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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535286/invited-commentary-is-strenuous-activity-good-for-you-the-legacy-of-ralph-paffenbarger
#1
Lewis H Kuller
Ralph Paffenbarger, Jr, MD, DrPH (1922-2007), was initially trained as an infectious disease epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (now the Bloomberg School of Public Health). He was the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service officer in the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service class. He joined the National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) in its very early days and later became a faculty member at Stanford University and Harvard University...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535109/intranasal-steroid-use-for-otitis-media-with-effusion-ongoing-opportunities-for-quality-improvement
#2
David E Wang, Derek J Lam, Angela M Bellmunt, Richard M Rosenfeld, Allison K Ikeda, Jennifer J Shin
Objectives Our objectives were (1) to assess patterns of intranasal steroid administration when otitis media with effusion (OME) has been diagnosed in children, (2) to investigate whether usage varies according to visit setting, and (3) to determine if practice gaps are such that quality improvement could be tracked. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of an administrative database. Subjects and Methods National Ambulatory and Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, 2005 to 2012; univariate, multivariate, and stratified analyses of intranasal steroid usage were performed...
May 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532202/experiences-of-establishing-an-academic-early-phase-clinical-trials-unit
#3
Sarah R Brown, Debbie Sherratt, Gill Booth, Julia Brown, Fiona Collinson, Walter Gregory, Louise Flanagan
BACKGROUND: Early phase trials are essential in drug development, determining appropriate dose levels and assessing preliminary activity. These trials are undertaken by industry and academia, with increasing collaborations between the two. There is pressure to perform these trials quickly, safely, and robustly. However, there are inherent differences between developing and managing early phase, compared to late phase, drug trials. This article describes an approach to establishing an academically led early phase trial portfolio, highlighting lessons learned and sharing experiences...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530441/a-pilot-observational-study-of-an-acupressure-acupuncture-intervention-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Lana R Warren, Patricia A Rao, David C Paton
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would tolerate an acupressure/acupuncture intervention and whether parents would adhere to a twice-weekly, 8-week intervention protocol. Second, to further understand best measures to use to capture impact of intervention on behavioral and regulatory functions. DESIGN: This is an observational pilot study with pre-, mid-, and postintervention measures. SETTINGS/LOCATION: The intervention was carried out in a private practice office in a large metropolitan area...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528354/comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-resistance-training-in-women-with-chronic-computer-related-neck-pain-a-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Xiao Li, Caina Lin, Cuicui Liu, Songjian Ke, Qing Wan, Haijie Luo, Zhuxi Huang, Wenjun Xin, Chao Ma, Shaoling Wu
BACKGROUND: Chronic computer-related neck pain is common among office workers. Studies have proposed neck strengthening exercise as a therapy to pain relieving and function improvement. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different loading resistance trainings and we hypothesized that women with work-related neck pain could benefit more from progressive resistance training for pain and function recovery. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted and subjects characterized by monotonous jobs were recruited...
May 20, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528245/can-inequality-be-tamed-through-boundary-work-a-qualitative-study-of-health-promotion-aimed-at-reducing-health-inequalities
#6
Pia Vivian Pedersen, Ulf Hjelmar, Mette Terp Høybye, Morten Hulvej Rod
This paper examines the organisational dynamics that arise in health promotion aimed at reducing health inequalities. The paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork among public health officers in Danish municipalities and qualitative interviews from an evaluation of health promotion programmes targeting homeless and other marginalised citizens. Analytically, we focus on 'boundary work', i.e. the ways in which social and symbolic boundaries are established, maintained, transgressed and negotiated, both at the administrative level and among frontline professionals...
May 10, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520594/amplivue-is-a-practical-and-timely-test-for-the-detection-of-hsv-from-keratitis-specimens
#7
Regis P Kowalski, Lisa M Karenchak, Deepinder K Dhaliwal, Alex Mammen
OBJECTIVE: The laboratory diagnostic detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from eye samples must be practical, timely, and definitive for appropriate therapy. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or cell culture can be definitive, HSV results can be delayed. Enzyme Linked Virus Inducible System (ELVIS) is a test that can provide results within 24 to 48 hr. We evaluated "AmpliVue HSV 1+2 Assay" as a molecular colorimetric test that can detect HSV (1 or 2) DNA within 1 hr. METHODS: Cornea/conjunctival samples were tested retrospectively with AmpliVue against 53 true-positive and 20 true-negative specimens collected in chlamydial transport medium...
