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Antipsychotic agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639298/prevalence-patterns-and-factors-associated-with-psychotropic-use-in-older-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-ireland
#1
M O'Dwyer, J Peklar, N Mulryan, P McCallion, M McCarron, M C Henman
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disability (ID) are at increased risk of exposure to psychotropic drugs and psychotropic polypharmacy because of the higher prevalence of mental health conditions present and more controversially, the use of these agents to treat challenging behaviours. Despite the fact that many adults with ID are exposed to psychotropic polypharmacy, few studies to date have focused on the patterns of use of multiple psychotropics, or factors associated with psychotropic polypharmacy, particularly in the older population...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638698/atypical-antipsychotic-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis-a-retrospective-study
#2
Mei Yuan, Laura Sperry, Norika Malhado-Chang, Alexandra Duffy, Vicki Wheelock, Sarah Farias, Kevin O'Connor, John Olichney, Kiarash Shahlaie, Lin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) is a frequent complication of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) with significant impact on quality of life and association with poorer outcomes. Atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are often used for the treatment of PDP; however, their use is often complicated by adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In this study, we present patients with PDP who were treated with the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic agents and review their respective ADRs...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638290/medication-induced-tardive-dyskinesia-a-review-and-update
#3
REVIEW
Elyse M Cornett, Matthew Novitch, Alan David Kaye, Vijay Kata, Adam M Kaye
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that causes involuntary, repetitive body movements and is commonly seen in patients who are on long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications. However, several other classes of medications with different mechanisms are also associated with TD. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search using keywords and combined word searches that involved medication-induced TD, as well as agents that are associated with causing or are used to treat medication-induced TD...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638198/efficacy-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-the-management-of-acute-agitation-and-aggression-in-hospitalized-patients-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder-results-from-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Xin Yu, Christoph U Correll, Yu-Tao Xiang, Yifeng Xu, Jizhong Huang, Fude Yang, Gang Wang, Tianmei Si, John M Kane, Prakash Masand
Acute agitation and aggression are common symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss the prevalence, clinical assessment strategies, treatment options, and current Western and Chinese guidelines for the management of acute agitation and aggression in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Among available approaches, we discuss in detail recent evidence supporting the use of intramuscular (IM) antipsychotics and some recently approved oral atypical antipsychotics for the management of acute aggression and agitation in hospitalized patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia presenting with acute agitation or aggression, highlighting some differences between individual antipsychotic agents...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634087/treatment-with-levetiracetam-improves-cognition-in-a-ketamine-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#5
Ming Teng Koh, Yi Shao, Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson, Michela Gallagher
Imbalance in neural excitation and inhibition is associated with behavioral dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia and at risk for this illness. We examined whether targeting increased neural activity with the antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, would benefit memory performance in a preclinical model of schizophrenia that has been shown to exhibit hyperactivity in the hippocampus. Adult rats exposed to ketamine subchronically during late adolescence showed impaired hippocampal-dependent memory performance...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629296/atypical-antipsychotic-use-and-outcomes-in-an-urban-maternal-mental-health-service
#6
Susan Hatters Friedman, Charmian Moller-Olsen, Chandni Prakash, Abigail North
Objective Despite many women suffering from psychosis in their childbearing years, limited data exist about the use of atypical antipsychotic agents in pregnancy. Atypical antipsychotic agents are often used to treat bipolar disorder, instead of lithium or valproate because of the known teratogenicity of those agents. As well, atypical antipsychotics are often prescribed in anxiety disorders and depression. This study sought to describe pregnancy outcomes for women prescribed atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy...
August 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623497/-psychiatric-emergencies
#7
F Schneider, S Weber-Papen
Psychiatric emergencies present a frequent and interdisciplinary challenge. Clinical diagnosis and management are complicated by the acuity, and the patient's compliance is often limited by the illness. Psychiatric emergencies include states of acute agitation, suicidality, delirium, stupor, and drug-induced emergencies. Sometimes interventions such as conversational contact, responding empathically to patients, or "talking down" are sufficient. If pharmacotherapy is necessary, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs are the primary agents of choice...
