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Antipsychotic agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211669/3-aminomethyl-derivatives-of-2-phenylimidazo-1-2-a-pyridine-as-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-gabaa-receptor-with-potential-antipsychotic-activity
#1
Monika Marcinkowska, Marcin Kolaczkowski, Krzysztof Kamiński, Adam Bucki, Maciej Henryk Pawlowski, Agata Siwek, Tadeusz Karcz, Gabriela Starowicz, Karolina Sloczynska, Elżbieta Pękala, Anna Wesołowska, Jerzy Samochowiec, Paweł Mierzejewski, Przemyslaw Bienkowski
Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by behavioral changes as well as anatomical and neurochemical abnormalities. There has been a remarkable progress in the drug discovery for schizophrenia; however, antipsychotics that act through molecular targets, other than monoaminergic receptors, have not been developed. One of the hypotheses of schizophrenia states that GABAergic dysfunction might be implemented in the pathophysiology of this disease. Our recent findings and previous clinical observations have suggested that modulation of GABAergic system through α1-GABAA receptors would represent an original approach for the treatment of schizophrenia...
February 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207919/tardive-dyskinesia-21st-century-may-bring-new-treatments-to-a-forgotten-disorder
#2
Gopalkumar Rakesh, Andrew Muzyk, Steven T Szabo, Sanjay Gupta, Chi-Un Pae, Prakash Masand
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a condition that was first described nearly 60 years ago. Despite the tremendous amount of research on pathophysiology and numerous follow-up studies to understand the course and prognosis of TD, effective treatment of the condition continued to elude us until recently. METHODS: We review and summarize clinical literature on TD, as well as provide an update on new treatments available. RESULTS: The emergence of tetrabenazine as a treatment modality decreased suffering and improved quality of life for patients...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#3
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186869/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#4
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177063/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-antipsychotic-polypharmacy-in-patients-with-serious-mental-illness-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-an-upper-middle-income-country
#5
Kerryn S Armstrong, Henk Temmingh
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) among patients with serious mental illness in the current South African health care context. Methods: We collected data on patient, illness, and treatment characteristics of patients discharged on one or more antipsychotic agents from January to June 2014. We analyzed the associations of APP with demographic and clinical variables using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression, and examined prescription patterns...
February 6, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168757/medication-induced-siadh-distribution-and-characterization-according-to-medication-class
#6
Shepshelovich Daniel, Schechter Amir, Calvarysky Bronislava, Diker-Cohen Talia, Rozen-Zvi Benaya, Gafter-Gvili Anat
AIMS: To determine the distribution of aetiologies for drug induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in hospitalized patients, and to characterize them according to the different drug groups. METHODS: A single centre retrospective study including all patients diagnosed with SIADH in a large community hospital and tertiary centre between 1.1.2007 and 1.1.2013 who were treated with drugs known to be associated with SIADH. Two physicians reviewed every patient's medical file for predetermined relevant clinical data...
February 7, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152633/long-term-mortality-after-poisoning-with-antipsychotics
#7
Stine Toft, Henrik Horwitz, Kim Peder Dalhoff
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term mortality and cause of death after deliberate self-poisoning with antipsychotics. Furthermore, we investigated the risk of repeated self-poisoning after a first episode of poisoning with antipsychotics. METHODS: We identified patients with antipsychotic poisoning from the Danish Poison Information Centre Database and correlated their personal identification number with four Danish national registries related to health aspects...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152356/cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Leonard Kritharides, Vincent Chow, Tim Jr Lambert
Patients with schizophrenia die on average 25 years earlier than the general population, and this gap appears to be increasing. Most of the excess mortality is due to premature cardiovascular deaths rather than suicide. Many psychotropic agents are orexigenic and can increase weight and promote dyslipidaemia. Traditional cardiac risk factors are undertreated among patients with schizophrenia, and they are less likely to receive cardiac revascularisation than those without a mental illness. Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication effective for treatment of refractory schizophrenia, but is associated with the risk of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy...