May 16, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513897/quality-and-survival-of-direct-light-activated-composite-resin-restorations-in-posterior-teeth-a-5-to-20-year-retrospective-longitudinal-study
#8
REVIEW
Ernesto Borgia, Rosario Baron, Jose Luis Borgia
PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical success of direct light-activated composite resin restorations in posterior teeth. The quality of the margins and occlusal surfaces were evaluated, as well as their survival, according to their extensions and locations. The clinical performance of posterior composite resin restorations with different compositions were compared. All restorations were performed by the first author in his private practice, in a 5- to 20-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several types of composite resins, provided by different manufacturers, were placed in posterior teeth, after isolation with rubber dams...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505701/-compatibility-of-work-and-family-life-survey-of-physicians-in-the-munich-metropolitan-area
#9
Meike Lauchart, Philipp Ascher, Karin Kesel, Sabine Weber, Beatrice Grabein, Bertram Schneeweiss, Cordula Fischer-Truestedt, Michael Schoenberg, Gudrun Rogler, Claudia Borelli
Aim Investigation of the compatibility of work and family life for physicians in the Munich metropolitan area. Methods Survey of a representative sample of 1,800 physicians using a questionnaire. Results Men were less satisfied (7% very satisfied vs. 21%) with compatibility between work and family life than women. The group least satisfied overall was hospital-based physicians (p=0.000, chi-square=122.75). Women rather than men cut back their career due to children, perceived their professional advancement as impaired, desisted from establishing private practice or quit hospital employment altogether...
May 15, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505700/-the-role-of-municipalities-in-lower-saxony-for-future-physician-s-care-a-survey-of-mayors-and-district-administrators
#10
Bertolt Kuhn, Jost Steinhäuser, Sveja Eberhard, Rolf Hufenbach, Volker Eric Amelung
Background Comprehensive outpatient medical care is being increasingly threatened due to the decreasing willingness of physicians to establish their practices in rural areas. Partly, municipalities feel impelled to support doctors setting up their practices with their own resources. The aim of this study was to get the community perspective on the ambulatory care situation and to examine the role and influence of the local authorities. Methods The mayors (n=411) and district administrators (n=38) in Lower Saxony received a self-developed written questionnaire in September 2015 (comprehensive survey)...
May 15, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504064/implications-of-the-21st-century-cures-act-for-the-behavioral-and-social-sciences-at-the-national-institutes-of-health
#11
William T Riley, Katherine D Blizinsky
The 21st Century Cures Act provides funding for key initiatives relevant to the behavioral and social sciences and includes administrative provisions that facilitate health research and increase the privacy protections of research participants. At about the same time as the passage of the Act, the National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research released its Strategic Plan 2017-2021, which addresses three scientific priorities: (a) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research; (b) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences; and (c) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice...
June 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499393/reversing-the-pipeline-implementing-public-health-evidence-based-guidance-in-english-local-government
#12
Lou Atkins, Michael P Kelly, Clare Littleford, Gillian Leng, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: In the UK, responsibility for many public health functions was transferred in 2013 from the National Health Service (NHS) to local government; a very different political context and one without the NHS history of policy and practice being informed by evidence-based guidelines. A problem this move presented was whether evidence-based guidelines would be seen as relevant, useful and implementable within local government. This study investigates three aspects of implementing national evidence-based recommendations for public health within a local government context: influences on implementation, how useful guidelines are perceived to be and whether the linear evidence-guidelines-practice model is considered relevant...
May 12, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498841/awareness-and-attitudes-towards-anthrax-and-meat-consumption-practices-among-affected-communities-in-zambia-a-mixed-methods-approach
#13
Doreen Chilolo Sitali, Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Oliver Mweemba, Consolata Kabonesa, Mwinyi Omary Mwinyi, Luke Nyakarahuka, John Bwalya Muma
BACKGROUND: In Zambia, human anthrax cases often occur following cases of animal anthrax. Human behaviour has been implicated in this transmission. The objective of the study was to explore human behavioural patterns that may contribute to outbreaks of anthrax among affected communities. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted in four districts of Zambia from November 2015 to February 2016. A cross sectional survey involving 1,127 respondents, six focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews with professional staff were conducted...
