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nutrition transition

Rachel R Deer, Elena Volpi
Critically ill elderly patients' nutritional needs are not well understood and vary with the phase of illness and recovery. Patients' nutritional needs should be assessed early in hospitalization and re-assessed throughout the stay with additional attention during the transitions from critical illness, to severe illness, to post-hospital rehabilitation. In this review, we summarize recent findings and highlight recommendations for protein supplementation in critically ill geriatric patients throughout the stages of recovery...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Alessandra Prioreschi, Lukhanyo H Nyati, Alastair van Heerden, Richard J Munthali, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen M Tollman, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Brian Houle, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
BACKGROUND: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. AIMS: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Linda M Richter, Stephen J Lye, Kerrie Proulx
Forced displacement worldwide is at its highest in decades and millions of young children are living in conflict zones, in transitional or enduring refugee contexts, and in demographically diverse marginalized and informal settlements. There is a huge unmet need for delivering early childhood development interventions to ensure the safety and continued development of young children in these vulnerable contexts. In this paper, we discuss nurturing care as an important entry point for multisectoral collaborations to support families and reach young children...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Laura M König, Gudrun Sproesser, Harald T Schupp, Britta Renner
BACKGROUND: Although mobile technologies such as smartphone apps are promising means for motivating people to adopt a healthier lifestyle (mHealth apps), previous studies have shown low adoption and continued use rates. Developing the means to address this issue requires further understanding of mHealth app nonusers and adoption processes. This study utilized a stage model approach based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM), which proposes that people pass through qualitatively different motivational stages when adopting a behavior...
March 13, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh, Azza Abul-Fadl
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global program for promoting support and protection for breastfeeding. However, its impact on malnutrition, especially in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) that are facing the turmoil of conflict and emergencies, deserves further investigation. Having said that, this paper aims to discuss the status and challenges to BFHI implementation in the EMR countries. Data on BFHI implementation, breastfeeding practices, and nutritional status were collected from countries through structured questionnaires, personal interviews, and databases...
March 11, 2018: Children
Stacy Pelekhaty, Jay Menaker
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic condition that results in a constellation of symptoms and typically results in hyperphagia and obesity in adulthood. Critically ill adults with PWS present a unique challenge to the nutrition professional, particularly when they require support modalities such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The purpose of this case study is to review the nutrition care of a critically ill adult patient with PWS who required venovenous ECMO. The patient was successfully managed with a hypocaloric, high-protein approach, which did not result in the diagnosis of malnutrition during his hospitalization...
March 12, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Kenji Kuzuhara, Kanako Katai, Tatsuya Hojo, Yoshihiko Fujisawa, Misaka Kimura, Yasuyoshi Yanagida, Yosuke Yamada, Junta Iguchi
Well-controlled seasonal distribution of training intensity appears to be an important variable for endurance athletes' success as competitors and/or for avoidance of overtraining. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships of training distribution, body composition, energy intake/expenditure, and rowing ergometer performance throughout the 2012-2013 season. In the present study of 15 collegiate male rowers, most of whom started rowing during their time at the university, we divided the 2012-2013 season (total 37 weeks) into 3 phases (off-season, December to mid-March, 16 weeks; pre-season, late March to April, 5 weeks; and in-season, May to August, 16 weeks) and analyzed the transition of 2000-m rowing ergometer time, training intensity/volume, body composition (body weight and body fat) and energy intake/expenditure in each phase...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Helen L Walls, Deborah Johnston, Jacob Mazalale, Ephraim W Chirwa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BMJ Global Health
Kate Laver, Emmanuel Gnanamanickam, Craig Whitehead, Susan Kurrle, Megan Corlis, Julie Ratcliffe, Wendy Shulver, Maria Crotty
Objectives Health services worldwide are increasingly adopting consumer directed care approaches. Traditionally, consumer directed care models have been implemented in home care services and there is little guidance as to how to implement them in residential care. This study used a citizens' jury to elicit views of members of the public regarding consumer directed care in residential care. Methods A citizens' jury involving 12 members of the public was held over two days in July 2016, exploring the question: For people with dementia living in residential care facilities, how do we enable increased personal decision making to ensure that care is based on their needs and preferences? Jury members were recruited through a market research company and selected to be broadly representative of the general public...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
Xiaofang Jia, Zhihong Wang, Bing Zhang, Chang Su, Wenwen Du, Jiguo Zhang, Ji Zhang, Hongru Jiang, Feifei Huang, Yifei Ouyang, Yun Wang, Li Li, Huijun Wang
Vitamin C is essential for human health. It is important to estimate the dietary vitamin C intake in the Chinese population to examine the effects of the nutritional transition occurred in recent decades. The present study aimed to estimate the dietary vitamin C intake in Chinese adults by using cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Nutritional Transition Cohort Study and selecting those aged 18-65 years with complete records of sociodemographic characteristics and dietary measurements ( n = 11,357). Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Kruskal-Wallis analysis, Chi-squared test, and multiple logistic regression were employed to analyze the daily dietary vitamin C intake on the basis of three-day 24 h dietary recalls and food sources in relation to demographic factors, to evaluate vitamin C intake status using the estimated average requirement cut-off point, and to explore underlying influencing factors...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
Yen-Han Lee, Mack Shelley, Ching-Ti Liu, Yen-Chang Chang
