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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911395/preparation-of-primary-mixed-glial-cultures-from-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-tissue
#1
Jennifer T Malon, Ling Cao
It has been well-accepted that spinal cord glial responses contribute significantly to the development of neuropathic pain. Tremendous information regarding glial activities at the cellular and molecular levels has been obtained through in vitro cell culture systems. The in vitro systems utilized, mainly include primary glia derived from neonatal brain cortical tissue and immortalized cell lines. However, these systems may not reflect the characteristics of spinal cord glial cells in vivo. In order to further investigate the roles of spinal cord glial cells in the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using a culture system that better reflects the in vivo condition, our laboratory has developed a method to establish primary spinal cord mixed glial cultures from adult mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#2
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911017/congenital-glaucoma-detected-by-unilateral-megalophthalmos-on-prenatal-sonography
#3
Sarah Gennette, Steve J Carlan, John Busowski, Mario Madruga, Jeannie McWhorter
A 36-week male fetus was noted to have isolated right megalophthalmos on prenatal ultrasound and was found to have buphthalmos and congenital glaucoma at birth. Detection of congenital glaucoma at birth may be occasionally possible if abnormal orbit dimensions are noted on late prenatal sonographic examination. Early neonatal intervention may improve the chances to retain vision. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2016.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910939/real-time-pcr-based-serotyping-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#4
Kathleen M Breeding, Bhavana Ragipani, Kun-Uk David Lee, Martin Malik, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated, gram-positive pathogen that is an important cause of neonatal invasive infections, including sepsis and meningitis. There are ten known GBS serotypes based on distinct capsule compositions (Ia, Ib, II-IX), and current candidate capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines target only a subset of these. Serotyping of GBS isolates is important for understanding local epidemiology and for monitoring for serotype replacement or capsular switching. However, serotyping generally requires either latex agglutination, multiplex PCR with analysis of band sizes, or analysis of whole genome sequences-all techniques that are either expensive or not widely available...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910733/a-comparative-morphologic-and-morphometric-study-about-geniculate-ganglion-development-in-man-and-in-rat
#5
Ana Sánchez-Del-Rey, José Maria Sánchez-Fernández, Arantza Ibargutxi, Agustin Martinez-Ibargüen, Francisco Santaolalla
CONCLUSIONS: Human-rat geniculate ganglion (GG) have multiple origins: (1) An initial proximity (20 μm) to the endocranial foramen of the IAM, suggests neural crest induction; and (2) The influence of epibranchial placodes: the tensor tympani muscle (TTM) and the otic apical coil. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine the comparative development of human-rat GG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A light microscopic study of the GG in human material obtained from spontaneous abortions at 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, and 30 weeks, and one neonate was done...
December 2, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910218/octreotide-use-and-safety-in-infants-with-hyperinsulinism
#6
Ann W McMahon, Gerold T Wharton, Paul Thornton, Diva D De Leon
BACKGROUND: Octreotide is a synthetic peptide analog of naturally occurring somatostatin. Octreotide is used off-label in children <6 years of age for hyperinsulinism, chylothorax, and gastrointestinal bleeding. There is a lack of controlled data on efficacy or potential adverse events from this off-label use. METHODS: Three pediatric hospitals participated in this study. Patients were hospitalized January 2007-December 2010 and administered octreotide for congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) at least 1 day...
December 2, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910181/trends-and-risk-factors-of-stillbirths-and-neonatal-deaths-in-eastern-uganda-1982-2011-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#7
Sanni Kujala, Peter Waiswa, Daniel Kadobera, Joseph Akuze, George Pariyo, Claudia Hanson
OBJECTIVES: To identify mortality trends and risk factors associated with stillbirths and neonatal deaths 1982-2011. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study based on reported pregnancy history in Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in Uganda. A pregnancy history survey was conducted among women aged 15-49 years living in the HDSS during May-July 2011 (n = 10 540). Time trends were analysed with cubic splines and linear regression...
November 5, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910138/canine-and-feline-colostrum
#8
S Chastant-Maillard, C Aggouni, A Albaret, A Fournier, H Mila
Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr)...
