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fulminant liver failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788811/central-ecmo-for-circulatory-failure-following-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#1
John P Scott, Johnny C Hong, Nathan E Thompson, Ronald K Woods, George M Hoffman
We describe the case of a 4-year-old male with a past medical history significant for nephrotic syndrome, short-bowel syndrome and fulminant hepatic failure status post (s/p) liver transplant (LT) who developed early post-transplant allograft dysfunction (hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy) and septic shock requiring central extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). He remained on ECMO for 85 hours before he was decannulated without event and later underwent repeat LT. This case highlights the potential of central ECMO to provide the circulatory output necessary to reverse distributive shock physiology in patients with sepsis and hepatic dysfunction following LT...
May 1, 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786113/overexpression-of-c%C3%A2-sis-inhibits-h2o2%C3%A2-induced-buffalo-rat-liver-cell-apoptosis-in-vitro-and-alleviates-liver-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-fulminant-hepatic-failure
#2
Hao Ding, Zhili Wen
The present study aimed to investigate the role of the C‑sis gene in the apoptosis of hepatocytes in vitro and in the liver function of a rat model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce apoptosis and then transfected with a C‑sis overexpression vector. A rat model of FHF was established, and C‑sis was overexpressed. The mRNA and protein expression of C‑sis were examined using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741523/fulminant-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#3
S Zavala, M Arias, P Legua
We present a case of a previously healthy 37-year-old male who developed fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and hypovolaemia. Within 5.5 h he presented with tachycardia, tachypnoea, became hypotensive and displayed a diffuse erythematous rash. In the following hours he developed persistent hypotension, acute respiratory distress syndrome, liver failure, kidney failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome was made, but despite antibiotic therapy, immunoglobulin administration, and supportive measures, the patient died 50 h after presentation...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731082/brief-episodes-of-newly-developed-intraoperative-atrial-fibrillation-predicts-worse-outcomes-in-adult-liver-transplantation
#4
Y-J Moon, H-M Kwon, Y-S Park, S-H Kim, G-S Hwang
BACKGROUND: Although patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) are frequently exposed to predisposing factors of atrial fibrillation (AF) such as autonomic imbalance, surgical stress, and elevated catecholamine levels, the occurrence of intraoperative AF (IOAF) has not been fully examined in LT candidates. METHODS: Data from 1059 patients who underwent adult LT from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed. Among patients with preoperative normal sinus rhythm, the incidence, prognosis, and detailed characteristics of newly developed IOAF were assessed...
May 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725560/fatal-fulminant-hepatitis-from-rituximab-induced-hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-a-brief-review-of-literature
#5
Zarak H Khan, Kamran Ilyas, Haider Ghazanfar, Hamza H Khan, Qulsoom Hussain, Sahla Hammad, Ahmed Munir, Rizwan Asim
The objective of our study was to recognize hepatitis B reactivation as a complication of rituximab chemotherapy and to realize the importance of screening for prior Hepatitis B virus (HBV) exposure in all patients with hematologic malignancies who will receive rituximab as part of their therapy. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody targeting CD 20 receptors on the membrane of B cells. In this case report, we described a 79-year-old man who presented to our department with nausea, fatigue, and jaundice. Two months ago, he had received the last dose of the chemotherapy regimen containing rituximab for follicular B cell lymphoma...
March 2, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725551/domino-liver-transplantation-from-a-child-with-propionic-acidemia-to-a-child-with-idiopathic-fulminant-hepatic-failure
#6
Marina Moguilevitch, Ellise Delphin
Domino liver transplant has emerged as a viable strategy to increase the number of grafts available for transplantation. In the domino transplant organs explanted from one patient are transplanted into another patient. The first successful domino liver transplant was performed in Portugal in 1995. Since then this innovative concept has been applied to several genetic or biochemical disorders that are treated by liver transplantation. An important consideration during this operation is that such livers can pose a risk of the de novo development of the disease in the recipient...
2018: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705917/management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-not-responsive-to-first-line-treatments
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Nardelli, Lorenzo Ridola, Stefania Gioia, Oliviero Riggio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs in up to 30% of patients with cirrhosis. HE may be a consequence of pure liver failure, as in patients with fulminant hepatitis, or of the combination of liver failure and portal-systemic shunting, as in patients with liver cirrhosis. Episodes of HE are usually related to precipitating events, such as infections or gastrointestinal bleeding; a minority of cirrhotic patients experienced a chronic HE, refractory to standard medical treatment...
