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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735384/influence-of-feeding-inorganic-vanadium-on-growth-performance-endocrine-variables-and-biomarkers-of-bone-health-in-crossbred-calves
#1
Ravi Prakash Pal, Veena Mani, Deepika Tripathi, Rajesh Kumar, Neelam J Kewalramani
The nutritional essentialities of transition element vanadium (V) as micro-nutrient in farm animals have not yet been established, though in rat model, vanadium as vanadate has been reported to exert insulin-mimetic effect and shown to be needed for proper development of bones. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of V supplementation on growth performance, plasma hormones and bone health status in calves. Twenty-four crossbred calves (body weight 72.83 ± 2.5 kg; age 3-9 months) were blocked in four groups and randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 6) on body weight and age basis...
July 22, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729344/exogenous-stress-hormones-alter-energetic-and-nutrient-costs-of-development-and-metamorphosis
#2
Lucas J Kirschman, Marshall D McCue, Justin G Boyles, Robin W Warne
Variation in environmental conditions during larval life stages can shape development during critical windows and have lasting effects on the adult organism. Changes in larval developmental rates in response to environmental conditions, for example, can trade-off with growth to determine body size and condition at metamorphosis, which can affect adult survival and fecundity. However, it is unclear how use of energy and nutrients shape trade-offs across life stage transitions because no studies have quantified these costs of larval development and metamorphosis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727183/a-randomised-controlled-trial-on-a-nurse-led-smartphone-based-self-management-programme-for-patients-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-a-study-protocol
#3
Wenru Wang, Betsy Seah, Ying Jiang, Violeta Lopez, Cherry Tan, Suan Tee Lim, Hongliang Ren, Yin Hao Khoo
AIM: To develop and compare a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme with an existing nurse-led diabetes service on health-related outcomes for patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Singapore. BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, Asia has emerged as the 'diabetes epicentre' in the world due to rapid economic development, urbanisation and nutrition transition. There is an urgent need to develop more effective care management strategies in response to this rising diabetes epidemic...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724371/association-between-full-service-and-fast-food-restaurant-density-dietary-intake-and-overweight-obesity-among-adults-in-delhi-india
#4
Opal Patel, Safraj Shahulhameed, Roopa Shivashankar, Mohammad Tayyab, Atiqur Rahman, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Nikhil Tandon, Lindsay M Jaacks
BACKGROUND: The food environment has been implicated as an underlying contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between the food environment, dietary intake, and overweight/obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to assess the association of full service and fast food restaurant density with dietary intake and overweight/obesity in Delhi, India. METHODS: Data are from a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Delhi...
July 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712155/economic-activity-and-patterns-of-infant-growth-in-a-high-altitude-district-of-peru
#5
Morgan K Hoke
OBJECTIVES: Changing economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. METHODS: The length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707992/transitional-care-services-a-quality-and-safety-process-improvement-program-in-neurosurgery
#6
Faith C Robertson, Jessica L Logsdon, Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, Sandra C Yan, Siobhan M Raftery, Timothy R Smith, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Readmissions increasingly serve as a metric of hospital performance, inviting quality improvement initiatives in both medicine and surgery. However, few readmission reduction programs have targeted surgical patient populations. The objective of this study was to establish a transitional care program (TCP) with the goal of decreasing length of stay (LOS), improving discharge efficiency, and reducing readmissions of neurosurgical patients by optimizing patient education and postdischarge surveillance...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702863/walking-together-towards-a-collaborative-model-for-maternal-health-care-in-pastoralist-communities-of-laikipia-and-samburu-kenya
#7
Michelle Kermode, Alison Morgan, Josephat Nyagero, Florence Nderitu, Tanya Caulfield, Matthew Reeve, John Nduba
Purpose In 2009 the Kenyan Government introduced health system reforms to address persistently high maternal and newborn mortality including deployment of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) to health facilities in remote areas, and proscription of births attended by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Despite these initiatives, uptake of SBA services remains low and inequitably distributed. This paper describes the development of an SBA/TBA collaborative model of maternal health care for pastoralist communities in Laikipia and Samburu...
