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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913774/gravity-flow-in-proposed-enteral-tube-small-bore-connectors
#1
Ryan T Hurt, Lisa M Epp, Adele K Pattinson, Wanda M Duellman, Stephen M Corner, Manpreet S Mundi
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) misconnections have been identified as a serious and potential deadly problem. An international effort led by EN industry leaders has developed a small-bore enteral connector (ENFit) that in theory will reduce the frequency of misconnections. Despite the potential benefit of preventing misconnections, the full impact of adoption of the ENFit connector is unknown. To assess the impact of transitioning to ENFit on our home EN (HEN) patients, the current study evaluated gravity feeding comparing 2 proposed small-bore connectors to the legacy (current connector) using various commercial formulas...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912772/food-systems-transformations-ultra-processed-food-markets-and-the-nutrition-transition-in-asia
#2
Phillip Baker, Sharon Friel
BACKGROUND: Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods...
December 3, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909585/developmental-idealism-body-weight-and-shape-and-marriage-entry-in-transitional-china
#3
Hongwei Xu
New trends toward later and less marriage are emerging in post-reform China. Previous research has examined the changing individual-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics shaping marriage entry in Chinese adults. Employing a cultural model known as developmental idealism (DI), this study argues that a new worldview specifying an ideal body type has become popular in the West and that this new worldview has been exported to China. This new part of the DI package is likely stratified by gender, has a stronger impact on women than on men, and has likely penetrated urban areas more than rural areas...
April 2016: Chinese Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908548/dietary-sodium-and-potassium-intakes-data-from-urban-and-rural-areas
#4
Carmelle Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Dismand Houinato, Corine Houehanou, Thierry Chianea, François Dalmay, André Bigot, Victor Aboyans, Pierre-Marie Preux, Pascal Bovet, Jean-Claude Desport
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is highly prevalent in West African populations, but little data is available on salt and potassium intake in these populations. We assumed in this study that sodium and potassium intake might be high and low, respectively, in the Beninese population in view of the emerging nutritional transition. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary sodium and potassium intakes based on 24-h urine collections. METHODS: We selected 420 individuals (ages 25-64 y), representative of the population, from urban and rural areas in Benin...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895474/efficacy-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-frailty-status-and-its-biomarkers-nutritional-status-and-physical-and-cognitive-function-among-prefrail-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
M Badrasawi, Suzana Shahar, A M Zahara, R Nor Fadilah, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#6
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889924/dental-ontogeny-of-a-white-shark-embryo
#7
Taketeru Tomita, Kei Miyamoto, Akira Kawaguchi, Minoru Toda, Shin-Ichiro Oka, Ryo Nozu, Keiichi Sato
Unlike most viviparous vertebrates, lamniform sharks develop functional teeth during early gestation. This feature is considered to be related to their unique reproductive mode where the embryo grows to a large size via feeding on nutritive eggs in utero. However, the developmental process of embryonic teeth is largely uninvestigated. We conducted X-ray microcomputed tomography to observe the dentitions of early-, mid-, and full-term embryos of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes, Lamnidae)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879689/determinants-health-problems-and-food-insecurity-in-urban-areas-of-the-largest-city-in-cape-verde
#8
Isabel Craveiro, Daniela Alves, Miguel Amado, Zélia Santos, Argentina Tomar Fortes, António Pedro Delgado, Artur Correia, Luzia Gonçalves
Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project "UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities-moving from macro to micro statistics"...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879329/phenotypic-profiling-reveals-that-candida-albicans-opaque-cells-represent-a-metabolically-specialized-cell-state-compared-to-default-white-cells
#9
Iuliana V Ene, Matthew B Lohse, Adrian V Vladu, Joachim Morschhäuser, Alexander D Johnson, Richard J Bennett
: The white-opaque switch is a bistable, epigenetic transition affecting multiple traits in Candida albicans including mating, immunogenicity, and niche specificity. To compare how the two cell states respond to external cues, we examined the fitness, phenotypic switching, and filamentation properties of white cells and opaque cells under 1,440 different conditions at 25°C and 37°C. We demonstrate that white and opaque cells display striking differences in their integration of metabolic and thermal cues, so that the two states exhibit optimal fitness under distinct conditions...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855663/pre-pregnancy-community-based-intervention-for-couples-in-malaysia-application-of-intervention-mapping
#10
Shane A Norris, Julius Cheah Chee Ho, Aswir Abd Rashed, Vibeke Vinding, Jutta K H Skau, Regien Biesma, Jens Aagaard-Hansen, Mark Hanson, Priya Matzen
BACKGROUND: Malaysia is experiencing a nutrition transition with burgeoning obesity, particularly in women, and a growing prevalence of non-communicable disease. These health burdens have severe implications not only for adult health but also across generations. Pre-conception health promotion could address the intergenerational risk of metabolic disease. This paper describes the development of the "Jom Mama" intervention using Intervention Mapping (IM). The Jom Mama intervention aims to improve the health of young adult couples in Malaysia prior to conception...
