak, Andrew K Godwin, Gottfried Konecny, Chen Wang, Ellen L Goode, Brooke L Fridley
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (5 % of cancer deaths). The standard treatment for patients with advanced EOC is initial debulking surgery followed by carboplatin-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy. Unfortunately, with chemotherapy most patients relapse and die resulting in a five-year overall survival around 45 %. Thus, finding novel therapeutics for treating EOC is essential. Connectivity Mapping (CMAP) has been used widely in cancer drug discovery and generally has relied on cancer cell line gene expression and drug phenotype data...
October 19, 2016: BMC Genomics
Matthew E Fagan, Ruth S DeFries, Steven E Sesnie, J Pablo Arroyo-Mora, Robin L Chazdon
Re-establishing connectivity between protected areas isolated by habitat clearing is a key conservation goal in the humid tropics. In northeastern Costa Rica, payments for environmental services (PES) and a government ban on deforestation have subsidized forest protection and reforestation in the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC), resulting in a decline in mature forest loss and the expansion of tree plantations. We use field studies and graph models to assess how conservation efforts have altered functional connectivity over the last 25 years for four species of insectivorous understory birds...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Bérenger Bourgeois, Eduardo González, Anne Vanasse, Isabelle Aubin, Monique Poulin
The disruption of hydrological connectivity by human activities such as flood regulation or land-use changes strongly impacts riparian plant communities. However, landscape-scale processes have generally been neglected in riparian restoration projects as opposed to local conditions, even though such processes might largely influence community recovery. We surveyed plant composition of field edges and riverbanks in 51 riparian zones restored by tree planting (565 1-m(2) plots) within two agricultural watersheds in southeastern Québec, Canada...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Stefanie Memmer, Sandra Weil, Steffen Beyer, Tobias Zöller, Eike Peters, Jessica Hartmann, Alexander Steinle, Joachim Koch
The natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp30 (CD337) is a key player for NK cell immunosurveillance of infections and cancer. The molecular details of ligand recognition and its connection to CD3ζ signaling remain unsolved. Here, we show that the stalk domain (K129EHPQLGAGTVLLLR143) of NKp30 is very sensitve to sequence alterations, as mutations lead to impaired ligand binding and/or signaling capacity. Surprisingly, the stalk domains of NKp30 and NKp46, another NCR employing CD3ζ for signaling, were not exchangeable without drastic deficiencies in folding, plasma membrane targeting and/or ligand induced receptor signaling...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
R A Bryant, K L Felmingham, B Liddell, P Das, G S Malhi
The FKBP5 polymorphism is a key regulator of the glucocorticoid system underpinning stress responsivity, and risk alleles can increase vulnerability for developing posttraumatic stress disorder. To delineate the specific role of FKBP5 risk alleles unencumbered by the confounds of psychopathology, this study investigated whether high-risk alleles of the FKBP5 polymorphism are characterized by distinctive neural activity during resting state. Thirty-seven healthy participants were selected on the basis of four SNPs in the FKBP5 gene region (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780 and rs9470080) to determine participants who were carriers of the FKBP5 high- and low-risk alleles...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Qiang Yu, David Reutens, Kieran O'Brien, Viktor Vegh
OBJECTIVES: Tissue microstructure features, namely axon radius and volume fraction, provide important information on the function of white matter pathways. These parameters vary on the scale much smaller than imaging voxels (microscale) yet influence the magnetic resonance imaging diffusion signal at the image voxel scale (macroscale) in an anomalous manner. Researchers have already mapped anomalous diffusion parameters from magnetic resonance imaging data, but macroscopic variations have not been related to microscale influences...
October 18, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Stanimir Georgiev, Gunter Balling, Bettina Ruf, Kilian Ackermann, Jelena P von Ohain, Christian Schreiber, Peter Ewert
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether early postoperative extubation following the Fontan operation is universally feasible and can be used as a management tool in unstable patients. METHODS: All patients undergoing the Fontan operation in our centre between 2004 and 2013 (n=253) were analysed. Until 2008, patients were extubated according to standard criteria and comprised group 1. Group 2 included all patients presenting after 2009, when early extubation was always aimed regardless of the haemodynamic status...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Siyu Zhang, Min Xu, Wei-Cheng Chang, Chenyan Ma, Johnny Phong Hoang Do, Daniel Jeong, Tiffany Lei, Jiang Lan Fan, Yang Dan
Long-range projections from the frontal cortex are known to modulate sensory processing in multiple modalities. Although the mouse has become an increasingly important animal model for studying the circuit basis of behavior, the functional organization of its frontal cortical long-range connectivity remains poorly characterized. Here we used virus-assisted circuit mapping to identify the brain networks for top-down modulation of visual, somatosensory and auditory processing. The visual cortex is reciprocally connected to the anterior cingulate area, whereas the somatosensory and auditory cortices are connected to the primary and secondary motor cortices...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Katja Bohner
Transitions Theory (TT) states that change and transition are phenomena that make humans more vulnerable to health risks. Transitions Theory was evaluated through a text analysis of 4 publications, 3 nursing expert focus group interviews in Switzerland, and a mapping review of the transition literature of the last 5 years. Although the implementation of TT into Swiss nursing practice seems problematic due to conceptual deficiencies, transition is a meaningful nursing topic. The connection between TT, research, and practice is weak...
October 3, 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
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