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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344387/coordination-chemistry-insights-into-the-role-of-alkali-metal-promoters-in-dinitrogen-reduction
#1
Gannon P Connor, Patrick L Holland
The Haber-Bosch process is a major contributor to fixed nitrogen that supports the world's nutritional needs and is one of the largest-scale industrial processes known. It has also served as a testing ground for chemists' understanding of surface chemistry. Thus, it is significant that the most thoroughly developed catalysts for N2 reduction use potassium as an electronic promoter. In this review, we discuss the literature on alkali metal cations as promoters for N2 reduction, in the context of the growing knowledge about cooperative interactions between N2, transition metals, and alkali metals in coordination compounds...
May 15, 2017: Catalysis Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337715/is-incremental-hemodialysis-ready-to-return-on-the-scene-from-empiricism-to-kinetic-modelling
#2
REVIEW
Carlo Basile, Francesco Gaetano Casino, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Most people who make the transition to maintenance dialysis therapy are treated with a fixed dose thrice-weekly hemodialysis regimen without considering their residual kidney function (RKF). The RKF provides effective and naturally continuous clearance of both small and middle molecules, plays a major role in metabolic homeostasis, nutritional status, and cardiovascular health, and aids in fluid management. The RKF is associated with better patient survival and greater health-related quality of life, although these effects may be confounded by patient comorbidities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332510/recent-advances-in-understanding-hypertension-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
REVIEW
A E Schutte, S Botha, C M T Fourie, L F Gafane-Matemane, R Kruger, L Lammertyn, L Malan, C M C Mels, R Schutte, W Smith, J M van Rooyen, L J Ware, H W Huisman
Consistent reports indicate that hypertension is a particularly common finding in black populations. Hypertension occurs at younger ages and is often more severe in terms of blood pressure levels and organ damage than in whites, resulting in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This review provides an outline of recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding of blood pressure elevation and the consequences thereof in black populations in Africa. This is set against the backdrop of populations undergoing demanding and rapid demographic transition, where infection with the human immunodeficiency virus predominates, and where under and over-nutrition coexist...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319268/developmental-changes-in-feeding-behaviors-of-infant-chimpanzees-at-mahale-tanzania-implications-for-nutritional-independence-long-before-cessation-of-nipple-contact
#4
Takuya Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Weaning of chimpanzees is considered to occur at 4-5-years-old with complete cessation of nipple contact and timing of reconception calculated by inter-birth interval minus gestation length. This is also the basis of "early weaning" in humans (i.e., approximately 2.5-years-old). However, recent studies of the survival of orphans and the first molar (M1) eruption in wild chimpanzees have predicted that infants move toward nutritional independence at 3-years-old. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate ontogeny of feeding behavior at around 3-years-old in wild infant chimpanzees...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317313/profiling-of-antioxidative-enzyme-expression-induced-by-various-food-components-using-targeted-proteome-analysis
#5
Sven Bartenbacher, Christiane Östreicher, Monika Pischetsrieder
SCOPE: A method was developed for targeted proteome analysis of the expression profile of a set of antioxidative enzymes in rat macrophages and applied to screen the antioxidative potential of several food components/foods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression profiles of heme oxygenase 1, peroxiredoxin 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S transferase P1, and superoxide dismutase 1 were analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS in selected scheduled reaction monitoring (sSRM) mode monitoring 2-3 peptides per protein and 3 transitions per peptide...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315883/complementary-foods-guidelines-and-practices
#6
Merryn J Netting, Maria Makrides
Complementary feeding, the transition from a breast milk-based diet to inclusion of other sources of nutrition in an infant's diet, is a major milestone in infant development. This transition period is important as it is a time when infants are vulnerable to developing nutritional deficiencies and occurs during a developmental stage when important food-related behavioral patterns are being established. As under- and overnutrition may coexist in children from the same country, it is important that advice provided by complementary feeding guidelines meets the needs of all children helping them to grow and develop into healthy adults...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306140/dietary-and-nutritional-change-in-india-implications-for-strategies-policies-and-interventions
#7
Bhavani Shankar, Sutapa Agrawal, Amy R Beaudreault, Laxmaiah Avula, Reynaldo Martorell, Saskia Osendarp, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Mireille Seneclauze Mclean
Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front in the fight against malnutrition and is grappling with the coexistence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. This report summarizes discussions on trends in malnutrition in India, its evolution in the context of economic growth, intrahousehold aspects, infant and young child feeding practices, women's status, maternal nutrition, and nutrition policymaking...
