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Carolyn M Audet, Milton L Wainberg, Maria A Oquendo, Qiongru Yu, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Cristiane S Duarte, Samuel Martinho, Ann F Green, Lazaro González-Calvo, Troy D Moon
BACKGROUND: An estimated 350 million people live with depression worldwide. In Mozambique, there are no national data quantifying the burden of mental illnesses. With the sixth highest suicide rate in the world, there is strong evidence of an unmet mental health need. We conducted a survey to measure the prevalence of depression among female heads of household and assess individual, social, and cultural risk factors associated with a positive depression screening. METHODS: This survey was conducted across 14 rural districts in central Mozambique in 2014...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Chenglong Wang, Lin Chen, Dali Mu, Minqiang Xin, Jie Luan
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic-assisted transaxillary dual-plane (EATD) technique is a popular procedure for breast augmentation, especially for Chinese women. However, frustration is often expressed by plastic surgeons when first attempting EATD surgery. Simulation-based teaching is beneficial for EATD training, but it is expensive. This study presents a low-cost simulator to help plastic surgeons exercise psychomotor skills during EATD surgery. METHODS: The low-cost simulator was invented by Dr Jie Luan (the senior author) and made of some easily available materials including a mannequin, a T-shirt printed the bottom anatomical structure of the chest, the order of dissection, and the potential bleeding spot, and an elastic compression garment printed the upper anatomical structure and the cut-off position to sever the pectoralis major muscle...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
A Sapkota, B G Ueland, V K Anand, N S Sangeetha, D L Abernathy, M B Stone, J L Niedziela, D C Johnston, A Kreyssig, A I Goldman, R J McQueeney
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the itinerant antiferromagnet CaCo_{2-y}As_{2} at a temperature of 8 K reveal two orthogonal planes of scattering perpendicular to the Co square lattice in reciprocal space, demonstrating the presence of effective one-dimensional spin interactions. These results are shown to arise from near-perfect bond frustration within the J_{1}-J_{2} Heisenberg model on a square lattice with ferromagnetic J_{1} and hence indicate that the extensive previous experimental and theoretical study of the J_{1}-J_{2} Heisenberg model on local-moment square spin lattices should be expanded to include itinerant spin systems...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Catherine Saxon, Paul Fulbrook, Kwun Fong, Chantal F Ski
AIM: To understand the experiences of high-risk respiratory patients undergoing bronchoscopy with conscious sedation. BACKGROUND: Due to possible complications, high-risk respiratory patients are usually given smaller, cautious doses of sedation and analgesia for bronchoscopy. Described as 'conscious sedation', this facilitates depression of the patient's consciousness without causing respiratory compromise. Previously, studies have investigated patient experience using quantitative methods...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Yongxiang Gao, Violet Farkas, Roel P A Dullens, Dirk G A L Aarts
Confocal microscopy was used to directly observe the structural coarsening of the first layer of short colloidal rods sedimented onto a flat wall. Based on an image analysis algorithm we devised, quantitative information on the location, orientation and length of each particle can be extracted with high precision. At high density the system undergoes structural arrest, and becomes trapped in a disordered state of randomly arranged filaments that are composed of side-by-side aligned rods. The frustration of structural order is signalled by a new peak that emerges in the radial distribution function...
October 20, 2017: Soft Matter
Andrea Pica, Giuseppe Graziano
In a recent article, Kremer and co-workers have combined NMR measurements and very long, all-atom MD simulations to strengthen their original claim that PNIPAM cononsolvency in water-methanol solutions is driven by the ability of MeOH molecules to bridge different monomers far away along the polymeric chain. In this comment, the results presented by Kremer and co-workers are reviewed, analyzed, and questioned regarding their ability to provide support to the bridging mechanism. Here, some pieces of evidence are provided to show that: (1) the solvent-excluded volume effect plays always a fundamental role in polymer collapse; (2) PNIPAM cononsolvency is caused by the geometric-energetic frustration experienced by the polymer when it can interact with both water and methanol molecules at the same time...
