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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454494/historical-perspectives-on-tardive-dyskinesia
#1
REVIEW
Stanley N Caroff, Gabor S Ungvari, David G Cunningham Owens
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a persistent hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with dopamine receptor blocking agents including antipsychotic medications. Although uncertainty and concern about this drug side effect has vacillated since its initial recognition 60 years ago, recent commercial interest in developing effective treatments has rekindled scientific and clinical interest after a protracted period of neglect. Although substantial research has advanced knowledge of the clinical features and epidemiology of TD, many fundamental questions raised by early investigators remain unresolved...
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449008/tardive-dyskinesia-out-of-the-shadows
#2
REVIEW
Robert A Hauser, Daniel Truong
The approvals of the first two medications, valbenazine and deutetrabenazine, to treat tardive dyskinesia have ushered in a new era in neuropsychiatric care. Tardive syndromes are defined as delayed onset, persistent movement disorders or sensory phenomena that occur in association with exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs). Their underlying pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated, but clinicians can conceptualize tardive syndromes as persistent dopamine supersensitivity states. Tardive syndromes can potentially cause distress, disfigurement, embarrassment, and dysfunction, and are often permanent...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436643/neuroprotective-effect-of-lurasidone-via-antagonist-activities-on-histamine-in-a-rat-model-of-cranial-nerve-involvement
#3
Baoming He, Liang Yu, Suping Li, Fei Xu, Lili Yang, Shuai Ma, Yi Guo
Cranial nerve involvement frequently involves neuron damage and often leads to psychiatric disorder caused by multiple inducements. Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of cranial nerve involvement and a number of mental health conditions in several countries. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of lurasidone by antagonist activities on histamine was investigated in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The antagonist activities of lurasidone on serotonin 5‑HT7, serotonin 5‑HT2A, serotonin 5‑HT1A and serotonin 5‑HT6 were analyzed, and the preclinical therapeutic effects of lurasidone were examined in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433934/evidence-based-review-of-pharmacotherapy-for-acute-agitation-part-2-safety
#4
Leslie S Zun
BACKGROUND: The management of acute agitation in the emergency department often requires the administration of rapid-acting antipsychotic agents. However, there are few comparative studies and little guidance regarding the risks associated with use of such drugs in the acute setting. OBJECTIVE: This structured evidence-based review compared the safety of antipsychotic pharmacotherapies for acute agitation using data from randomized controlled trials identified by a literature search of the PubMed database...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433809/future-directions-in-tardive-dyskinesia-research
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan M Meyer
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) research is at a crossroads because of renewed interest in this syndrome following the successful development and regulatory approval of two novel vesicular monoamine transport 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors. Despite these clinical advances, significant lacunae exist in the knowledge base of TD pathophysiology, prognosis, and epidemiology. Moreover, conflicting definitions of TD as either a syndrome that encompasses a broad array of related phenomena or as a specific subset of tardive syndromes are an impediment to both clinical and basic science research, and to educational efforts targeting nonspecialist clinicians...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433808/vmat2-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#6
REVIEW
Laura M Scorr, Stewart A Factor
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an often disabling hyperkinetic movement disorder caused by exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents. Although initially thought to most commonly occur with typical antipsychotics, the incidence is likely similar with atypical antipsychotics and antiemetics such as metoclopramide. Increased prescribing of these agents as well as low rates of remission have contributed to a rising prevalence of TD. Although this condition was described nearly 60 years ago, it is only within the past year that two novel therapeutic agents were FDA approved...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414306/repurposing-psychiatric-drugs-as-anti-cancer-agents
#7
Jing Huang, Danwei Zhao, Zhixiong Liu, Fangkun Liu
Cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading contributors to the global disease burden. The high cost of development of new drugs and the increasingly severe burden of cancer globally have led to increased interest in the search and development of novel, affordable anti-neoplastic medications. Antipsychotic drugs have a long history of clinical use and tolerable safety; they have been used as good targets for drug repurposing. Being used for various psychiatric diseases for decades, antipsychotic drugs are now reported to have potent anti-cancer properties against a wide variety of malignancies in addition to their antipsychotic effects...