March 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303424/inherited-disorders-of-transition-metal-metabolism-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Peter T Clayton
Elements with a biological role include six trace transition metals: manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc and molybdenum. Transition metals participate in group transfer reactions such as glycosylation and phosphorylation and those that can transfer an electron by alternating between two redox states such as iron (3+/2+) and copper (2+/1+) are also very important in biological redox reactions including the reduction of molecular oxygen and the transport of oxygen. However, these trace metals are also potentially toxic, generating reactive oxygen species through Fenton chemistry...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302101/preventing-diabetes-in-obese-latino-youth-with-prediabetes-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Erica G Soltero, Yolanda P Konopken, Micah L Olson, Colleen S Keller, Felipe G Castro, Allison N Williams, Donald L Patrick, Stephanie Ayers, Houchun H Hu, Matthew Sandoval, Janiel Pimentel, William C Knowler, Kevin D Frick, Gabriel Q Shaibi
BACKGROUND: Obese Latino adolescents are disproportionately impacted by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an intermediate stage in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and represents a critical opportunity for intervention. However, to date, no diabetes prevention studies have been conducted in obese Latino youth with prediabetes, a highly vulnerable and underserved group. Therefore, we propose a randomized-controlled trial to test the short-term (6-month) and long-term (12-month) efficacy of a culturally-grounded, lifestyle intervention, as compared to usual care, for improving glucose tolerance and reducing diabetes risk in 120 obese Latino adolescents with prediabetes...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301856/the-role-of-dietary-experience-in-the-development-of-eating-behavior-during-the-first-years-of-life
#10
Sophie Nicklaus
Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but because of the transitions in the mode of feeding in the first years (from "tube" feeding in utero to eating table foods with the family), they have to learn how, what and how much to eat. Eating behavior established during early years may follow throughout childhood; therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important drivers of the early development of eating behavior. Beyond the first flavor discoveries during the gestational and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavors from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phases for learning food preferences and appetite control may be the beginning of complementary feeding (CF)...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301842/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-health-and-disease-in-the-gambia
#11
Sophie E Moore
BACKGROUND: Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300336/the-second-epidemiologic-transition-on-the-brink-what-we-can-learn-from-the-island-of-newfoundland-during-the-early-20th-century
#12
Dana M Schmidt, Lisa Sattenspiel
OBJECTIVES: We aim to understand how the second epidemiologic transition unfolded on the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century. The focus is on changes in predominant causes of mortality throughout this period, urban and rural differences, and comparisons with other Western nations. We explore factors driving these patterns including the economy, nutrition, sanitation, and access to healthcare and discuss their relevance to understanding epidemiologic transitions in other developing regions...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298634/weaning-age-influences-the-severity-of-gastrointestinal-microbiome-shifts-in-dairy-calves
#13
S J Meale, S C Li, P Azevedo, H Derakhshani, T J DeVries, J C Plaizier, M A Steele, E Khafipour
Ruminants microbial consortium is responsible for ruminal fermentation, a process which converts fibrous feeds unsuitable for human consumption into desirable dairy and meat products, begins to establish soon after birth. However, it undergoes a significant transition when digestion shifts from the lower intestine to ruminal fermentation. We hypothesised that delaying the transition from a high milk diet to an exclusively solid food diet (weaning) would lessen the severity of changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome during this transition...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296364/-decreased-anthropometric-indicators-of-adiposity-in-school-children-as-an-indicator-of-the-nutritional-transition-in-mexico
#14
Laura Leticia Salazar-Preciado, Alfredo Larrosa-Haro, Clío Chávez-Palencia, Elizabeth Lizárraga-Corona
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to estimate the adiposity trend in children from a public elementary school in Guadalajara, Mexico, between 2007 and 2011. METHODS: Comparative study of two samples taken transversely in 1432 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. Z-score of BMI and anthropometric indicators of arm adiposity (triceps skinfold, fat area and arm fat index) were calculated. Reference standards of the 2007-WHO and Frisancho were used. Analysis: Chi-square and Student t test...
