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Autism ketamine

Andrew D Franklin, Jenna H Sobey, Eric T Stickles
Electroconvulsive therapy is being used more frequently in the treatment of many chronic and acute psychiatric illnesses in children. The most common psychiatric indications for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy are refractory depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia, and autism. In addition, a relatively new indication is the treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The anesthesiologist may be called upon to assist in the care of this challenging and vulnerable patient population...
May 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Jennifer A Honeycutt, Kevin M Keary Iii, Vanessa M Kania, James J Chrobak
Local circuit GABAergic neurons, including parvalbumin (PV)-containing basket cells, likely play a key role in the development, physiology, and pathology of neocortical circuits. Regionally selective and well-defined decreases in PV have been described in human postmortem schizophrenic brain tissue in both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Animal models of schizophreniform dysfunction following acute and/or chronic ketamine treatment have also demonstrated decreases in PV expression. Conflicting reports with respect to PV immunoreactivity following acute and chronic ketamine treatments in rodents question the utility of using PV as a biological marker of pathology-related dysfunction...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Digavalli V Sivarao, Ping Chen, Arun Senapati, Yili Yang, Alda Fernandes, Yulia Benitex, Valerie Whiterock, Yu-Wen Li, Michael K Ahlijanian
Schizophrenia patients exhibit dysfunctional gamma oscillations in response to simple auditory stimuli or more complex cognitive tasks, a phenomenon explained by reduced NMDA transmission within inhibitory/excitatory cortical networks. Indeed, a simple steady-state auditory click stimulation paradigm at gamma frequency (~40 Hz) has been reproducibly shown to reduce entrainment as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) in patients. However, some investigators have reported increased phase locking factor (PLF) and power in response to 40 Hz auditory stimulus in patients...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Neda Taghizadeh, Andrew Davidson, Katrina Williams, David Story
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is now diagnosed in more than 1 in 100 children, so it is not surprising that anesthetists are increasingly providing care for children with this diagnosis. The diagnostic classification for ASD has recently changed and our understanding of the causes and management of ASD are also changing rapidly. This review provides a timely update to increase understanding and awareness of the problems that children with ASD experience, and to minimize perioperative problems. Current literature on premedication and the increasing use of alpha-2 agonists such as clonidine and dexmedetomidine as well as the use of old favorites midazolam and ketamine is reviewed...
November 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Giuseppe D'Agostino, Claudia Cristiano, David J Lyons, Rita Citraro, Emilio Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Roberto Russo, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Rosaria Meli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Lora K Heisler, Antonio Calignano
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is the target of medications used to treat dyslipidemia. However, little is known about the role of PPAR-α in mouse behavior. METHODS: To investigate the function of Ppar-α in cognitive functions, a behavioral phenotype analysis of mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Ppar-α was performed in combination with neuroanatomical, biochemical and pharmacological manipulations...
July 2015: Molecular Metabolism
Chittaranjan Andrade
Intranasal drug delivery (INDD) systems offer a route to the brain that bypasses problems related to gastrointestinal absorption, first-pass metabolism, and the blood-brain barrier; onset of therapeutic action is rapid, and the inconvenience and discomfort of parenteral administration are avoided. INDD has found several applications in neuropsychiatry, such as to treat migraine, acute and chronic pain, Parkinson disease, disorders of cognition, autism, schizophrenia, social phobia, and depression. INDD has also been used to test experimental drugs, such as peptides, for neuropsychiatric indications; these drugs cannot easily be administered by other routes...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Logan K Wink, Anne M O'Melia, Rebecca C Shaffer, Ernest Pedapati, Katherine Friedmann, Tori Schaefer, Craig A Erickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Tomokazu Nakako, Takeshi Murai, Masaru Ikejiri, Takashi Hashimoto, Manato Kotani, Kenji Matsumoto, Shoji Manabe, Yuji Ogi, Naho Konoike, Katsuki Nakamura, Kazuhito Ikeda
Infants with autism have difficulties performing joint visual attention (JVA), defined as following another person's pointing gesture and gaze. Some non-human primates (NHPs) can also perform JVA. Most preclinical research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has used rodents as animal models of this social interaction disorder. However, models using rodents fail to capture the complexity of social interactions that are disrupted in ASD. Therefore, JVA impairment in NHPs might be a more useful model of ASD. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate and convenient ASD model with common marmosets...
November 1, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
Ilan Keidan, Erez Ben-Menachem, Michal Tzadok, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Haim Berkenstadt
OBJECTIVES: To report the effectiveness and efficiency of a predetermined sedation protocol for providing sedation for electroencephalograph (EEG) studies in children with autism. METHODS: Sleep EEG has been advocated for the majority of children with autism spectrum disorder. In most cases, sedation is required to allow adequate studies. Most sedation drugs have negative effects on the EEG pattern. The sedation protocol we adopted included chloral hydrate, dexmedetomidine, and ketamine and was evaluated prospectively for 2 years...