October 20, 2017: Soft Matter
C Liu, A Mafety, J A Queyroux, C W Wilson, H Zhang, K Béneut, G Le Marchand, B Baptiste, P Dumas, G Garbarino, F Finocchi, J S Loveday, F Pietrucci, A M Saitta, F Datchi, S Ninet
Water and ammonia are considered major components of the interiors of the giant icy planets and their satellites, which has motivated their exploration under high P-T conditions. Exotic forms of these pure ices have been revealed at extreme (~megabar) pressures, notably symmetric, ionic, and superionic phases. Here we report on an extensive experimental and computational study of the high-pressure properties of the ammonia monohydrate compound forming from an equimolar mixture of water and ammonia. Our experiments demonstrate that relatively mild pressure conditions (7...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Jaanus Harro
Measurement of anxiety is desirable for the benefit of drug development and understanding the brain function and mental well-being. Animal models offer the advantages of detailed neurobiological analysis, experimental manipulation of specific components in the brain circuits that underlie psychopathology, and the possibility of screening novel drugs with clinical potential. A large variety of animal models of anxiety and screening tests of anxiolytics is currently in use. While their value in advancing the knowledge and predicting therapeutic success of drugs is unquestionable, the expectations have grown much higher, and the frustration over absence of novel successful drug concepts is rising...
October 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Aristides I Cruz, Steven F DeFroda, Joseph A Gil, Heather Hansen, Alexandre Bolous, Michaela Procaccini, Mark R Zonfrillo
BACKGROUND: Long arm cast immobilization after operative and nonoperative treatment of pediatric upper extremity fractures is common. The use of a sling to aid in carrying the casted extremity as well as provide further immobilization is also common practice. Off-the-shelf slings vary in quality and fit, can be confusing for parents/patients to apply, and lead to frustration and dissatisfaction with its use. The purpose of this investigation was to compare patient/parent centered outcomes after the use of a customized sling compared with a standard sling by utilizing a prospective, randomized-controlled trial...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Han-Chung Huang, Gen-Yih Liao, Kay-Ling Chiu, Ching-I Teng
Online games can frustrate their gamers, but little was known about how such frustration impacts gamer loyalty. Because novice and experienced gamers may respond differently to frustration, this study investigates how gamers' frustration influences their loyalty and how this influence may differ between novice and experienced gamers. Because of the complexity of this issue, multiple theories were synthesized to develop the theoretical model. This study collected responses from 558 online gamers. Findings indicate that frustration is positively related to novice gamers' participation in task teams, and subsequently their loyalty...
October 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Alexey N Bilyachenko, Alexey Yalymov, Marina Dronova, Alexander A Korlyukov, Anna V Vologzhanina, Marina A Es'kova, Jérôme Long, Joulia Larionova, Yannick Guari, Pavel V Dorovatovskii, Elena S Shubina, Mikhail M Levitsky
A new family of bi-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanickel cagelike phenylsilsesquioxanes 1-6 was obtained by self-assembly and transmetalation procedures. Their crystal structures were established by single-crystal X-ray analysis, and features of crystal packing relevant to the network formation were studied by a topological analysis. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 are isolated architectures, while 3, 5, and 6 present extended 1D and 3D networks. The investigation of magnetic properties revealed the presence of ferro- (1 and 3-5) or antiferromagnetic (2 and 6) interactions between Ni(II) ions, giving rise in the most cases (1, 2, and 4-6) to the presence of a slow relaxation of the magnetization, which can originate from the spin frustration...
October 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Albert Le Floch, Guy Ropars
In human vision, the brain has to select one view of the world from our two eyes. However, the existence of a clear anatomical asymmetry providing an initial imbalance for normal neural development is still not understood. Using a so-called foveascope, we found that for a cohort of 30 normal adults, the two blue cone-free areas at the centre of the foveas are asymmetrical. The noise-stimulated afterimage dominant eye introduced here corresponds to the circular blue cone-free area, while the non-dominant eye corresponds to the diffuse and irregular elliptical outline...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
DePorres Cormier, Marie Reilly, Amy Young, Marilyn Augustyn
Dexter is a 12-year-old boy who presents with his maternal grandmother for follow-up to primary care for secondary encopresis. Dexter presented, 18 months ago, with a 3-month history of secondary encopresis. At that time, a comprehensive assessment revealed functional constipation resulting in encopresis. Dexter's symptoms resolved with a combination of medication management and behavioral strategies; laxatives were discontinued 12 months ago.Dexter's grandmother reports that for the past 6 months, her grandson developed encopresis once again...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Esther Helmich, Laura Diachun, Radha Joseph, Kori LaDonna, Nelleke Noeverman-Poel, Lorelei Lingard, Sayra Cristancho
CONTEXT: Dealing with emotions is critical for medical trainees' professional development. Taking a sociocultural and narrative approach to understanding emotions, we studied complex clinical situations as a specific context in which emotions are evoked and influenced by the social environment. We sought to understand how medical trainees respond to emotions that arise in those situations. METHODS: In an international constructivist grounded theory study, 29 trainees drew two rich pictures of complex clinical situations, one exciting and one frustrating...