July 12, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690049/initial-validation-of-blubber-cortisol-and-progesterone-as-indicators-of-stress-response-and-maturity-in-an-otariid-the-california-sea-lion-zalophus-californianus
#8
Nicole E Beaulieu-McCoy, Kathryn K Sherman, Marisa L Trego, Daniel E Crocker, Nicholas M Kellar
Chronic stress can have detrimental effects on an individual's health and reproductive success. The use of cortisol quantification as an indicator of stress in free-ranging cetaceans and phocids is increasing but no studies have applied this technique on blubber in otariids. We measured cortisol concentrations in blubber samples obtained from California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, stranded in San Diego County and those incidentally killed in the California drift gillnet fishery. We also measured progesterone concentrations to assess female reproductive status and, in males, as a potential secondary measure of adrenal steroid production...
July 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688615/innovative-dairy-cow-management-to-improve-resistance-to-metabolic-and-infectious-diseases-during-the-transition-period
#9
REVIEW
P Lacasse, N Vanacker, S Ollier, C Ster
The incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases varies greatly during the lactation cycle. Most new cases of clinical mastitis appear at the beginning of lactation, and the incidence increases with the level of milk production. In addition to mastitis, many other infectious diseases become clinically apparent during the first 2weeks of lactation. During this time, cows are in a negative energy balance and must mobilize body reserves to balance the deficit between food energy intake and energy required for milk production...
June 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685026/cholecystokinin-induced-satiety-a-key-gut-servomechanism-that-is-affected-by-the-membrane-microenvironment-of-this-receptor
#10
REVIEW
A J Desai, M Dong, K G Harikumar, L J Miller
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a central role in nutritional homeostasis, as location for food ingestion, digestion and absorption, with the gut endocrine system responding to and regulating these events, as well as influencing appetite. One key GI hormone with the full spectrum of these activities is cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide released from neuroendocrine I cells scattered through the proximal intestine in response to fat and protein, with effects to stimulate gall bladder contraction and pancreatic exocrine secretion, to regulate gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and to induce satiety...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684721/drosophila-melanogaster-models-of-metal-related-human-diseases-and-metal-toxicity
#11
REVIEW
Pablo Calap-Quintana, Javier González-Fernández, Noelia Sebastiá-Ortega, José Vicente Llorens, María Dolores Moltó
Iron, copper and zinc are transition metals essential for life because they are required in a multitude of biological processes. Organisms have evolved to acquire metals from nutrition and to maintain adequate levels of each metal to avoid damaging effects associated with its deficiency, excess or misplacement. Interestingly, the main components of metal homeostatic pathways are conserved, with many orthologues of the human metal-related genes having been identified and characterized in Drosophila melanogaster...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675131/changes-in-the-policy-environment-for-infant-and-young-child-feeding-in-vietnam-bangladesh-and-ethiopia-and-the-role-of-targeted-advocacy
#12
Jody Harris, Edward A Frongillo, Phuong H Nguyen, Sunny S Kim, Purnima Menon
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature examining shifts in policy environments for nutrition and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) over time, and on the potential contribution of targeted advocacy to improved policy environments in low- and middle-income countries. This study tracked changes in the policy environment over a four-year period in three countries, and examined the role of targeted nutrition and IYCF advocacy strategies by a global initiative. METHODS: Qualitative methods, including key informant interviews, social network mapping, document and literature review, and event tracking, were used to gather data on nutrition and IYCF policies and programs, actor networks, and perceptions and salience of nutrition as an issue in 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam...
