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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323481/the-emergence-of-life-as-a-first-order-phase-transition
#1
Cole Mathis, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Sara Imari Walker
It is well known that life on Earth alters its environment over evolutionary and geological timescales. An important open question is whether this is a result of evolutionary optimization or a universal feature of life. In the latter case, the origin of life would be coincident with a shift in environmental conditions. Here we present a model for the emergence of life in which replicators are explicitly coupled to their environment through the recycling of a finite supply of resources. The model exhibits a dynamic, first-order phase transition from nonlife to life, where the life phase is distinguished by selection on replicators...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319344/mesoscale-polarization-by-geometric-frustration-in-columnar-supramolecular-crystals
#2
Christoph S Zehe, Joshua A Hill, Nicholas P Funnell, Klaus Kreger, Kasper P van der Zwan, Andrew L Goodwin, Hans-Werner Schmidt, Jürgen Senker
Columnar supramolecular phases with polarization along the columnar axis have potential for the development of ultrahigh-density memories as every single column might function as a memory element. By investigating structure and disorder for four columnar benzene-1,3,5-trisamides by total X-ray scattering and DFT calculations, we demonstrate that the column orientation, and thus the columnar dipole moment, is receptive to geometric frustration if the columns aggregate in a hexagonal rod packing. The frustration suppresses conventional antiferroelectric order and heightens the sensitivity towards collective intercolumnar packing effects...
March 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315125/evidence-of-non-linear-associations-between-frustration-related-prefrontal-cortex-activation-and-the-normal-abnormal-spectrum-of-irritability-in-young-children
#3
Adam S Grabell, Yanwei Li, Jeff W Barker, Lauren S Wakschlag, Theodore J Huppert, Susan B Perlman
Burgeoning interest in early childhood irritability has recently turned toward neuroimaging techniques to better understand normal versus abnormal irritability using dimensional methods. Current accounts largely assume a linear relationship between poor frustration management, an expression of irritability, and its underlying neural circuitry. However, the relationship between these constructs may not be linear (i.e., operate differently at varying points across the irritability spectrum), with implications for how early atypical irritability is identified and treated...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314495/global-service-learning-and-student-athletes-a-model-for-enhanced-academic-inclusion-at-the-university-of-washington
#4
Holly M Barker
BACKGROUND: The University of Washington (UW) continues to create opportunities to engage all students in transformational undergraduate educational opportunities, such as study abroad. OBJECTIVE: This article describes specific efforts to increase inclusion for student-athletes in study abroad, particularly for first-generation students, including low-income students of color. Given the overrepresentation of students of color in sports vis-à-vis the larger student body at predominantly white institutions (PWIs), like UW, service-learning in communities beyond campus boundaries provides opportunities to apply international learning to a local context and to create a continuum of learning...
November 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304059/frustrated-lewis-pair-behavior-of-a-neutral-scandium-complex
#5
Kejian Chang, Xin Xu
An easily-accessible neutral scandium complex Sc[OC(CH3)2CH2PPh2][O-2,6-tBu2-C6H3]2[THF] behaves as a reactive Sc/P frustrated Lewis pair, which when added to organic and inorganic substrates e.g. carbonyl compounds, transition-metal chlorides, and diazoalkane compounds, yields unique and intriguing addition products such as a Sc/Rh heterobimetallic complex and a Sc phosphazine complex.
March 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303075/epistemic-injustice-and-illness
#6
Ian James Kidd, Havi Carel
This article analyses the phenomenon of epistemic injustice within contemporary healthcare. We begin by detailing the persistent complaints patients make about their testimonial frustration and hermeneutical marginalization, and the negative impact this has on their care. We offer an epistemic analysis of this problem using Miranda Fricker's account of epistemic injustice. We detail two types of epistemic injustice, testimonial and hermeneutical, and identify the negative stereotypes and structural features of modern healthcare practices that generate them...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303014/a-young-child-with-a-history-of-wheeze
#7
James Paton, Patrick Bindels, Ann McMurray, Jodie Biggins, Rebecca Nantanda, Marianne Stubbe Østergaard
The parents of a 3-year old boy are anxious about their son who has recurring episodes of wheezing. They are frustrated that no one seems to be able to give them answers to their questions and would like a referral to a specialist. Does their son have asthma and what is the prognosis; how can the recurrent wheezing be managed and can the risk of asthma be reduced; are there lifestyle changes that could improve the environment and avoid triggers? Communication and support from the family practice team were essential...