February 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152179/central-nervous-system-medication-burden-and-serious-falls-in-older-nursing-home-residents
#9
Joseph T Hanlon, Xinhua Zhao, Jennifer G Naples, Sherrie L Aspinall, Subashan Perera, David A Nace, Nicholas G Castle, Susan L Greenspan, Carolyn T Thorpe
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between CNS medication burden and serious falls in those with a recent fall history. DESIGN: Nested-case control study; cases matched to four controls by age, gender, and date. SETTING: US nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: 5,556 residents age ≥65 with a recent fall history admitted to a nursing home between 1/1-9/30/2010 and followed until discharge, death, or December 31, 2010. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome was serious falls as per Medicare Part A and B ICD/CPT codes...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144147/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-an-easily-overlooked-neurologic-emergency
#10
REVIEW
Ramadhan Oruch, Ian F Pryme, Bernt A Engelsen, Anders Lund
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an unpredictable iatrogenic neurologic emergency condition, mainly arising as an idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic agent use. It is characterized by distinctive clinical features including a change in mental status, generalized rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and dysautonomia. It can be lethal if not diagnosed and treated properly. Mortality and morbidity attributed to this syndrome have recently declined markedly due to greater awareness, earlier diagnosis, and intensive care intervention...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141623/activating-and-sedating-adverse-effects-of-second-generation-antipsychotics-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-and-major-depressive-disorder-absolute-risk-increase-and-number-needed-to-harm
#11
Leslie Citrome
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Activating and sedating adverse effects of antipsychotics can be obstacles to their use. METHODS/PROCEDURES: This study quantified the activating and sedating properties of first-line oral second-generation antipsychotics by examining the rates of adverse reactions as reported in product labeling for the indications of schizophrenia and adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder. Additional data sources included regulatory documents, study synopses, and published study reports...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141622/5-ht6-receptor-antagonist-as-an-adjunct-treatment-targeting-residual-symptoms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-unexpected-sex-related-effects-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Margarita Morozova, Denis Burminskiy, George Rupchev, Taissia Lepilkina, Sergey Potanin, Allan Beniashvili, Yan Lavrovsky, Natalia Vostokova, Alexander Ivaschenko
BACKGROUND: Treating patients who experience residual psychotic symptoms during remission of schizophrenia remains one of the most challenging problems. The mechanisms underlying these symptoms differ from those of acute hallucinations and delusions. 5-HT6 receptor antagonists have been considered promising agents in treatment of residual psychotic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a selective 5-HT6 inhibitor Avisetron in the reduction of residual psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia on stable antipsychotic therapy...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138203/reversible-encephalopathy-due-to-valproic-acid-induced-hyperammonemia-in-a-patient-with-bipolar-i-disorder-a-cautionary-report
#13
Neel Patel, Katherine B Landry, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Valproic acid (VPA) is an FDA-approved medication widely prescribed for seizures, migraines, and mixed or manic episodes in bipolar disorder. Hyperammonemia is a rare complication of VPA use, which can result in high morbidity and occasionally fatal encephalopathy. The scant literature on Valproate Induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy (VIHE) is characterized by acute onset of decreasing level of consciousness, drowsiness, lethargy which in rare instances can lead to seizures, stupor, coma, and persistent morbidity and cortical damage...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137460/the-pharmacological-treatment-of-aggression-in-children-and-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder-do-callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-the-efficacy-of-medication
#14
REVIEW
Carla Balia, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Alessandro Zuddas
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) show repetitive and persistent patterns of aggressive behaviour and the more severe forms are often associated with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and, where data are adequate, conduct meta-analyses on the efficacy of medication on aggression in children and adolescent with CD considering the impact of CU traits. RESULTS: Few studies have investigated patients with CD as primary diagnosis, and few of these have discriminated between different types of aggression or reported measures of CU traits...
