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J F Ji, Y P Zhao
The article outlined the speeches of Surgeon Branch during the Annual Scientific Conference of Chinese Medical Association in 2018.From the perspectives of inheritance, innovation, standardization and improvement, it summarizes the major progress of Chinese surgery in 2017 and introduces the objectives and action plans of Chinese Medical Association Branch of Surgery this year.
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Lea M Bartsch, Henrik Singmann, Klaus Oberauer
Refreshing and elaboration are cognitive processes assumed to underlie verbal working-memory maintenance and assumed to support long-term memory formation. Whereas refreshing refers to the attentional focussing on representations, elaboration refers to linking representations in working memory into existing semantic networks. We measured the impact of instructed refreshing and elaboration on working and long-term memory separately, and investigated to what extent both processes are distinct in their contributions to working as well as long-term memory...
March 19, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Lijie Gong, Yingjie Xia, Zhenyuan Qian, Ji Shi, Jungang Luo, Guangyuan Song, Ji Xu, Zaiyuan Ye
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Although the mortality rate of patients with GC has improved, it remains a significant health issue. The MYC proto-oncogene protein serves key roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, transformation and apoptosis. Previous studies have identified the abnormal expression of MYC-binding protein (MYCBP) during tumorigenesis in multiple types of cancer. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that the abnormal expression of MYCBP contributes to the invasion and migration of human cancer types, including colon cancer and glioma; however, its influence on GC remains unclear...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jadwiga Spyrka, Grzegorz Hess
The consequences of stress depend on characteristics of the stressor, including the duration of exposure, severity, and predictability. Exposure of mice to repeated neck restraint has been shown to bidirectionally modulate the potential for long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) in a manner dependent on the number of restraint repetitions, but the influence of repeated brief neck restraint on electrophysiology of single DG neurons has not yet been investigated. Here, we aimed at finding the effects of 1, 3, 7, 14, or 21 daily neck restraint sessions lasting 10 minutes on electrophysiological characteristics of DG granule cells as well as excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to these neurons...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Fauzia A Khan, Alan F Merry
The safety of anesthesia characteristic of high-income countries today is not matched in low-resource settings with poor infrastructure, shortages of anesthesia providers, essential drugs, equipment, and supplies. Health care is delivered through complex systems. Achieving sustainable widespread improvement globally will require an understanding of how to influence such systems. Health outcomes depend not only on a country's income, but also on how resources are allocated, and both vary substantially, between and within countries...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Simone Franceschini, Emanuele Gandola, Marco Martinoli, Lorenzo Tancioni, Michele Scardi
Species distribution is the result of complex interactions that involve environmental parameters as well as biotic factors. However, methodological approaches that consider the use of biotic variables during the prediction process are still largely lacking. Here, a cascaded Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) approach is proposed in order to increase the accuracy of fish species occurrence estimates and a case study for Leucos aula in NE Italy is presented as a demonstration case. Potentially useful biotic information (i...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yongjie Wang, Kunyuan Lu, Lu Han, Zeke Liu, Guozheng Shi, Honghua Fang, Si Chen, Tian Wu, Fan Yang, Mengfan Gu, Sijie Zhou, Xufeng Ling, Xun Tang, Jiawei Zheng, Maria Antonietta Loi, Wanli Ma
Current efforts on lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) solar cells are mostly paid to the device architecture engineering and postsynthetic surface modification, while very rare work regarding the optimization of PbS synthesis is reported. Here, PbS QDs are successfully synthesized using PbO and PbAc2  · 3H2 O as the lead sources. QD solar cells based on PbAc-PbS have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.82% (and independently certificated values of 10.62%), which is significantly higher than the PCE of 9...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Shane Sinclair, Thomas F Hack, Shelley Raffin-Bouchal, Susan McClement, Kelli Stajduhar, Pavneet Singh, Neil A Hagen, Aynharan Sinnarajah, Harvey Max Chochinov
BACKGROUND: Healthcare providers are considered the primary conduit of compassion in healthcare. Although most healthcare providers desire to provide compassion, and patients and families expect to receive it, an evidence-based understanding of the construct and its associated dimensions from the perspective of healthcare providers is needed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate healthcare providers' perspectives and experiences of compassion in order to generate an empirically derived, clinically informed model...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Tarja Poikkeus, Riitta Suhonen, Jouko Katajisto, Helena Leino-Kilpi
BACKGROUND: Organizations and nurse leaders do not always effectively support nurses' ethical competence. More information is needed about nurses' perceptions of this support and relevant factors to improve it. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine relationships between nurses' perceived organizational and individual support, ethical competence, ethical safety, and work satisfaction. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted...