March 16, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301618/dermatologists-collaborating-with-payers-to-optimize-coverage-policies
#8
David A Amato, William N Malatestinic, Matthew C Palmgren, Steven R Feldman
Dermatologists are frustrated by payer constraints that limit their ability to optimize patient treatment. They can benefit from understanding the payer formulary process and places in that process where they can exert influence. <p>Collaboration between dermatologists and payers could improve access to medication not only for individual patients, but for the entire dermatologic patient population.</p> <p><em>J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(3):228-232.</em></p>.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300040/spin-liquid-and-infinitesimal-disorder-driven-cluster-spin-glass-in-the-kagome-lattice
#9
M Schmidt, F M Zimmer, S G Magalhaes
The interplay between geometric frustration (GF) and bond disorder is studied in the Ising kagome lattice within a cluster approach. The model considers antiferromagnetic short-range couplings and long-range intercluster disordered interactions. The replica formalism is used to obtain an effective single cluster model from where the thermodynamics is analyzed by exact diagonalization. We found that the presence of GF can introduce cluster freezing at very low levels of disorder. The system exhibits an entropy plateau followed by a large entropy drop close to the freezing temperature...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298197/what-do-young-australian-women-want-when-talking-to-doctors-about-contraception
#10
Denisa L Goldhammer, Catriona Fraser, Britta Wigginton, Melissa L Harris, Deborah Bateson, Deborah Loxton, Mary Stewart, Jacqueline Coombe, Jayne C Lucke
BACKGROUND: Access to most contraceptives in Australia requires a prescription from a doctor, and it has been shown that doctors can influence women's decision-making with respect to contraception. However, little research has documented how women experience their interactions with doctors within the context of a contraceptive consultation. Understanding such experiences may contribute to our knowledge of factors that may influence women's contraceptive decisions more broadly. METHODS: We report on findings from the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intentions and Decisions (CUPID) survey of young Australian women, a large-scale longitudinal study of 3,795 women aged 18-23 years...
March 15, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298020/the-first-formulation-of-image-based-stereotactic-principles-the-forgotten-work-of-gaston-contremoulins
#11
Cole A Giller, Patrick Mornet, Jean-François Moreau
Although image-based human stereotaxis began with Spiegel and Wycis in 1947, the major principles of radiographic stereotaxis were formulated 50 years earlier by the French scientific photographer Gaston Contremoulins. In 1897, frustrated by the high morbidity of bullet extraction from the brain, the Parisian surgeon Charles Rémy asked Contremoulins to devise a method for bullet localization using the then new technology of x-rays. In doing so, Contremoulins conceived of many of the modern principles of stereotaxis, including the use of a reference frame, radiopaque fiducials for registration, images to locate the target in relation to the frame, phantom devices to locate the target in relation to the fiducial marks, and the use of an adjustable pointer to guide the surgical approach...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297881/epidemic-spreading-on-evolving-signed-networks
#12
M Saeedian, N Azimi-Tafreshi, G R Jafari, J Kertesz
Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences people's willingness to contact others: A "friendly" contact may be turned to "unfriendly" to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected disease-spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heider's theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296272/ergonomic-analysis-of-the-surgical-position-in-functional-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#13
Vijay R Ramakrishnan, Benjamin M Milam
BACKGROUND: Ergonomics is the methodologic study of people's efficiency in their work environment and is based on anatomy, physiology, psychology, and engineering. Although highly studied in other work environments, little attention has been paid to surgeons until the landmark survey by Park et al in 2010. Many unique aspects of endoscopic surgery amplify task-related physical discomfort, and, because of these issues, we aimed to study the physical fatigue effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) performed in the standing and sitting positions...