April 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685743/atypical-manifestations-of-hepatitis-a-virus-infection
#8
S G Muñoz-Martínez, H A Díaz-Hernández, D Suárez-Flores, J F Sánchez-Ávila, A Gamboa-Domínguez, I García-Juárez, A Torre
Acute hepatitis due to the hepatitis A virus usually has a short, benign and self-limited course, without causing chronic hepatitis. However, some cases have an atypical presentation, such as relapsing hepatitis, prolonged or persistent cholestasis, fulminant hepatic failure, or liver failure associated with autoimmune hepatitis. The typical clinical course of acute hepatitis A virus infection is spontaneous remission in 90% of the cases, but atypical cases have a prevalence that varies from less than 1 to 20%, depending on the manifestation (overall prevalence ∼7%)...
April 20, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673487/a-novel-akt-activator-sc79-prevents-acute-hepatic-failure-induced-by-fas-mediated-apoptosis-of-hepatocytes
#9
Wei Liu, Zhen-Tang Jing, Shu-Xiang Wu, Yun He, Yan-Ting Lin, Wan-Nan Chen, Xin-Jian Lin, Xu Lin
Acute liver failure is a serious clinical problem of which the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear and for which effective therapies are lacking. The Fas receptor/ligand system, which is negatively regulated by AKT, is known to play a prominent role in hepatocytic cell death. We hypothesized that AKT activation may represent a strategy to alleviate Fas-induced fulminant liver failure. We report here that a novel AKT activator, SC79, protects hepatocytes from apoptosis induced by agonistic anti-Fas antibody CH11 (for humans) or Jo2 (for mice) and significantly prolongs the survival of mice given a lethal dose of Jo2...
May 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673096/impact-of-graft-thickness-reduction-of-left-lateral-segment-on-outcomes-following-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#10
Toshihiro Kitajima, Seisuke Sakamoto, Kengo Sasaki, Soichi Narumoto, Kourosh Kazemi, Yoshihiro Hirata, Akinari Fukuda, Rumi Imai, Osamu Miyazaki, Rie Irie, Satoshi Teramukai, Shinji Uemoto, Mureo Kasahara
Reducing graft thickness is essential to prevent large-for-size graft problems in pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, long-term outcomes of LDLT using reduced-thickness left lateral segment (LLS) grafts are unclear. In 89 patients who underwent LDLT using reduced LLS grafts between 2005 and 2017, short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between a non-anatomically reduced LLS (NAR-LLS) graft group and a reduced-thickness LLS graft group. Estimated blood loss was lower and abdominal skin closure was less needed in the recipient operation in the reduced-thickness LLS graft group...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668551/fetal-onset-congenital-dyserythropoietic-anemia-type-1-due-to-a-novel-mutation-with-severe-iron-overload-and-severe-cholestatic-liver-disease
#11
Hui-Lin Chin, Le Ye Lee, Pei Lin Koh
We report a rare case of severe congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type 1 with fetal onset. Our patient presented with fetal hydrops from 19 weeks of gestation, requiring multiple intrauterine transfusions. At birth, she had severe hemolytic anemia with severe jaundice, and was subsequently transfusion dependent. She eventually developed severe iron overload and fulminant liver failure before her demise at 5 months of age. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in CDAN1.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661433/better-selection-criteria-with-prognostic-factors-for-liver-transplantation
#12
L S Nacif, R S Pinheiro, V Rocha-Santos, V M Barbosa, A P de Moura Dias, R B Martino, R A Macedo, L Ducatti, L Haddad, F Galvão, W Andraus, L Carneiro D' Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation has evolved significantly in recent years, with each advancement part of the effort toward increasing patient and graft survival as well as quality of life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors and selection criteria for liver transplantation. METHODS: Our study was a statistical analysis, logistic regression, and survival evaluation of a total of 80 liver transplants that were performed between June 1, 2016 and September 24, 2016...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660249/shorter-hbig-administration-is-not-associated-to-hbv-recurrence-when-receiving-combined-prophylaxis-after-liver-transplantation
#13
Sabela Lens, María García-Eliz, Inmaculada Fernández, Lluis Castells, Martin Bonacci, Antoni Mas, Gonzalo Crespo, María Buti, Martín Prieto, Xavier Forns
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and a nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) has markedly reduced the rate of hepatitis B (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT); however, the optimal duration of HBIG has not been clarified. This lack of consensus perpetuates the use of different strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated to HBV recurrence after LT in a large cohort of patients under different HBIG regimens. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter analysis of HBV-related LT recipients receiving combined prophylaxis (HBIG+NA)...
April 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653132/sofosbuvir-inhibits-hepatitis-a-virus-replication-in-vitro-assessed-by-a-cell-based-fluorescent-reporter-system
#14
Wang Jiang, Fawad Muhammad, Pengjuan Ma, Xiyu Liu, Gang Long
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection remains a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide and even leads to fulminant hepatitis. For screening antivirals against HAV in vitro, we develop a cell-based fluorescent reporter system named Huh-7.5.1-GA, in which HAV infection is visualized by green fluorescence protein (GFP) translocation from the cytosol into the nucleus. The reliability of Huh-7.5.1-GA for antiviral studies is validated by IFN-α, a known inhibitor of HAV replication, which impedes GFP translocation...