November 17, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853041/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-in-the-katkari-tribe-of-coastal-maharashtra
#11
M G Deo, P V Pawar, S R Kanetkar, S V Kakade
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urban and rural India are both going through health epidemiological transition and will soon face huge burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Information on the status of NCDs in tribals is limited. Although the prevalence of hypertension in scheduled tribes (STs) has been studied in several states by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau, tribe-specific data are very scanty. The objective of this study was to generate data on the status of hypertension and diabetes, the two objectively measurable NCDs in Katkaris, the dominant ST in the Raigad district of coastal Maharashtra...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847351/a-comparison-of-mobile-and-fixed-device-access-on-user-engagement-associated-with-women-infants-and-children-wic-online-nutrition-education
#12
John J Brusk, Robert J Bensley
BACKGROUND: Online health education has expanded its reach due to cost-effective implementation and demonstrated effectiveness. However, a limitation exists with the evaluation of online health education implementations and how the impact of the system is attenuated by the extent to which a user engages with it. Moreover, the current online health education research does not consider how this engagement has been affected by the transition from fixed to mobile user access over the last decade...
November 15, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829152/a-small-potassium-current-in-agrp-npy-neurons-regulates-feeding-behavior-and-energy-metabolism
#13
Yanlin He, Gang Shu, Yongjie Yang, Pingwen Xu, Yan Xia, Chunmei Wang, Kenji Saito, Antentor Hinton, Xiaofeng Yan, Chen Liu, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, Yong Xu
Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808470/stable-production-of-cyanophycinase-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-and-its-functionality-to-hydrolyse-cyanophycin-in-the-murine-intestine
#14
Daniel Ponndorf, Sven Ehmke, Benjamin Walliser, Kerstin Thoss, Christoph Unger, Solvig Görs, Gürbüz Daş, Cornelia C Metges, Inge Broer, Henrik Nausch
Food supplementation with the conditionally essential amino acid arginine (Arg) has been shown to have nutritional benefits. Degradation of cyanophycin (CGP), a peptide polymer used for nitrogen storage by cyanobacteria, requires cyanophycinase (CGPase) and results in the release of β-aspartic acid (Asp)-(Arg) dipeptides. The simultaneous production of CGP and CGPase in plants could be a convenient source of Arg dipeptides. Different variants of the cphB coding region from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants...
November 3, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806685/prepartum-body-condition-score-and-plane-of-nutrition-affect-the-hepatic-transcriptome-during-the-transition-period-in-grazing-dairy-cows
#15
M Vailati-Riboni, S Meier, C R Burke, J K Kay, M D Mitchell, C G Walker, M A Crookenden, A Heiser, S L Rodriguez-Zas, J R Roche, J J Loor
BACKGROUND: A transcriptomic approach was used to evaluate potential interactions between prepartum body condition score (BCS) and feeding management in the weeks before calving on hepatic metabolism during the periparturient period. METHODS: Thirty-two mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: two prepartum BCS categories [4.0 (thin, BCS4) and 5.0 (optimal, BCS5); based on a 10-point scale], and two levels of energy intake during the 3 weeks preceding calving (75 and 125 % of estimated requirements)...