June 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664551/the-impact-of-voluntary-targets-on-the-sodium-content-of-processed-foods-in-brazil-2011-2013
#13
Eduardo A F Nilson, Ana M Spaniol, Vivian S S Gonçalves, Michele L Oliveira, Norm Campbell, Mary L'Abbé, Patricia C Jaime
Brazilians consume excessive dietary sodium (4700 mg/d); hence, the reduction of dietary sodium intake has been a Brazilian government priority. A set of strategies has been implemented that includes food and nutrition education initiatives and the reduction in the sodium content of processed foods and foods consumed out of the households. Since 2011, the Ministry of Health has selected priority food categories that contribute to over 90% of sodium intake from processed foods and have set biannual voluntary targets for sodium reduction with food industries to encourage food reformulation...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661463/nutrition-transition-and-biocultural-determinants-of-obesity-among-cameroonian-migrants-in-urban-cameroon-and-france
#14
Emmanuel Cohen, Norbert Amougou, Amandine Ponty, Juliette Loinger-Beck, Téodyl Nkuintchua, Nicolas Monteillet, Jonathan Y Bernard, Rihlat Saïd-Mohamed, Michelle Holdsworth, Patrick Pasquet
Native of rural West Cameroon, the Bamiléké population is traditionally predisposed to obesity. Bamiléké who migrated to urban areas additionally experience the nutrition transition. We investigated the biocultural determinants of obesity in Bamiléké who migrated to urban Cameroon (Yaoundé), or urban France (Paris). We conducted qualitative interviews (n = 36; 18 men) and a quantitative survey (n = 627; 266 men) of adults using two-stage sampling strategy, to determine the association of dietary intake, physical activity and body weight norms with obesity of Bamiléké populations in these three socio-ecological areas (rural Cameroon: n = 258; urban Cameroon: n = 319; urban France: n = 50)...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659111/progress-in-closing-the-gap-in-life-expectancy-at-birth-for-aboriginal-people-in-the-northern-territory-1967-2012
#15
Nick Georges, Steven L Guthridge, Shu Qin Li, John R Condon, Tony Barnes, Yuejen Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To compare long term changes in mortality and life expectancy at birth (LE) of Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory and of the overall Australian population; to determine the contributions of changes in mortality in specific age groups to changes in LE for each population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective trend analysis of death and LE data for the NT Aboriginal and Australian populations, 1967-2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LE estimates based on abridged life tables; mortality estimates (deaths per 100 000 population); and age decomposition of LE changes by sex and time period...
July 3, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658817/salient-features-of-a-proposed-adolescent-health-policy-draft-for-india
#16
Janmejaya Samal, Ranjit Kumar Dehury
India is one of the most populous countries in the world. The adolescent population in India constitutes about one fifth of the total Indian population. Adolescent phase is a transitional phase in life and the adolescents are neither child nor adult at this stage and are full of energy, have significant drive and new ideas. The relatively lower death rate and relatively good health status of the adolescents has always been a misleading measure to adolescent health and thus given lesser priorities. In order to respond effectively to the needs of adolescent health and development, it is important to place adolescence in a life-span perspective within dynamic sociological, cultural and economic realities...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647405/docosahexaenoic-acid-promotes-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signalling-and-prevents-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-dependent-maturational-arrest
#17
A Bernardo, M L Giammarco, C De Nuccio, M A Ajmone-Cat, S Visentin, R De Simone, L Minghetti
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid known to be neuroprotective in several models of human diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The protective effects of DHA are largely attributed to its ability to interfere with the activity of transcription factors controlling immune and inflammatory responses, including the agonist-dependent transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). In this study, we used primary oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cultures from neonatal rat brain to investigate whether DHA could influence OP maturation and directly promote myelination, as previously reported for selective PPAR-γ agonists...
June 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638589/gastrocolic-fistula-presented-as-an-early-complication-of-gastric-surgery-in-a-42-year-old-man
#18
Mohammad Javad Zahedi, Sara Shafiei Pour, Masood Dehghani, Nazanin Eslami
Currently, surgery is less needed for the treatment of refractory peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or its complications. So, the complications of PUD surgery have been clearly declined. Here in, we present a 42-year-old man with chronic watery diarrhea and significant weight loss during 2 years after gastrojejunostomy for the treatment of obstructive PUD. Small bowel gastrointestinal series showed rapid transit without passage of contrast in the parts of small bowel. The patient was scheduled for exploratory laparotomy...
April 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628250/grain-subproteome-responses-to-nitrogen-and-sulfur-supply-in-diploid-wheat-triticum-monococcum-ssp-monococcum
#19
Titouan Bonnot, Emmanuelle Bancel, David Alvarez, Marlène Davanture, Julie Boudet, Marie Pailloux, Michel Zivy, Catherine Ravel, Pierre Martre
Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling...
June 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#20
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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