February 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Steven M Paul, James J Doherty, Albert J Robichaud, Gabriel M Belfort, Brian Y Chow, Rebecca S Hammond, Devon C Crawford, Andrew J Linsenbardt, Hong-Jin Shu, Yukitoshi Izumi, Steven J Mennerick, Charles F Zorumski
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that are critical to the regulation of excitatory synaptic function in the CNS. NMDARs govern experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders including the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and certain forms of autism. Certain neurosteroids modulate NMDARs experimentally but their low potency, poor selectivity, and very low brain concentrations make them poor candidates as endogenous ligands or therapeutic agents...
October 30, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J Iafrati, M J Orejarena, O Lassalle, L Bouamrane, C Gonzalez-Campo, P Chavis
Defective brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is a factor of vulnerability in various psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and autism. The glycoprotein reelin is an essential building block of the brain ECM that modulates neuronal development and participates to the functions of adult central synapses. The reelin gene (RELN) is a strong candidate in psychiatric diseases of early onset, but its synaptic and behavioral functions in juvenile brain circuits remain unresolved. Here, we found that in juvenile reelin-haploinsufficient heterozygous reeler mice (HRM), abnormal fear memory erasure is concomitant to reduced dendritic spine density and anomalous long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex...
April 2014: Molecular Psychiatry
Miriam Kron, C James Howell, Ian T Adams, Michael Ransbottom, Diana Christian, Michael Ogier, David M Katz
Excitatory-inhibitory imbalance has been identified within specific brain microcircuits in models of Rett syndrome (RTT) and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, macrocircuit dysfunction across the RTT brain as a whole has not been defined. To approach this issue, we mapped expression of the activity-dependent, immediate-early gene product Fos in the brains of wild-type (Wt) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2)-null (Null) mice, a model of RTT, before and after the appearance of overt symptoms (3 and 6 weeks of age, respectively)...
October 3, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
R U Ostrovskaia, N A Krupina, T A Gudasheva, T A Voronina, S B Seredenin
The antipsychotic properties of dilept, a new drug representing substituted dipeptide based on a beta-rotational structure of the main metabolite of endogenous neuroleptic NT8-13, have been studied using the test for prestimulus inhibition (PSI) of the acoustic startle reflex in rats. It is established that dilept eliminates the PSI deficiency caused by the introduction of a noncompetitive NMDA receptor blocker ketamine, which is evidence for pronounced neuroleptic properties of the drug. Effective doses of dilept for intraperitoneal administration were 1...
September 2009: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
Gotaro Shirakami, Keiji Tanimoto, Shogo Matsuura, Kazuhiko Fukuda
A 22-year-old male patient with autism and epilepsy was scheduled to undergo impacted third molar extractions at an outpatient setting. Oral preanesthetic medication with dexmedetomidine and subsequent midazolam with ketamine was acceptable and effective to place intravenous cannula. General anesthesia was maintained with intravenous propofol and dexmedetomidine and operation was performed uneventfully. Sedation with intravenous dexmedetomidine was continued after operation to attenuate and/or manage postoperative problems, such as emergence agitation, dysphoric reactions, pain, opioid-related nausea/vomiting and seizure...
June 2008: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Limin Shi, S Hossein Fatemi, Robert W Sidwell, Paul H Patterson
Maternal viral infection is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Using this observation in an animal model, we find that respiratory infection of pregnant mice (both BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains) with the human influenza virus yields offspring that display highly abnormal behavioral responses as adults. As in schizophrenia and autism, these offspring display deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) in the acoustic startle response. Compared with control mice, the infected mice also display striking responses to the acute administration of antipsychotic (clozapine and chlorpromazine) and psychomimetic (ketamine) drugs...
January 1, 2003: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J H van der Walt, C Moran
BACKGROUND: Autistic children are very difficult to manage in the hospital setting because they react badly to any change in routine. METHODS: We have developed a unique management program for autistic children admitted for medical and surgical procedures requiring a general anaesthetic. Details of each patient managed according to this program have been prospectively entered into an Autistic Register. RESULTS: An audit of this database shows that we have administered anaesthesia on 87 occasions for 59 autistic children over 4 years...
July 2001: Paediatric Anaesthesia
K P Allison, G Smith
The successful use of elective post-operative sedation and ventilation following tangential surgical excision of burns in an autistic child. non-compliant with conventional management is reported. Other strategies for treating autistic children are discussed.
August 1998: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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