January 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137432/higher-than-recommended-dosages-of-antipsychotics-in-male-patients-with-schizophrenia-are-associated-with-increased-depression-but-no-major-neurocognitive-side-effects-results-of-a-cross-sectional-pilot-naturalistic-study
#15
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Xenia Gonda, Melina Siamouli, Katerina Moutou, Zoe Nitsa, Brian E Leonard, Siegfried Kasper
INTRODUCTION: The current small pilot naturalistic cross-sectional study assesses whether higher dosages of antipsychotics are related to a satisfactory outcome concerning symptoms of schizophrenia but also to a worse outcome in terms of adverse events and neurocognitive function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 41 male stabilized hospitalized schizophrenic patients were assessed by PANSS, Calgary Depression Rating Scale, UKU and Simpson-Angus Scale and a battery of neurocognitive tests...
January 28, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135844/morbidity-and-mortality-associated-with-medications-used-in-the-treatment-of-depression-an-analysis-of-cases-reported-to-u-s-poison-control-centers-2000-2014
#16
J Craig Nelson, Daniel A Spyker
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the relative morbidity and mortality associated with drugs used to treat depression and to examine specific clinical effects associated with serious outcomes. METHOD: The National Poison Data System, which receives exposure reports from regional poison centers serving the United States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, was queried for single drug exposures in individuals 12 years and older during the period 2000-2014...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124100/-treatment-with-psychotropic-agents-in-patients-with-dementia-and-delirium-gap-between-guideline-recommendations-and-treatment-practice
#17
Walter Hewer, Christine Thomas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatric symptoms in dementia and delirium are associated with a substantially reduced quality of life of patients and their families and often challenging for professionals. Pharmacoepidemiological surveys have shown that, in particular, patients living in nursing homes receive prescriptions of psychotropic agents in significant higher frequency than recommended by current guidelines. This article focuses on a critical appraisal of this gap from the point of view of German healthcare services...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116777/pharmacological-treatment-for-antipsychotic-related-constipation
#18
REVIEW
Susanna Every-Palmer, Giles Newton-Howes, Mike J Clarke
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-related constipation is a common and serious adverse effect, especially for people taking clozapine. Clozapine has been shown to impede gastrointestinal motility, leading to constipation, and has been reported in up to 60% of patients receiving clozapine. In rare cases, complications can be fatal. Appropriate laxatives should be prescribed to treat constipation in people taking antipsychotics, but there is a lack of guidance on the comparative effectiveness and harms of different agents in this population...
January 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116499/lack-of-relationship-between-plasma-levels-of-escitalopram-and-qtc-interval-length
#19
Mar Carceller-Sindreu, Javier de Diego-Adeliño, Maria J Portella, Xavier Garcia-Moll, Maria Figueras, Aina Fernandez-Vidal, Josep M Queraltó, Dolors Puigdemont, Enric Álvarez
Despite safety concerns raised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), evidence supporting QT-lengthening effects of escitalopram is far to be conclusive. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between escitalopram plasma levels (Escit-PL) and corrected QT-interval length (QTc-length) in 91 outpatients recruited from a hospital setting. Fifteen patients had an abnormally prolonged QTc-interval, and 3 had QTc-intervals ≥500 ms. No correlation between Escit-PL and QTc-length was found (r = 0.08; p = 0.45)...
January 23, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112193/potentially-high-risk-medication-categories-and-unplanned-hospitalizations-a-case-time-control-study
#20
Chih-Wan Lin, Yu-Wen Wen, Liang-Kung Chen, Fei-Yuan Hsiao
Empirical data of medication-related hospitalization are very limited. We aimed to investigate the associations between 12 high risk medication categories (diabetic agents, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anticoagulants, antiplatelets, antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepine (BZD)/Z-hypnotics, and narcotics) and unplanned hospitalizations. A population-based case-time-control study was performed using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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