April 10, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618826/a-systems-pharmacology-oriented-discovery-of-a-new-therapeutic-use-of-the-tcm-formula-liuweiwuling-for-liver-failure
#15
Jia-Bo Wang, He-Rong Cui, Rui-Lin Wang, Cong-En Zhang, Ming Niu, Zhao-Fang Bai, Gen-Hua Xu, Peng-Yan Li, Wen-Yan Jiang, Jing-Jing Han, Xiao Ma, Guang-Ming Cai, Rui-Sheng Li, Li-Ping Zhang, Xiao-He Xiao
Multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae determine their treatment targets for multiple diseases as opposed to a particular disease. However, discovering the unexplored therapeutic potential of a TCM formula remains challenging and costly. Inspired by the drug repositioning methodology, we propose an integrated strategy to feasibly identify new therapeutic uses for a formula composed of six herbs, Liuweiwuling. First, we developed a comprehensive systems approach to enrich drug compound-liver disease networks to analyse the major predicted diseases of Liuweiwuling and discover its potential effect on liver failure...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615102/a-case-report-of-nifedipine-induced-hepatitis-with-jaundice
#16
Dimas Yusuf, Joanna Christy, David Owen, Meghan Ho, David Li, Martin J Fishman
BACKGROUND: Nifedipine is a generic, well-known and commonly-prescribed dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and Prinzmetal's angina. A known but very rare and serious adverse effect of nifedipine is clinically-apparent hepatitis which can take months to resolve. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present a case of nifedipine-induced hepatitis in a 78-year-old Caucasian female with no prior history of liver or autoimmune disease...
April 3, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605067/viral-hepatitis-and-acute-liver-failure-still-a-problem
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Sedhom, Melroy D'Souza, Elizabeth John, Vinod Rustgi
Although the overall prevalence is on the decline, viral hepatitis still plays a major role in the development of acute liver failure (ALF) worldwide. Hepatitis A, B, D, and E contribute to most fulminant viral courses. These viruses have not gained much attention in recent years yet remain relevant from a clinical perspective as the incidence in certain populations is on the increase. Other viral therapies and immunotherapies are currently being examined as treatments for hepatitis D and hepatitis E. Clinicians should still maintain a high index of suspicion for viral causes in approaching patients with ALF...
May 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600441/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-newer-multiple-sclerosis-drugs-approved-since-2010
#18
REVIEW
Simon Faissner, Ralf Gold
Multiple sclerosis treatment faces tremendous changes as a result of the approval of new medications. The new medications have differing safety considerations and risks after long-term treatment, which are important for treating physicians to optimize and individualize multiple sclerosis care. Since the approval of the first multiple sclerosis capsule, fingolimod, the armamentarium of multiple sclerosis therapy has grown with the orally available medications dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide. Fingolimod is mainly associated with cardiac side effects, dimethyl fumarate with bowel symptoms...
March 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582966/-extra-hepatic-manifestations-associated-with-hepatitis-and-virus-infection
#19
Luca Piscitani, Maria Olimpia Longo, Xhensila Grabocka, Simona Silvestri, Marta Arazzi, Alessandro Pezzutto, Gabriella Micioni, Giorgia Di Fulvio, Lorenzo Ottavio Di Pietro, Alessandra Schiazza, Roberto Di Vito, Mario Bonomini
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a significant public health problem that affects almost 20 million individuals annually and cause acute liver injury in 3,5 million. Hepatitis E virus can cause acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis and has been associated with a range of extrahepatic manifestation. The spectrum of these manifestation is still emerging. Acute pancreatitis and neurological, renal, hematologic, and muscoloskeletal manifestations have been described. Renal injury include membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with or without cryoglobulinemia, membranous glomerulonephritis and tubular necrosis...
March 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579889/retransplant-due-to-fulminant-hepatic-failure-from-hepatitis-e-virus-a-case-report
#20
E Tenorio González, M Robles Díaz, R Sanjuan Jiménez, R González Grande, R V Olmedo Martín, J M Rodrigo López, M Jiménez Pérez
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) usually causes self-limiting acute liver infections from fecal or oral transmission, though other routes of infection exist (vertical transmission, blood transfusion, zoonosis). It may give rise to fulminant hepatic failure in 1% of cases. Cases have recently been reported of chronic infection evolving to cirrhosis in immunosuppressed patients, such as those with a liver or kidney transplant. Nonetheless, development of acute liver failure in these patients is exceptional, with few cases published...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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