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Cecilia Kjellberg Olofsson, Håkan Berggren, Björn Söderberg, Jan Sunnegårdh
OBJECTIVES: This study presents short- and long-term follow-up after treatment for isolated valvular aortic stenosis in children with surgical valvotomy as the preferred 1st intervention. METHODS: All patients aged 0-18 years treated between 1994 and 2013 at our centre were reviewed regarding the mode of first treatment, mortality, reinterventions and the need for aortic valve replacement. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients were identified in local registries...
March 19, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Yubraj Acharya
This article evaluates a community-based effort aimed at reducing neonatal mortality. I use nationally representative data from Nepal, where 22 children per 1000 die within the first month of their birth, and evaluate the impact of Community-Based Neonatal Care Package. The identification is based on a before-and-after comparison of outcomes in program districts relative to those in non-program districts. I find that the program was successful in encouraging cleaner deliveries for births that took place at home and in increasing prenatal visits to the health center by pregnant women significantly...
March 19, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Kelly E Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Wing Lee Chan, Magdalena Steiner, Tomasz Witkos, Johannes Egerer, Björn Busse, Shuji Mizumoto, Jan M Pestka, Haikuo Zhang, Ingrid Hausser, Layal Abo Khayal, Claus-Eric Ott, Mateusz Kolanczyk, Bettina Willie, Thorsten Schinke, Chiara Paganini, Antonio Rossi, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Michael Amling, Petra Knaus, Danny Chan, Martin Lowe, Stefan Mundlos, Uwe Kornak
Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is characterized by skin laxity and early-onset osteoporosis. GORAB, the responsible disease gene, encodes a small Golgi protein of poorly characterized function. To circumvent neonatal lethality of the GorabNull full knockout, Gorab was conditionally inactivated in mesenchymal progenitor cells (Prx1-cre), pre-osteoblasts (Runx2-cre), and late osteoblasts/osteocytes (Dmp1-cre), respectively. While in all three lines a reduction in trabecular bone density was evident, only GorabPrx1 and GorabRunx2 mutants showed dramatically thinned, porous cortical bone and spontaneous fractures...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Fengyuan Wang, Zhicai Zuo, Kejie Chen, Caixia Gao, Zhuangzhi Yang, Song Zhao, Jianzhen Li, Hetao Song, Xi Peng, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou, Gang Shu, Bo Jing
To explore AFB₁-induced damage of the small intestine, the changes in structure and expression of TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) in the small intestine of chickens were systematically investigated. Ninety healthy neonatal Cobb chickens were randomized into a control group (0 mg/kg AFB₁) and an AFB₁ group (0.6 mg/kg AFB₁). The crypt depth of the small intestine in the AFB₁ group was significantly increased in comparison to the control chickens, while the villus height and area were evidently decreased, as well as the villus:crypt ratio and epithelial thickness...
March 21, 2018: Toxins
Lucas C Klemm, Evan Czerwonka, Mary L Hall, Philip G Williams, Alejandro M S Mayer
Cosmopolitan Gram-negative cyanobacteria may affect human and animal health by contaminating terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments with toxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cyanobacterial genus Scytonema ( S ) produces several toxins, but to our knowledge the bioactivity of genus Scytonema LPS has not been investigated. We recently reported that cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of rat microglia in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that treatment of brain microglia in vitro with either cyanobacteria S...
March 21, 2018: Toxins
Maria Jose Escalante, Jose Maria Ceriani-Cernadas, Ivonne D'Apremont, Aldo Bancalari, Veronica Webb, Larisa Genes, Luis Villarroel, Elizabeth Munoz, Jose L Tapia
OBJECTIVE: The main aim is to determine the incidence and associated factors of late onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (500-1500 g), from the NEOCOSUR Network during years 2001-2013. Secondary objectives are to describe the microbiology of the first and second episode of LOS and to study the association between catheter dwell time and LOS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Demographic information and outcome data are prospectively and routinely collected across the Network using predefined diagnostic criteria and online data entry...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Alberto Berardi, Isotta Guidotti, Roberta Creti, Giovanna Alfarone, Antonella Grottola, Claudia Venturelli, Giulia Fregni Serpinid, Elisa Della Casa, Elena Vecchi, Alessandra Boncompagni, Carlotta Toffoli, Fabrizio Ferrari
OBJECTIVES: Current predominant routes of group B Streptococcus (GBS) transmission in preterm neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are poorly defined. We report two overlapping clusters of GBS late-onset disease (LOD) from June to September 2015 in an Italian NICU. METHODS: During the outbreak, possible sources of transmission (equipment, feeding bottles, breast pumps) were swabbed. Specimens from throat and rectum were collected on a weekly basis from all neonates admitted to NICU...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mylene C Berk, Andrea Hl Bruning, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Katja C Wolthers, Dasja Pajkrt
Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections usually cause mild symptoms in children. Although their contribution to severe disease in young children - such as neonatal sepsis and meningo-encephalitis - is increasingly recognized, data on long-term consequences are scarce. Here we present the case of a five-year old boy with severe long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae following HPeV-3 meningitis.