February 1, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414012/isolation-identification-and-characterization-of-two-novel-process-related-impurities-in-olanzapine
#8
Tao Zhuang, Wen Zhang, Longji Cao, Kai He, Yu Wang, Jing Li, Liang Chen, Bifeng Liu, Guisen Zhang
Olanzapine is a marketed antipsychotic agent for treatment of both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The chemical synthesis of olanzapine drug substance involved the reaction of thienobenzodiazepine hydrochloride with N-methylpiperazine. During the manufacture of olanzapine, two unknown impurities were present in pilot batches in the range of 0.08-0.22% based upon HPLC analysis. These unknown impurities were enriched from the mother liquor of reaction by preparative HPLC, and characterized by UV, FT-IR, LC-MS/TOF, 1D-NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT), 2D-NMR (1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, ROESY) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413518/unique-effects-of-clozapine-a-pharmacological-perspective
#9
Jibran Y Khokhar, Angela M Henricks, Emily D K Sullivan, Alan I Green
Schizophrenia is a heterogenous and severe neuropsychiatric disorder that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment, but not all patients with schizophrenia respond to treatment with these agents. Clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic, is a highly effective medication for patients with schizophrenia who do not respond to other antipsychotics. Although clozapine tends not to produce extrapyramidal symptoms, other side effects of the drug (e.g., agranulocytosis, myocarditis, seizures) limit its widespread use...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410937/understanding-antipsychotic-drug-treatment-effects-a-novel-method-to-reduce-pseudospecificity-of-the-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-panss-factors
#10
REVIEW
Seth C Hopkins, Ajay Ogirala, Antony Loebel, Kenneth S Koblan
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is the most widely used efficacy measure in acute treatment studies of schizophrenia. However, interpretation of the efficacy of antipsychotics in improving specific symptom domains is confounded by moderate-to-high correlations among standard (Marder) PANSS factors. The authors review the results of an uncorrelated PANSS score matrix (UPSM) transform designed to reduce pseudospecificity in assessment of symptom change in patients with schizophrenia. Based on a factor analysis of five pooled, placebo-controlled lurasidone clinical trials (N=1,710 patients), a UPSM transform was identified that generated PANSS factors with high face validity (good correlation with standard Marder PANSS factors), and high specificity/orthogonality (low levels of between-factor correlation measuring change during treatment)...
December 1, 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410000/meta-regression-relationship-between-antipsychotic-receptor-binding-profiles-and-side-effects
#11
Baris Olten, Michael H Bloch
Our objective was to examine the association between antipsychotic receptor binding profiles and the magnitude of common side-effects. We used regression analysis to examine the association between the receptor binding affinities of antipsychotic agents (log Ki) and degree of specific antipsychotic side-effects. Data on magnitude of weight gain, prolactin increase and QTc prolongation (in Standardized Mean Difference) and risk of sedation and extrapyramidal symptoms (in Odds Ratio) between individual antipsychotic medications as compared to placebo was based on a recent network meta-analysis examining the treatment of schizophrenia...
February 1, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409574/atypical-antipsychotics-in-late-life-and-treatment-resistant-depression
#12
Trista Askins Bailey, Sehrish Panjwani
As persons age, their risk of developing late-life depression increases. Older adults not only have an increased risk of late-life depression, but they also have an increased risk of suicidal ideation. Because of these increased risks, it is vital that clinicians be aware of the options available to assist these persons to achieve remission of their symptoms, as well as prevent relapse. Atypical antipsychotics have been considered an augmentation option in younger adults with depression. However, because of the black box warning associated with atypical antipsychotics in older adults with dementia, clinicians often exercise caution when using these agents to help treat late-life depression...
February 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407782/manual-or-automated-measuring-of-antipsychotics-chemical-oxygen-demand
#13
Sarah A P Pereira, Susana P F Costa, Edite Cunha, Marieta L C Passos, André R S T Araújo, M Lúcia M F S Saraiva
Antipsychotic (AP) drugs are becoming accumulated in terrestrial and aqueous resources due to their actual consumption. Thus, the search of methods for assessing the contamination load of these drugs is mandatory. The COD is a key parameter used for monitoring water quality upon the assessment of the effect of polluting agents on the oxygen level. Thus, the present work aims to assess the chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels of several typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs in order to obtain structure-activity relationships...