March 12, 2018: Health Care Management Review
Pawan Kumar, Purushottam Jangid, Sujata Sethi
Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and remains a huge burden on the society. In spite of that persons with mental illness are marginalized and mental health is largely being neglected. There is an acute shortage of mental health professionals in India, and also there is inadequate exposure to psychiatry during the medical undergraduate training in India. Moreover, the perception towards psychiatry and psychiatrists is not favorable among medical fraternity and policy makers. This is reflected in the fact that in spite of clearly deficient undergraduate psychiatry curriculum, no steps have been taken towards improving it and recommendations are not being implemented in true spirit...
March 6, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Katrin Gekeler, Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Helmut Sachs, Robert E MacLaren, Katarina Stingl, Eberhart Zrenner, Florian Gekeler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the efforts to restore vision through subretinal implants in patients with degenerative retinal diseases. In addition to the current technique and its latest improvements, it will focus on the surgical technique of implantation as well as explantation and reimplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The durability of the current subretinal implant RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS has increased substantially compared with the predecessor model RETINA IMPLANT Alpha IMS...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Sara Melo
This article examines how the built environment impacts, and is impacted by, healthcare staff day to day practice, care outcomes and the design of new quality and patient safety (Q&PS) projects. It also explores how perceptions of the built environment affect inter-professional dynamics. In doing so, it contributes to the overlooked interplay between the physical, social, and symbolic dimensions associated with a hospital's place. The study draws on 46 in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted at a large teaching hospital in Portugal formed by two buildings...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Cori Russell, Samip Sheth, Douglas Jacoby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of our current understanding of combination lipid-lowering therapies intended for dyslipidemia treatment and cardiovascular disease prevention. First, we analyze recent statin and non-statin combination therapy guidelines and clinical studies since the publication of 2013 American College of Cardiology Cholesterol Guidelines. Second, we examine the clinical utility of non-statin agents alone and in combination in terms of LDL-C lowering and ASCVD risk reduction...
March 7, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Marika Cinausero, Karim Rihawi, Francesca Sperandi, Barbara Melotti, Andrea Ardizzoni
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm that typically arises from mesothelial surfaces of the pleural cavity. Despite treatment improvements, it carries a dismal prognosis. The majority of patients either have unresectable disease or are not candidates for surgery due to medical comorbidities or old age. For such patients, chemotherapy (CT) represents the gold-standard treatment. To date, combination CT with cisplatin plus pemetrexed represents the most widely used regimen in first-line setting for patients with unresectable MPM...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Jon Kaufman, Kelly Reichert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Bhairab Mondal, Shylaja Ramlal, Padma S Lavu, Bhavanashri N, Joseph Kingston
A simple, sensitive and selective colorimetric biosensor for the detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was developed using SEB-binding aptamer (SEB2) as recognition element and unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The assay is based on color change from red to purple due to conformational change of aptamer in the presence of SEB, and the phenomenon of salt-induced AuNPs aggregation which could be monitored by naked eye or UV-vis spectrometer. Results showed that the AuNPs can effectively differentiate the SEB induced conformational change of the aptamer in the presence of a given high salt concentration...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Minki Sin, Won-Seok Kim, Kyujin Cho, Sungmin Cho, Nam-Jong Paik
The conventional tools to measure spasticity exhibited insufficient test-retest or inter-rater reliability. Therefore, the spasticity measurement using an isokinetic device has been proposed to improve these reliabilities of the angle of catch (AoC) measurements; however, this proposal has not been investigated in a standardized manner. In this study, the comparison of the AoC measurement was performed using two modes (isokinetic and manual motion) to investigate whether the standardized isokinetic motion could increase the reliabilities...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Laurene Aydon, Margo Zimmer, Mary Sharp
AIM: The aim of this study was to highlight the incidence of unplanned extubation (UE) and identify associated factors in our neonatal population. METHODS: This study was a prospective audit. RESULTS: A specifically designed audit tool was used to capture UE events; 182 neonates required mechanical ventilation for 863 days. There were 41 episodes of UE. The UE rate was 4.75 per 100 days of ventilation. At the time of UE, median gestational age of patients was 27...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Ahmadreza Ghaffarizadeh, Randy Heiland, Samuel H Friedman, Shannon M Mumenthaler, Paul Macklin
Many multicellular systems problems can only be understood by studying how cells move, grow, divide, interact, and die. Tissue-scale dynamics emerge from systems of many interacting cells as they respond to and influence their microenvironment. The ideal "virtual laboratory" for such multicellular systems simulates both the biochemical microenvironment (the "stage") and many mechanically and biochemically interacting cells (the "players" upon the stage). PhysiCell-physics-based multicellular simulator-is an open source agent-based simulator that provides both the stage and the players for studying many interacting cells in dynamic tissue microenvironments...
February 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Rodolfo Abreu, Alberto Leal, Patrícia Figueiredo
The simultaneous acquisition of electroencephalography (EEG) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a very promising non-invasive technique for the study of human brain function. Despite continuous improvements, it remains a challenging technique, and a standard methodology for data analysis is yet to be established. Here we review the methodologies that are currently available to address the challenges at each step of the data analysis pipeline. We start by surveying methods for pre-processing both EEG and fMRI data...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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