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Anne Synnes, Roderick Canning, Jaya Bodani, Luis Monterossa, Prakesh S Shah
BACKGROUND: Neonatal fungaemia is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and higher overall healthcare expenditure. Our objective is to review the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in neonates in Canada. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using data collected by the Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN) was conducted. Using a nested matched cohort study design, risk factors and outcomes of neonates born <33 weeks gestation (n=39,305) during 2003-2013 were compared between neonates diagnosed with an IFI during their stay to infection-free controls...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Martin Schweiger, Angela Lorts, Jennifer Conway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased miniaturization of ventricular assist devices (VADs) and new mechanical support strategies (MCS) has increased the use of MCS in the pediatric and congenital heart disease (CHD) population. This comes with the need for care providers specialized in this field to determine optimal patient and device selection, and to improve outcomes and decrease complication rates for new innovative strategies. A review of the published literature in this field is timely and relevant...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Shari I Lusskin, Sabrina J Khan, Carrie Ernst, Sally Habib, Madeleine E Fersh, Elizabeth S Albertini
Perinatal depression is associated with serious risks for the mother, baby, and family. When considering treating perinatal depression with a drug indicated for the treatment of depression, the major concerns are whether the drug increases the risks of teratogenicity, pregnancy complications, poor neonatal adaptation, or neurodevelopmental disorders. Although different studies have produced different results, the majority have not shown increases in risk for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, or the noradrenergic/dopaminergic drug bupropion...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Grace Lim, Francesca L Facco, Naveen Nathan, Jonathan H Waters, Cynthia A Wong, Holger K Eltzschig
Obstetric anesthesia has evolved over the course of its history to encompass comprehensive aspects of maternal care, ranging from cesarean delivery anesthesia and labor analgesia to maternal resuscitation and patient safety. Anesthesiologists are concerned with maternal and neonatal outcomes, and with preventing and managing complications that may present during childbirth. The current review will focus on recent advances in obstetric anesthesia, including labor anesthesia and analgesia, cesarean delivery anesthesia and analgesia, the effects of maternal anesthesia on breastfeeding and fever, and maternal safety...
March 21, 2018: Anesthesiology
Hunter G Moss, Truman R Brown, Donald B Wiest, Dorothea D Jenkins
Persistent oxidative stress depletes reduced glutathione (GSH), an intracellular antioxidant and an important determinant of CNS injury after hypoxia ischemia. We used standard, short echo time Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM) to detect GSH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in 24 term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), on day of life 5-6, after rewarming from therapeutic hypothermia. MRS demonstrated reliable, consistent GSH of 1·64 ± 0·20 mM in the basal ganglia immediately before intravenous infusion of N-acetylcysteine...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Ping-An Zhang, Hong-Yan Zhu, Qi-Ya Xu, Wan-Jie Du, Shufen Hu, Guang-Yin Xu
Aims Insular cortex is a brain region critical for processing of the sensation. Purinergic receptors are involved in the formation of chronic pain. The aim of the present study was to explore the role and mechanism of P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) in insular cortex in chronic visceral pain. Methods Chronic visceral pain in adult rats was induced by neonatal maternal deprivation and measured by detecting the threshold of colorectal distension. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to detect the expression and distribution of P2X3Rs...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Amanda C Smith, Yoko Ito, Afsana Ahmed, Jeremy A Schwartzentruber, Chandree L Beaulieu, Erika Aberg, Jacek Majewski, Dennis E Bulman, Karina Horsting-Wethly, Diana Vermunt-de Koning, Richard J Rodenburg, Kym M Boycott, Lynette S Penney
Primary CoQ10 deficiency is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ). To date, mutations in nine proteins required for the biosynthesis of CoQ10 cause CoQ10 deficiency with varying clinical presentations. In 2009 the first patient with mutations in COQ9 was reported in an infant with a neonatal-onset, primary CoQ10 deficiency with multi-system disease. Here we describe four siblings with a previously undiagnosed lethal disorder characterized by oligohydramnios and intrauterine growth restriction, variable cardiomyopathy, anemia, and renal anomalies...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Daisuke Ono, Ken-Ichi Honma, Yuchio Yanagawa, Akihiro Yamanaka, Sato Honma
In mammals, circadian rhythms, such as sleep/wake cycles, are regulated by the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN consists of thousands of individual neurons, which exhibit circadian rhythms. They synchronize with each other and produce robust and stable oscillations. Although several neurotransmitters are expressed in the SCN, almost all SCN neurons are γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic. Several studies have attempted to understand the roles of GABA in the SCN; however, precise mechanisms of the action of GABA in the SCN are still unclear...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Carlos Menendez-Castro, Wolfgang Rascher, Andrea Hartner
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal pathology which leads to increased risk for certain neonatal complications. Furthermore, clinical and experimental studies revealed that IUGR is associated with a significantly higher incidence of metabolic, renal and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. One hypothesis for the higher risk of CVD after IUGR postulates that IUGR induces metabolic alterations that then lead to CVD.This minireview focuses on recent studies which demonstrate that IUGR is followed by early primary cardiovascular alterations which may directly progress to CVD later in life...
March 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Congenital syphilis is one of the preventable diseases caused by the gram-negative bacteria Treponema pallidum; yet, it imposes a serious global health and economic burden, with more than half of the cases resulting in serious adverse outcomes, including infant mortality. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million adjusted life years (DALYs) and around $309 million in medical costs. In 2006, an estimated 9.7 million children of age less than five years died in developing countries; almost four million were neonatal deaths...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Mehrafza Gharachourlo, Zohreh Mahmoodi, Mahnaz Akbari Kamrani, Maryam Tehranizadeh, Kourosh Kabir
Background: Gestational diabetes is a common pregnancy disorder that affects the mother's and neonate's health. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of a health literacy approach to counselling on the lifestyle of women with gestational diabetes. The present randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2017 using a parallel design. The subjects included 84 eligible women presenting to Alborz and Kamali Hospitals, Karaj, Iran. Methods: Convenience sampling was first used to select the subjects...
2018: F1000Research
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