November 2, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802103/food-insecurity-among-young-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-the-national-health-interview-survey
#16
Debra L Brucker, Derek Nord
People with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD) face higher levels of poverty than others, which can lead to concerns regarding areas of well-being, such as food security. Young adults with IDD who are, in many cases, transitioning from the system of educational, health care, and income supports of their youth into the adult world may be particularly vulnerable. Using pooled data from the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey, we find that young adults with IDD have significantly higher levels of food insecurity than young adults without disabilities, even when controlling for poverty...
November 2016: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798525/restructuring-a-state-nutrition-education-and-obesity-prevention-program-implications-of-a-local-health-department-model-for-snap-ed
#17
Helen W Wu, Desiree Backman, Kenneth W Kizer
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The US Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) funds state programs to improve nutrition and physical activity in low-income populations through its Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention grants. States vary in how they manage and structure these programs. California substantially restructured its program in 2012 to universally position local health departments (LHDs) as the programmatic lead in all jurisdictions...
January 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796809/the-boosted-lipid-accumulation-in-microalga-chlorella-vulgaris-by-a-heterotrophy-and-nutrition-limitation-transition-cultivation-regime
#18
Tingting Liu, Fei Liu, Chao Wang, Zhenyao Wang, Yuqin Li
A model of heterotrophy and nutrition-limitation transition cultivation for efficient algal biomass and lipid production was proposed in this study, wherein sufficient robust heterotrophic-seed cells submitted into nitrogen-starvation induction for boosted lipid accumulation. The results demonstrated that heterotrophic-seed (HS) achieved specific growth rate of 1.35 day(-1) and biomass productivity of 1.93 mg/L/d, representing 6.42- and 32.16-fold, 2.01- and 2.75-fold more than that of photoautotrophic-seed (PS) and mixtrophic-seed (MS)...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796489/integration-of-omics-approaches-to-understand-oil-protein-content-during-seed-development-in-oilseed-crops
#19
REVIEW
Manju Gupta, Pudota B Bhaskar, Shreedharan Sriram, Po-Hao Wang
Oilseed crops, especially soybean (Glycine max) and canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus), produce seeds that are rich in both proteins and oils and that are major sources of energy and nutrition worldwide. Most of the nutritional content in the seed is accumulated in the embryo during the seed filling stages of seed development. Understanding the metabolic pathways that are active during seed filling and how they are regulated are essential prerequisites to crop improvement. In this review, we summarize various omics studies of soybean and canola/rapeseed during seed filling, with emphasis on oil and protein traits, to gain a systems-level understanding of seed development...
October 27, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782961/using-the-objective-structured-clinical-exam-osce-to-assess-acgme-competencies-in-pediatric-gastroenterology-fellows
#20
Aliza B Solomon, Rachel Reed, Keith Benkov, Joseph Kingsbery, Sarah S Lusman, Lisa B Malter, Jeremiah Levine, Simon Rabinowitz, Martin Wolff, Sondra Zabar, Elizabeth Weinshel
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has described six core competencies with which trainees should demonstrate proficiency. Using the Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE), we aimed to assess four of these competencies among Pediatric GI fellows (PG). METHODS: Eight first-year PG's from six medical centers in the New York area participated in a four-station OSCE with trained standardized patient (SP) actors. The cases included an "ED Consult" for lower GI bleeding; "Breaking Bad News" focusing on CF nutritional complications; "Second Opinion" for abdominal pain; "Transition of Care" for inflammatory bowel disease...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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