March 15, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294274/discovery-of-hierarchical-superstructures-in-block-copolymers-by-integrating-different-liquid-crystalline-interactions
#14
Wei Wei, Zhichao Wu, Mingjun Huang, Chih-Hao Hsu, Yu Liu, Xinlin Zhang, Huiming Xiong
Hierarchically assembled superstructures of block copolymers are discovered by introduction of the competition of anisotropy attributed from liquid crystalline ordering and nano-phase separation. When the two prototypical fields of liquid crystals (LCs), smectics (S) and nematics (N), are adjoined within the framework of diblock copolymers (S-N) in a variety of precisely tuned compositions, a novel class of superlattices with an interdigitated array of smectic layers between the nearest lamellae or cylinders are observed...
March 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294211/borocation-catalysis
#15
P Eisenberger, C M Crudden
The synthesis, stability and catalytic reactivity of borocations are described in the context of their reaction in frustrated Lewis pair-type processes. The reactivity of these unique Lewis acids can be predicted based on the number of substituents and their ability to stabilize the positive charge on boron. Tricoordiante borenium ions prove to be the most catalytically relevant and their use in the catalytic transformations of organic molecules is described.
March 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294118/ground-state-selection-under-pressure-in-the-quantum-pyrochlore-magnet-yb2ti2o7
#16
E Kermarrec, J Gaudet, K Fritsch, R Khasanov, Z Guguchia, C Ritter, K A Ross, H A Dabkowska, B D Gaulin
A quantum spin liquid is a state of matter characterized by quantum entanglement and the absence of any broken symmetry. In condensed matter, the frustrated rare-earth pyrochlore magnets Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, so-called spin ices, exhibit a classical spin liquid state with fractionalized thermal excitations (magnetic monopoles). Evidence for a quantum spin ice, in which the magnetic monopoles become long range entangled and an emergent quantum electrodynamics arises, seems within reach. The magnetic properties of the quantum spin ice candidate Yb2Ti2O7 have eluded a global understanding and even the presence or absence of static magnetic order at low temperatures is controversial...
March 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294022/delayed-discharge-at-the-heart-of-the-nhs-crisis
#17
Alison Moore
There are no winners when a patient's discharge from hospital is delayed. The frustration is felt by the patient, their family and the healthcare professionals caring for the patient. Ultimately, the entire health system is affected, as a badly-needed bed can't be used for other patients.
March 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293204/what-are-the-ingredients-for-an-inequity-paradigm-manipulating-the-experimenter-s-involvement-in-an-inequity-task-with-dogs
#18
Désirée Brucks, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Jennifer L Essler, Jim McGetrick, Ludwig Huber, Friederike Range
Cooperation is only beneficial if the outcome is equally shared between individuals involved in the cooperative interaction. A mechanism to limit the development of unequal cooperation is inequity aversion, the negative reaction to unequal treatment. While inequity aversion has been studied extensively across many animal species, it remains unclear whether inequity aversion elicited in experimental settings is directed to the cooperative partner animal or rather to the experimenter distributing the rewards unequally...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292617/obesity-pandemic-causes-consequences-and-solutions-but-do-we-have-the-will
#19
REVIEW
David R Meldrum, Marge A Morris, Joseph C Gambone
Obesity has become pandemic owing to an obesogenic environment (inexpensive calorie dense food, technologies and structure of communities that reduce or replace physical activity, and inexpensive nonphysical entertainment) and excessive emphasis on low fat intake resulting in excessive intake of simple carbohydrates and sugar. Effects are greater for women owing to their smaller size and extra weight gain with each pregnancy, with 38% of American adult women being obese. Women are responsible for more than three-fourths of the more than 400 billion dollars of excess direct health care expenditures due to obesity...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290678/mo-mo-quintuple-bond-is-highly-reactive-in-h-h-c-h-and-o-h-%C3%AF-bond-cleavages-because-of-the-polarized-electronic-structure-in-transition-state
#20
Yue Chen, Shigeyoshi Sakaki
The recently reported high reactivity of the Mo-Mo quintuple bond of Mo2(N(∧)N)2 (1) {N(∧)N = μ-κ(2)-CH[N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2} in the H-H σ-bond cleavage was investigated. DFT calculations disclosed that the H-H σ-bond cleavage by 1 occurs with nearly no barrier to afford the cis-dihydride species followed by cis-trans isomerization to form the trans-dihydride product, which is consistent with the experimental result. The O-H and C-H bond cleavages by 1 were computationally predicted to occur with moderate (ΔG°(⧧) = 9...
March 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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