May 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498195/building-health-system-capacity-through-implementation-research-experience-of-inspire-a-multi-country-pmtct-implementation-research-project
#14
Morkor Newman Owiredu, Nita B Bellare, Christine C Chakanyuka Musanhu, Taiwo A Oyelade, Ellen M Thom, Francoise Bigirimana, Chukwuma Anyaike, Michael T Eliya, Angela Mushavi, Eugene A Nyarko, David O Okello, Felicitas R Zawaira
BACKGROUND: The INSPIRE-Integrating and Scaling Up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch-initiative was established as a model partnership of national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) implementation research in 3 high HIV burden countries-Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. INSPIRE aimed to link local research groups with Ministries of Health (MOH), build local research capacity, and demonstrate that implementation research may contribute to improving health care delivery and respond to program challenges...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497587/office-based-procedures-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-esophageal-pathology
#15
REVIEW
David J Wellenstein, Henrieke W Schutte, Henri A M Marres, Jimmie Honings, Peter C Belafsky, Gregory N Postma, Robert P Takes, Guido B van den Broek
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic and therapeutic office-based procedures under topical anesthesia are emerging in the daily practice of laryngologists and head and neck surgeons. Since the introduction of the transnasal esophagoscope, office-based procedures for the esophagus are increasingly performed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature on office-based procedures under topical anesthesia for the esophagus. RESULTS: Transnasal esophagoscopy is an extensively investigated office-based procedure...
May 12, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495028/real-world-clinical-outcomes-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-receiving-canagliflozin-at-a-specialty-diabetes-clinic-subgroup-analysis-by-baseline-hba1c-and-age
#16
June Felice Johnson, Rahul Parsa, Robert A Bailey
PURPOSE: Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has demonstrated effectiveness in patients with T2DM receiving care at a specialty diabetes clinic. We report the outcomes in these patients in subgroups classified by baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and age. METHODS: This subgroup analysis was based on a review of data from the electronic health records of adults with T2DM who were prescribed canagliflozin at a specialty diabetes clinic and who returned for ≥1 follow-up office visit...
May 8, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494404/treatment-and-pattern-of-bone-metastases-in-1094-patients-with-advanced-breast-cancer-results-from-the-prospective-german-tumour-registry-breast-cancer-cohort-study
#17
Jan Schröder, Thomas Fietz, Andreas Köhler, Volker Petersen, Hans Tesch, Lisa Spring, Annette Fleitz, Martina Jänicke, Norbert Marschner
A high proportion of patients with breast cancer develop bone metastases, yet data on routine treatment with bone-targeted agents (BTA) are rare. We report real-life outcome data of patients with breast cancer metastasised to the bone treated by office-based oncologists in Germany. The ongoing, prospective, multicentre, population-based cohort study Tumour Registry Breast Cancer (TMK) was started in 2007 in 140 centres across Germany. This interim analysis of 1094 patients with bone metastases revealed differences among the tumour subtypes: at start of first-line therapy, 36% of the patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive and only 20% of the patients with HR-negative tumours presented with bone-only metastasis...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492452/the-changing-landscape-of-hiv-prevention-in-the-united-states-health-department-experiences-and-local-adaptations-in-response-to-the-national-hiv-aids-strategy-and-high-impact-prevention-approach
#18
Holly H Fisher, Aba Essuon, Tamika Hoyte, Ekaterine Shapatava, Gene Shelley, Aisha Rios, Stephanie Beane, Stacey Bourgeois, Erica Dunbar, Tobey Sapiano
OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention has changed substantially in recent years due to changes in national priorities, biomedical advances, and health care reform. Starting in 2010, motivated by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) High-Impact Prevention (HIP), health departments realigned resources so that cost-effective, evidence-based interventions were targeted to groups at risk in areas most affected by HIV. This analysis describes how health departments in diverse settings were affected by NHAS and HIP...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491236/self-referral-patterns-among-federal-civil-servants-in-oyo-state-south-western-nigeria
#19
Henry Okoli, Taiwo Obembe, Kayode Osungbade, Folashayo Adeniji, David Adewole
INTRODUCTION: Primary health care is widely accepted as the first point of care; yet, individuals requiring healthcare engage in self-referrals to higher levels of care thereby by-passing primary care. Little is known of the extent to which self-referrals are carried out when care is needed. This study thus sought to determine the prevalence of self-referral, its patterns and factors influencing self-referrals amongst federal civil servants in Southwestern Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 federal civil servants who were interviewed using validated and pre-tested interviewer-administered semi structured questionnaires...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486672/-meet-and-greet-intake-appointments-in-primary-care-a-new-pattern-of-patient-intakes
#20
Emily Gard Marshall, Imhokhai Ogah, Beverley Lawson, Richard J Gibson, Frederick Burge
Background.: Family physicians (FPs) are expected to take on new patients fairly and equitably and to not discriminate based on medical or social history. 'Meet and greet' appointments are initial meetings between physicians and prospective patients to establish fit between patient needs and provider scope of practice. The public often views these appointments as discriminatory; however, there is no empirical evidence regarding their prevalence or outcomes. Objectives...
May 9, 2017: Family Practice
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