March 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290325/assessing-the-effects-of-different-prebiotic-dietary-oligosaccharides-in-sheep-milk-ice-cream
#15
C F Balthazar, H L A Silva, A H Vieira, R P C Neto, L P Cappato, P T Coimbra, J Moraes, M M Andrade, V M A Calado, D Granato, M Q Freitas, M I B Tavares, R S L Raices, M C Silva, A G Cruz
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T22) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature...
January 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287459/prevalence-and-correlates-of-preschool-overweight-and-obesity-amidst-the-nutrition-transition-findings-from-a-national-cross-sectional-study-in-lebanon
#16
Lara Nasreddine, Nahla Hwalla, Angie Saliba, Christelle Akl, Farah Naja
There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2-5 years old children (n = 525). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined), the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics) was 11...
March 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285451/analysis-of-microbiota-involved-in-the-aged-natural-fermentation-of-indigo
#17
Takahiro Okamoto, Kenichi Aino, Takashi Narihiro, Hidetoshi Matsuyama, Isao Yumoto
Although the indigo reduction process is performed via natural fermentation and maintained under open-air condition, the indigo-reducing reactions continue for 6 months (on average) or longer. Identifying the mechanism underlying the maintenance of this process could lead to the development of a novel, long-lasting, unsterilized bioprocesses. To determine the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the indigo fermentation system microbiota for more than 6 months in a reduced state in an anaerobic alkaline environment, we examined changes in the microbiota in one early-phase batch and two aged batches of indigo fermentation fluid...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276099/a-longitudinal-study-on-the-acceptance-and-effects-of-a-therapeutic-renal-food-in-pet-dogs-with-iris-stage-1-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
J A Hall, D A Fritsch, M Yerramilli, E Obare, M Yerramilli, D E Jewell
Currently, nutritional management is recommended when serum creatinine (Cr) exceeds 1.4 mg/dl in dogs with IRIS-Stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) to slow progressive loss of kidney function, reduce clinical and biochemical consequences of CKD, and maintain adequate nutrition. It is unknown if dietary interventions benefit non-azotemic dogs at earlier stages. A prospective 12-month feeding trial was performed in client-owned dogs with IRIS-Stage 1 CKD (n = 36; 20 had persistently dilute urine with urine specific gravity (USG) <1...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273878/temporal-trends-in-dietary-macronutrient-intakes-among-adults-in-rural-china-from-1991-to-2011-findings-from-the-chns
#19
Chang Su, Jian Zhao, Yang Wu, Huijun Wang, Zhihong Wang, Yun Wang, Bing Zhang
Few studies have examined nutrition transitions among the rural population of China, even though half of the Chinese population (about 700 million) is living in rural China. To fill this research gap, we examined temporal trends in dietary macronutrient intakes in members of the Chinese rural population aged 18-60 years. The analysis used data from consecutive three-day dietary recalls, collected from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS). Mixed-effect models were constructed to obtain adjusted means and to examine temporal trends after adjusting for intra-class correlation within clusters and covariates, including age, sex, geographical region, urbanicity, and income...
March 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273802/the%C3%A2-prevalence%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-micronutrient%C3%A2-deficiencies%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-inadequacies%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-middle%C3%A2-east%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-approaches%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-interventions
#20
REVIEW
Nahla Hwalla, Ayesha Salem Al Dhaheri, Hadia Radwan, Hanan Abdullah Alfawaz, Mona A Fouda, Nasser Mohammed Al-Daghri, Sahar Zaghloul, Jeffrey B Blumberg
Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly...
March 3, 2017: Nutrients
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