February 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397899/sodium-benzoate-a-d-amino-acid-oxidase-inhibitor-added-to-clozapine-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Chieh-Hsin Lin, Ching-Hua Lin, Yue-Cune Chang, Yu-Jhen Huang, Po-Wei Chen, Hui-Ting Yang, Hsien-Yuan Lane
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the last-line antipsychotic agent for refractory schizophrenia. To date, there is no convincing evidence for augmentation on clozapine. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, including inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase that may metabolize D-amino acids, has been reported to be beneficial for patients receiving antipsychotics other than clozapine. This study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of a D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, sodium benzoate, for schizophrenia patients who had poor response to clozapine...
December 26, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395980/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-series-of-novel-pyridinecarboxamides-as-potential-multi-receptor-antipsychotic-drugs
#15
Mingshuo Xu, Yu Wang, Feipu Yang, Chunhui Wu, Zhen Wang, Bin Ye, Xiangrui Jiang, Qingjie Zhao, Jianfeng Li, Yongjian Liu, Junchi Zhang, Guanghui Tian, Yang He, Jingshan Shen, Hualiang Jiang
In previous study, a series of benzamides was identified as potent antipsychotic agents. As a continuation of the program to discover novel antipsychotics, herein we reported the evaluation of a series of pyridinecarboxamide derivatives. The most promising compound 7h not only held good activities on dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, but also exhibited low potency for α1A, H1 and 5-HT2C receptors, indicating a low propensity of side effects like orthostatic hypotension and weight gain. Furthermore, 7h exhibited more potent antipsychotic-like effect than aripiprazole in behavioral studies...
January 30, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374325/treating-hallucinations-and-delusions-associated-with-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#16
REVIEW
Shyam C Panchal, William G Ondo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss features of Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) including symptomology and pathophysiology. Treatment options, including non-pharmacologic strategies, dose reduction of offending agents, and the addition of non-dopaminergic antipsychotics, are addressed. The efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics and novel agents is examined. RECENT FINDINGS: Pimavanserin, a 5-HT 2A/C receptor inverse agonist with no other receptor activity, has shown efficacy and tolerability and is now FDA approved for PDP treatment...
January 27, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373456/natural-medicines-for-psychotic-disorders-a-systematic-review
#17
H J Rogier Hoenders, Agna A Bartels-Velthuis, Nina K Vollbehr, Richard Bruggeman, Henderikus Knegtering, Joop T V M de Jong
Patients with psychotic disorders regularly use natural medicines, although it is unclear whether these are effective and safe. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of evidence for improved outcomes by natural medicines. A systematic literature search was performed through Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane until May 2015. In 110 randomized controlled trials, evidence was found for glycine, sarcosine, N-acetylcysteine, some Chinese and ayurvedic herbs, ginkgo biloba, estradiol, and vitamin B6 to improve psychotic symptoms when added to antipsychotics...
February 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370545/a-study-of-the-use-of-psychopharmacologic-agents-by-acutely-medically-ill-older-adults
#18
Steven L Baumann, William Jacobowitz, Donna Tanzi, Tricia A Lewis, Margaret J Krepp, Eileen Levy
This retrospective study sought to investigate issues related to the safety of psychopharmacological agents used by acutely medically ill hospitalized older adults. It explored if there were any associations between commonly prescribed psychiatric medications that medically ill hospitalized older adults received and adverse events. It also sought to compare the safety of antidepressants, sedative/hypnotics, and antipsychotics, when used as a standing (on a preset schedule) and as needed pro re nata (PRN) basis...
January 25, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362595/protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-lithium-anticonvulsive-or-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-of-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
R Soleimani, M M Jalali, A Keshtkar, S M Jalali
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that causes significant distress to the afflicted individual. About half of OCD patients treated with an adequate trial of serotonin reuptake inhibitors fail to fully respond to treatment and continue to exhibit significant symptoms. Therefore, there is a need for other agents to alleviate the symptoms of these disorders. In spite of considerable research including numerous randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews, there exists uncertainty regarding what treatments are effective...
October 2017: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361326/evidence-based-review-of-pharmacotherapy-for-acute-agitation-part-1-onset-of-efficacy
#20
Leslie S Zun
BACKGROUND: The main goal of antipsychotic medication in the management of acute agitation in the emergency department is to rapidly induce calm without oversedation, enabling patients to participate in their own care. However, there is a paucity of comparative studies, particularly with newer fast-acting second-generation antipsychotic agents. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: This structured evidence-based review compared the onset of efficacy of antipsychotic treatments for acute agitation using data from randomized controlled trials identified by a literature search of the PubMed database...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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