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antiemetics in AGE in children

Kenji Kishimoto, Keiichiro Kawasaki, Atsuro Saito, Aiko Kozaki, Toshiaki Ishida, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Kosaka
BACKGROUND: Optimal prevention of chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) has not been established for patients receiving cisplatin in divided doses. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and risk factors of CIV in children who received multiple-day cisplatin chemotherapy. PROCEDURE: A total of 24 consecutive pediatric patients (age 0-19 years) who received multiple-day cisplatin chemotherapy in our hospital were enrolled. Patients with relapsed disease or primary intracranial tumor and those who received concurrent radiation therapy were excluded...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Shruthi Suryaprakash, Lai Peng Tham
INTRODUCTION: Emesis is one of the most common adverse events associated with ketamine sedation. However, the predictors of emesis have not been clearly studied among Asian children. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of emesis in local children undergoing intramuscular (IM) ketamine sedation in the emergency department (ED), and identify high-risk groups(s), so that antiemetics may be administered prophylactically. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, all children requiring procedural sedation under IM ketamine in the paediatric ED between 1 April 2013 and 31 January 2015 were included...
December 9, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Roxanna Lefort, Jill V Hunter, Andrea T Cruz, A Chantal Caviness, Thomas G Luerssen, Aderonke Adekunle-Ojo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of the emergency department observation unit (EDOU) for neurologically intact children with closed head injuries (CHIs) and computed tomography (CT) abnormalities. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years with acute CHI, abnormal head CT, and a Glasgow Coma Scales score of 14 or higher admitted to the EDOU of a tertiary care children's hospital from 2007 to 2010. Children with multisystem trauma, nonaccidental trauma, and previous neurosurgical or coagulopathic conditions were excluded...
March 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
Federico Marchetti, Maurizio Bonati, Alessandra Maestro, Davide Zanon, Francesca Rovere, Alberto Arrighini, Egidio Barbi, Paolo Bertolani, Paolo Biban, Liviana Da Dalt, Andrea Guala, Elisa Mazzoni, Anna Pazzaglia, Paolo Francesco Perri, Antonino Reale, Salvatore Renna, Antonio Francesco Urbino, Enrico Valletta, Antonio Vitale, Tiziana Zangardi, Antonio Clavenna, Luca Ronfani
The use of antiemetics for vomiting in acute gastroenteritis in children is still a matter of debate. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial to evaluate whether a single oral dose of ondansetron vs domperidone or placebo improves outcomes in children with gastroenteritis. After failure of initial oral rehydration administration, children aged 1-6 years admitted for gastroenteritis to the pediatric emergency departments of 15 hospitals in Italy were randomized to receive one oral dose of ondansetron (0...
2016: PloS One
Jehan Ahmed Sayed, Mohamed Amir F Riad, Mohamed Omar M Ali
BACKGROUND: Strabismus surgery is perhaps a pediatric surgical procedure that has the strongest evidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk. This randomized controlled blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy of dexamethasone and intraoperative superhydration vs their monotherapy on the incidence and severity of PONV and on pain intensity after pediatric strabismus surgery. METHODS: A total of 120 children aged 6 to 12 years undergoing strabismus surgery were randomized to equally 3 groups to receive 0...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
L Lee Dupuis, Lillian Sung, Alexander Molassiotis, Andrea D Orsey, Wim Tissing, Marianne van de Wetering
PURPOSE: To update the 2009 recommendations for the prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced emesis in children. METHODS: We updated the original systematic literature search. Randomized studies were included in the evidence to support this guideline if they were primary studies fully published in full text in English or French; included only children less than 18 years old or, for mixed studies of adults and children, reported the pediatric results separately or the median or mean age was no more than 13 years; evaluated acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prophylaxis; provided sufficient information to permit determination of the emetogenicity of the antineoplastic therapy administered or the study investigators stated the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy administered; included an implicit or explicit definition of complete acute CINV response; described the antiemetic regimen in full; and reported the complete acute CINV response rate as a proportion...
January 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Sengül Özmert, Nergis Salman, Feyza Sever, Mine Akın, Sibel Saydam, Gülsen Keskin, Fatih Akcan, Devrim Tanıl Kurt
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative vomiting (POV) is one of the most common problems following general anaesthesia, and many factors, either solely or in combination, may play a role in aetiology. Acupuncture is a technique that the World Health Organization has accepted as a complementary treatment. This study presents our experience with acupuncture for POV treatment in a study of paediatric tonsillectomy cases. METHODS: The study included ASA I-II patients (n=70) aged 2-14 years who underwent tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy under general anaesthesia...
February 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Seham M Moeen
BACKGROUND: Usage of nonpharmacological treatment contributes to an overall patient well-being, assisting in physical and emotional healing. Acupuncture has been reported to be useful in reducing early postoperative vomiting (POV) and attenuating postoperative pain. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dexamethasone vs acupuncture at P6 bilaterally and CV13 on the incidence and severity of POV in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy...
August 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
K R Tolasov, I F Ostreykov, B D Babaev, M V Shishkov
The aim of the research is to determine the reasons of post operative nausea and vomiting and to compare the efficiency of taken PONVprophylaxis after adenotonsillectomy with general anesthesia in children. 155 patients took part in the research work at the age from 3 to 10 years, of ASAI-II physical status, who were operated on in planned order because of adenotonsillectomy. The patients were divided into 5 groups according to the type of holding PONV prophylaxis. The 1-st group consisted of 30 patients who were given antiemetic--Metoclopramidum (0...