October 16, 2017: Medical Education
Alan Farhan, Charlotte F Petersen, Scott Dhuey, Luca Anghinolfi, Qi Hang Qin, Michael Saccone, Sven Velten, Clemens Wuth, Sebastian Gliga, Paula Mellado, Mikko J Alava, Andreas Scholl, Sebastiaan van Dijken
Geometrical frustration occurs when entities in a system, subject to given lattice constraints, are hindered to simultaneously minimize their local interactions. In magnetism, systems incorporating geometrical frustration are fascinating, as their behavior is not only hard to predict, but also leads to the emergence of exotic states of matter. Here, we provide a first look into an artificial frustrated system, the dipolar trident lattice, where the balance of competing interactions between nearest-neighbor magnetic moments can be directly controlled, thus allowing versatile tuning of geometrical frustration and manipulation of ground state configurations...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Alejandro Ruiz, Alex Frano, Nicholas P Breznay, Itamar Kimchi, Toni Helm, Iain Oswald, Julia Y Chan, R J Birgeneau, Zahirul Islam, James G Analytis
Magnetic honeycomb iridates are thought to show strongly spin-anisotropic exchange interactions which, when highly frustrated, lead to an exotic state of matter known as the Kitaev quantum spin liquid. However, in all known examples these materials magnetically order at finite temperatures, the scale of which may imply weak frustration. Here we show that the application of a relatively small magnetic field drives the three-dimensional magnet β-Li2IrO3 from its incommensurate ground state into a quantum correlated paramagnet...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
Mark M Davis, Cristina M Tato
Preventing morbidity and mortality from infectious disease through the development and use of effective vaccines is one of medicine's greatest achievements and greatest frustrations. We are struggling with improving vaccine efficacy for some of the most globally widespread diseases, such as malaria and tuberculosis. In an effort to gain an edge, systems biology approaches have begun to be employed to more broadly investigate the pathways leading to protective vaccine responses. As such, we are now at a critical juncture, needing to evaluate how fruitful these approaches have been...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Juyeon Oh, Jung A Kim
OBJECTIVE: The Zarit Burden Interview has been used in many studies to assess caregiver burden in family caregivers of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the factor structure of the Zarit Burden Interview in the caregivers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Zarit Burden Interview in family caregivers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients using exploratory factor analysis. METHODS: The exploratory factor analysis was performed using generalized least squares with oblique rotation in a sample of 202 family caregivers...
October 16, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Lei Qin, Guojun Zhou, You-Zhu Yu, Hiroyuki Nojiri, Christian Schröder, Richard E P Winpenny, Yan-Zhen Zheng
The creation of a perfect hollow nanoscopic sphere of metal centres is clearly an unrealisable synthetic challenge. It is however an inspirational challenge, from the viewpoint of chemical architecture and also as finite molecular species may provide unique microscopic insight into the origin and onset of phenomena such as topological spin-frustration effects found in infinite 2D and 3D systems. Herein, we report a series of high symmetry gadolinium(III) (S = 7/2) polyhedra, Gd20, Gd32, Gd50 and Gd60, to test an approach based on assembling polymetallic fragments that contain different polygons...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
A P Jillella, V K Kota
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a hyper-acute illness and presents with profound cytopenias in most patients and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Excellent treatment options are now available with drugs such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), arsenic trioxide (ATO), anthracyclines and cytarabine. The outcome in APL has improved tremendously in the last 50years due to better understanding of the disease, development of effective targeted agents and improvement in supportive care. Carefully selected groups of patients treated in large multi-center trials on a protocol and in experienced centers have shown survival rates in excess of 85%...
September 18, 2017: Blood Reviews
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