November 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910039/silencing-genes-in-the-heart
#9
Henry Fechner, Roland Vetter, Jens Kurreck, Wolfgang Poller
Silencing of cardiac genes by RNA interference (RNAi) has developed into a powerful new method to treat cardiac diseases. Small interfering (si)RNAs are the inducers of RNAi, but cultured primary cardiomyocytes and heart are highly resistant to siRNA transfection. This can be overcome by delivery of small hairpin (sh)RNAs or artificial microRNA (amiRNAs) by cardiotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Here we describe as example of the silencing of a cardiac gene, the generation and cloning of shRNA, and amiRNAs directed against the cardiac protein phospholamban...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909996/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-human-milk-and-breastfeeding-in-preterm-infants-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
James Mahon, Lindsay Claxton, Hannah Wood
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost savings and health benefits in the UK NHS that could be achieved if human milk usage in the NICU was increased. METHODS: A systematic review established the disease areas with the strong sources of evidence of the short, medium and long-term benefits of human milk for preterm infants as opposed to the use of formula milk. The analysis assessed the economic impact of reducing rates of necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis, sudden infant death syndrome, leukaemia, otitis media, obesity and neurodevelopmental impairment...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909752/erratum-to-a-literature-review-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-dobutamine-in-neonates
#11
Liam Mahoney, Geetika Shah, David Crook, Hector Rojas-Anaya, Heike Rabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909741/the-role-of-epigenetic-modifiers-in-extended-cultures-of-functional-hepatocyte-like-cells-derived-from-human-neonatal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
M Cipriano, J C Correia, S P Camões, N G Oliveira, P Cruz, H Cruz, M Castro, J L Ruas, J M Santos, J P Miranda
The development of predictive in vitro stem cell-derived hepatic models for toxicological drug screening is an increasingly important topic. Herein, umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hnMSCs) underwent hepatic differentiation using an optimized three-step core protocol of 24 days that mimicked liver embryogenesis with further exposure to epigenetic markers, namely the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), the cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909691/6q24-transient-neonatal-diabetes-how-to-manage-while-waiting-for-genetic-results
#13
Julie Fudvoye, Khaldoun Farhat, Virginie De Halleux, Corina Ramona Nicolescu
Diabetes, rare in the neonatal period, should be evoked in every newborn presenting with unexplained intrauterine and early postnatal growth retardation. This case report illustrates the clinical course and therapeutic approach of a newborn diagnosed with transient diabetes. The baby was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a severe intrauterine growth restriction. Except a mild macroglossia and signs of growth restriction, physical examination was normal. On the fifth day of life, hyperglycemia (180 mg/dl) was noted, and the next day, the diagnosis of diabetes was confirmed (high blood sugar, glucosuria, undetectable levels of insulin and C-peptide)...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909385/biomarkers-of-inflammation-in-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#14
COMMENT
Mary Dunbar, Aleksandra Mineyko
Investigators from Switzerland studied inflammatory markers in children and neonates with acute arterial ischemic stroke (AIS).
November 2016: Pediatric neurology briefs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908912/a-deep-proteome-analysis-identifies-the-complete-secretome-as-the-functional-unit-of-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#15
Sudhish Sharma, Rachana Mishra, Grace E Bigham, Brody Wehman, Mohd M Khan, Huichun Xu, Progyaparamita Saha, Young Ah Goo, Srinivisa R Datla, Ling Chen, Mohan E Tulapurkar, Bradley S Taylor, Peixin Yang, Sotirios K Karathanasis, David R Goodlett, Sunjay Kaushal
RATIONALE: Cardiac progenitor cells are an attractive cell type for tissue regeneration but their mechanism for myocardial remodeling is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This investigation determines how chronological age influences the phenotypic characteristics and the secretome of human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), as well as their potential to recover injured myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult (aCPCs) and neonatal (nCPCs) cells were derived from patients more than 40 years or less than one month of age, respectively, and their functional potential was determined in a rodent myocardial infarction (MI) model...
December 1, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908907/importance-of-diagnostic-work-up-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-pregnancy
#16
Elza Pollak-Christian, Kyong-Soon Lee
We report a full-term neonate presenting with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with hepatosplenomegaly, 'blueberry muffin' rash, intracranial calcifications, thrombocytopenia and respiratory distress. Maternal history was relevant for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the first trimester of pregnancy. CMV infection is an important cause of GBS; thus, women presenting GBS during pregnancy should be screened for CMV infection. If positive, they may benefit from specialised monitoring and treatment in the antenatal period, which may decrease the risk of major neurodevelopmental sequelae of congenital CMV in the neonate...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908830/protective-efficacy-of-fc-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-m2e-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#17
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Qian Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Ke-Yan Huang, Yu-Bei Jin, Chun-Feng Wang
The influenza A (H1N1) virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease affecting pigs and humans. This disease causes severe economic loss in many countries, and developing mucosal vaccines is an efficient strategy to control the influenza virus. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in transferring IgG across polarized epithelial cells. In the present study, an oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus plantarum to deliver the internal influenza viral protein M2e fused to an IgG Fc fragment...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908646/left-ventricular-function-in-healthy-term-neonates-during-the-transitional-period
#18
Amish Jain, Afif F El-Khuffash, Bart C W Kuipers, Adel Mohamed, Kim A Connelly, Patrick J McNamara, Robert P Jankov, Luc Mertens
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether incorporating conventional, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography are reliable and can characterize changes in left ventricular (LV) function properly in healthy neonates in the early transitional newborn period. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational study was conducted in 50 healthy term neonates with a mean ± SD gestational age and birth weight of 39.3 ± 1.2 weeks and 3.5 ± 0.44 kg, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#19
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908627/validation-of-a-two-generational-reproduction-test-in-daphnia-magna-an-interlaboratory-exercise
#20
Carlos Barata, Bruno Campos, Claudia Rivetti, Gerald A LeBlanc, Stephanie Eytcheson, Stephanie McKnight, Marysia Tobor-Kaplon, Selinda de Vries Buitenweg, Suhyon Choi, Jinhee Choi, Elena I Sarapultseva, Marie-Agnès Coutellec, Maïra Coke, Pascal Pandard, Arnaud Chaumot, Hervé Quéau, Nicolas Delorme, Olivier Geffard, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo, Haruna Watanabe, Norihisa Tatarazako, Isabel Lopes, João L T Pestana, Amadeu M V M Soares, Cecilia Manuela Pereira, Karel De Schamphelaere
Effects observed within one generation disregard potential detrimental effects that may appear across generations. Previously we have developed a two generation Daphnia magna reproduction test using the OECD TG 211 protocol with a few amendments, including initiating the second generation with third brood neonates produced from first generation individuals. Here we showed the results of an inter-laboratory calibration exercise among 12 partners that aimed to test the robustness and consistency of a two generation Daphnia magna reproduction test...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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