January 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Joshua Lee, David Faraoni, Sandra Lee, Morgan Brown, Kirsten Odegard, Adrienne Randolph, James A DiNardo, Koichi Yuki
BACKGROUND: The incidence and risk factors for postoperative vomiting (POV) after pediatric cardiac surgery has not been studied. AIMS: This study sought to assess the incidence and risk factors for POV in children undergoing surgical repair of an atrial septal defect (ASD). METHODS: We retrospectively collected perioperative data from 160 patients who underwent surgical repair of an ASD and met early extubation criteria. Demographic and clinical data that could potentially influence the incidence of POV were collected...
June 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Nedeljko Radlović, Zoran Leković, Biljana Vuletić, Vladimir Radlović, Dušica Simić
Acute diarrhea (AD) is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors...
November 2015: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Lindsay Day, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Mathias B Forrester, Sing-Yi Feng
BACKGROUND: Hydrocodone has recently been reclassified as a Schedule II drug by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration and Food and Drug Administration in order to curtail prescription drug abuse. There is concern that analgesic substitutes, such as codeine, will not be as safe or effective. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the demographics, adverse events, and medical outcomes of patients who had unintentional hydrocodone or codeine exposures through the use of a state's poison center database...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Robert S Phillips, Amanda J Friend, Faith Gibson, Elizabeth Houghton, Shireen Gopaul, Jean V Craig, Barry Pizer
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting remain a problem for children undergoing treatment for malignancies despite new antiemetic therapies. Optimising antiemetic regimens could improve quality of life by reducing nausea, vomiting, and associated clinical problems. This is an update of the original systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse events of pharmacological interventions in controlling anticipatory, acute, and delayed nausea and vomiting in children and young people (aged less than 18 years) about to receive or receiving chemotherapy...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu, Alfredo Guarino
OBJECTIVE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of child mortality and morbidity. This study aimed at systematically reviewing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on AGE to compare recommendations and provide the basis for developing single universal guidelines. METHODS: CPGs were identified by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane-Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse and Web sites of relevant societies/organizations producing and/or endorsing CPGs. RESULTS: The definition of AGE varies among the 15 CPGs identified...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Kristine Heitmann, Anja Solheimsnes, Gro C Havnen, Hedvig Nordeng, Lone Holst
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to investigate the treatments used for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) according to NVP severity among Norwegian women and to assess whether maternal characteristics and attitudes were related to the use of pharmacological treatment of NVP. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional Web-based study. Pregnant women and mothers with children ≤1 year of age were eligible to participate. Data were collected through an anonymous online questionnaire accessible from November 10th, 2014 to January 31st, 2015...
May 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Joshua J Elder, Holly M Knoderer
OBJECTIVES: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains an important side effect associated with administration of chemotherapy in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review dronabinol use in a pediatric cancer center, with the intent of characterizing its use and identifying trends such as age, sex, diagnosis, and chemotherapy that describe where dronabinol is best used as an adjuvant antiemetic. METHODS: Patients receiving dronabinol at Riley Hospital for Children between 2000 and 2010 were identified...
November 2015: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Helen Vol, Jacqueline Flank, Sara R Lavoratore, Paul C Nathan, Tracey Taylor, Elyse Zelunka, Anne Marie Maloney, L Lee Dupuis
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy emetogenicity is the most important known determinant of chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) in children. However, direct evidence regarding the emetogenic potential of chemotherapeutic agents in children is limited. This study describes the prevalence of complete control of acute and delayed phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children receiving methotrexate. The prevalence of anticipatory CINV is described, and risk factors for CINV are explored...
March 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Kishour Kumar Digra, Aakash Pandita, G S Saini, Rajni Bharti
AIM: To study the pattern of various adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurring in children attending the Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital, Jammu over 1 year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study, with study population of patients attending Department of Pediatrics over a period of 1 year. A structured format was used to enroll the participants. A pilot study was conducted to test the suitability of the format and feasibility of the study. The study was carried out to review various pattern of ADRs by using the Naranjo probability scale, and severity was assessed by using the Hartwig severity scale...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Elisabeth M Lessenich, Amir A Kimia, Katherine Mandeville, Joyce Li, Assaf Landschaft, Andy Tsai, Richard G Bachur
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine the frequency of postreduction, hospital-level interventions among children with successful reduction of ileocolic intussusception and identify factors that predict the need for such interventions. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of children who underwent successful enema reduction for ileocolic intussusception at a single emergency department. Hospital-level interventions were included if they occurred within 24 hours of reduction and were further classified as either major (recurrence or possible perforation) or minor (imaging for suspected recurrence or administration of parenteral narcotics or antiemetics)...
September 2015: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Veerendra Patil, Harsha Prasada, Krishna Prasad, Udyavar V Shenoy
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children is a major side effect despite the use of combination antiemetic drugs. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, with ondansetron in the prevention of CINV in children. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted in patients aged 2-18 years. 160 chemotherapy cycles, consisting of chemotherapy drugs with moderate- and high-emetogenic potential, were studied...
June 2015: Journal of Community and Supportive Oncology
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