China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with a cross-sectional study design ( n = 7970), we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45)...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mei Ling Lim, Bei Yi Paulynn Yong, Mei Qi Maggie Mar, Shin Yuh Ang, Mei Mei Chan, Madeleine Lam, Ngian Choo Janet Chong, Violeta Lopez
BACKGROUND: The number of patients on home enteral nutrition (HEN) is on the increase due to advancement in technology and shift in focus of providing care from acute to community care settings. AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences of community nurses and home carers, in caring for patients on HEN. METHODS: A mixed-method approach was adopted. (i) A face-to-face survey design was used to elicit experience of carers of patients on HEN...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Nadine Graupner, Manfred Jensen, Christina Bock, Sabina Marks, Sven Rahmann, Daniela Beisser, Jens Boenigk
Shifts in the nutritional mode between phototrophy, mixotrophy and heterotrophy are a widespread phenomenon in the evolution of eukaryotic diversity. The transition between nutritional modes is particularly pronounced in chrysophytes and occurred independently several times through parallel evolution. Thus, chrysophytes provide a unique opportunity for studying the molecular basis of nutritional diversification and of the accompanying pathway reduction and degradation of plastid structures. In order to analyze the succession in switching the nutritional mode from mixotrophy to heterotrophy, we compared the transcriptome of the mixotrophic Poterioochromonas malhamensis with the transcriptomes of three obligate heterotrophic species of Ochromonadales...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Brendan Bowman, Sijie Zheng, Alex Yang, Brigitte Schiller, José A Morfín, Melvin Seek, Robert S Lockridge
Dialysis care in the United States continues to move toward an emphasis on continuous quality improvement and performance benchmarking. Government- and industry-sponsored programs have evolved to assess and incentivize outcomes for many components of end-stage renal disease care. One aspect that remains largely unaddressed at a systemic level is the high-risk transition period from chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury to permanent dialysis dependence. Incident dialysis patients experience disproportionately high mortality and hospitalization rates coupled with high costs...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Rimante Ronto, Jason Hy Wu, Gitanjali M Singh
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have increased dramatically in developed and developing countries. Unhealthy diet is one of the major factors contributing to NCD development. Recent evidence has identified deterioration in aspects of dietary quality across many world regions, including low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Most burdens of disease attributable to poor diet can be prevented or delayed as they occur prematurely. Therefore, it is important to identify and target unhealthy dietary behaviours in order to have the greatest impact...
March 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Meredith A Baker, Paul D Mitchell, Alison A O'Loughlin, Alexis K Potemkin, Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Duy T Dao, Gillian L Fell, Kathleen M Gura, Mark Puder
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize fatty acid profiles (FAPs) in parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) receiving soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SO) doses of ∼3 and ∼1 g/kg/d. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed. Serum FAPs of patients <1 year old who experienced development of IFALD while receiving standard PN with SO were examined before transitioning to a fish oil-based lipid emulsion for IFALD treatment...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sophie Carter, Stéphanie Miard, Alexandre Caron, Sandrine Sallé-Lefort, Philippe St-Pierre, Fernando Forato Anhê, Emilie Lavoie-Charland, Pascale Blais-Lecours, Marie-Claude Drolet, Julie S Lefebvre, Julie Lacombe, Yves Deshaies, Jacques Couet, Mathieu Laplante, Mathieu Ferron, Yohan Bossé, André Marette, Denis Richard, David Marsolais, Frédéric Picard
The current demographic shift toward an aging population has led to a robust increase in the prevalence of age-associated metabolic disorders. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that the etiology of obesity-related insulin resistance developed upon aging differs from that induced by high-calorie diets. Whereas the role of adaptive immunity on the changes in energy metabolism driven by nutritional challenges has gained attention in the past years, its impact upon aging remains mostly unknown. Here, we found that follicular B2 lymphocytes and expression levels of the B cell-specific transcriptional coactivator OcaB increase with age in spleen and in intra-abdominal epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), concomitantly with higher circulating levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and impaired glucose homeostasis...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes
Rebecca S Hock, Tamar Mendelson, Pamela J Surkan, Judith K Bass, Catherine P Bradshaw, Michelle J Hindin
Incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms increases during the transition to adulthood. The parenting relationship is a potential target for interventions to reduce risk for depression in offspring during this time period, and a four-category typology of parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) has been found to correlate with offspring psychological functioning. The majority of studies, however, have examined this four-category parenting style typology in Western populations...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Denis E Bragin, Olga A Bragina, Sean Hagberg, Edwin M Nemoto
OBJECTIVE: High-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation is an emerging noninvasive therapy that we have shown increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue oxygenation in the healthy rat brain. In this work, we tested the effect of PEMF on the brain at high intracranial pressure (ICP). We previously showed that high ICP in rats caused a transition from capillary (CAP) to non-nutritive microvascular shunt (MVS) flow, tissue hypoxia and increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Abhishek Chaudhary, David Gustafson, Alexander Mathys
Food systems are at the heart of at least 12 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The wide scope of the SDGs call for holistic approaches that integrate previously "siloed" food sustainability assessments. Here we present a first global-scale analysis quantifying the status of national food system performance of 156 countries, employing 25 sustainability indicators across 7 domains as follows: nutrition, environment, food affordability and availability, sociocultural well-being, resilience, food safety, and waste...
February 27, 2018: Nature Communications
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