June 16, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623386/the-antipsychotic-agent-quetiapine-is-increasingly-not-used-as-such-dispensed-prescriptions-in-norway-2004-2015
#8
Pål Gjerden, Jørgen G Bramness, Ingunn Fride Tvete, Lars Slørdal
PURPOSE: The antipsychotic agent quetiapine was introduced in Norway in 2003. We have assessed changes in dispensed prescriptions, including dosing, of quetiapine in Norway from 2004 to 2015. METHODS: Data on the sales of antipsychotics and antidepressants were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database. A total of 47,474 outpatients filled 195,622 prescriptions of quetiapine. Reimbursement codes, use of antipsychotics or antidepressants 12 months prior to the first prescription of quetiapine and estimated mean volume used measured as defined daily doses (DDDs) per day were used as proxies for diagnoses...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622161/antipsychotic-use-among-adult-outpatients-and-venous-thromboembolic-disease-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Augusto Ferraris, Alejandro G Szmulewicz, Fernando J Vazquez, William M Vollmer, Federico Angriman
BACKGROUND: Treatment with antipsychotic (AP) agents is associated with incident thromboembolic events. However, the underpinnings of this association remain unknown. We sought to evaluate the effect of AP agents-categorized by their metabolic/sedative and hyperprolactinemia adverse effect profile-on the risk of venous thromboembolic disease during long-term follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of adult patients initiating AP treatment for the first time was conducted...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617907/reducing-excessive-use-of-antipsychotic-agents-in-nursing-homes
#10
Jerry H Gurwitz, Alice Bonner, Donald M Berwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615778/olanzapine-induced-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome
#11
Pradeep Kumar Saha, Abhijit Chakraborty, Avik Kumar Layek, Aritra Chakraborty
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening adverse effect usually seen with typical antipsychotic drugs. Rarely, NMS can occur with atypical antipsychotics also. A 19-year-old male diagnosed as a case of acute and transient psychotic disorder developed NMS, following the treatment with an atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine 20 mg/day. The patient was diagnosed NMS, an offending agent olanzapine was immediately withdrawn, and prompt treatment by maintaining hydration and giving bromocriptine produced recovery...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615773/cabergoline-induced-mania-in-a-patient-of-pituitary-microadenoma
#12
Satyakam Mohapatra, Mihir Ranjan Nayak
Cabergoline, a dopamine agonist agent, is commonly used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, Parkinson's disease, restless leg syndrome, and antipsychotic-induced prolactin elevation. It is generally well tolerated as compared to other dopamine agonist agents due to its more selective D2 receptor agonistic effect. We present a case of a 25-year-old female who developed manic episode, following the use of cabergoline for treatment of pituitary microadenoma. We suggest that physicians should carefully screen patients before initiating cabergoline therapy and at-risk patients may benefit from more frequent monitoring and cessation of therapy at the earliest safe juncture...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613100/myocardial-infarction-risk-and-antipsychotics-use-revisited-a-meta-analysis-of-10-observational-studies
#13
Kai-Lin Huang, Ching-Ju Fang, Chien-Chi Hsu, Shu-I Wu, Jimmy Jm Juang, Robert Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Associations between antipsychotic agent (AP) use and myocardial infarction (MI) risk have been inconsistent and remain controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to address this knowledge gap. METHOD: Detailed electronic database searches were performed to identify reports of observational studies that evaluated the association between AP use and the risk of MI. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using random or fixed-effects models...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612649/a-brain-on-a-roller-coaster-can-the-dopamine-reward-system-act-as-a-protagonist-to-subdue-the-ups-and-downs-of-bipolar-disorder
#14
Shokouh Arjmand, Mina Behzadi, Gary J Stephens, Sara Ezzatabadipour, Rostam Seifaddini, Shahrad Arjmand, Mohammad Shabani
One of the most interesting but tenebrous parts of the bipolar disorder (BD) story is the switch between (hypo)mania and depression, which can give bipolar patients a thrilling, but somewhat perilous, 'ride'. Numerous studies have pointed out that there are some recognizable differences (either state-dependent or state-independent) in several brain regions of people with BD, including components of the brain's reward system. Understanding the underpinning mechanisms of high and low mood statuses in BD has potential, not only for the development of highly specific and selective pharmaceutical agents, but also for better treatment approaches and psychological interventions to manage BD and, thus, give patients a safer ride...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612111/probable-mechanisms-involved-in-the-antipsychotic-like-activity-of-methyl-jasmonate-in-mice
#15
Olajide S Annafi, Oritoke M Aluko, Anthony T Eduviere, Osarume Omorogbe, Solomon Umukoro
Psychosis is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide and impairs the quality of life and productivity of the patients. The clinical efficacy of antipsychotic drugs has been compromised by adverse effects, relapse, and therapeutic failures, thus necessitating search for alternative agents. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a bioactive compound reported to have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. This study was undertaken to investigate the antipsychotic-like effects of MJ in mice...
June 13, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607752/enhanced-disease-reduction-using-clozapine-an-atypical-antipsychotic-agent-and-glatiramer-acetate-combination-therapy-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#16
Laura K Green, Pirooz Zareie, Nikki Templeton, Robert A Keyzers, Bronwen Connor, Anne Camille La Flamme
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotic agents (AAP) alleviate the symptoms of severe mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia, by antagonizing dopamine and serotonin receptors. Recently, AAP have also been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties in the central nervous system (CNS). OBJECTIVE: Building on research which demonstrated the ability of the AAP risperidone and clozapine to modify the disease course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we aimed to more fully investigate the potential of clozapine as a possible treatment for MS...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605058/cardiovascular-pharmacogenomics-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
Kristen M Ward, A Zarina Kraal, Stephanie A Flowers, Vicki L Ellingrod
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of multiple risk alleles for cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk on cognitive function, and to determine if these relationships varied by cognitive reserve (CR) or concomitant medication use in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ambulatory mental health centers. PATIENTS: A total of 122 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis who were maintained on a stable antipsychotic regimen for at least 6 months prior to study enrollment; patients were divided into three CR groups based on years of formal education: no high school completion or equivalent (low-education group [18 patients]); completion of high school or equivalent (moderate-education group [36 patients]; or any degree of post-high school education (high-education group [68 patients])...
June 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593353/diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-diabetes-associated-with-antipsychotic-exposure-among-a-previously-diabetes-naive-population-with-schizophrenia-a-nationwide-nested-case-control-study
#18
Christoffer Polcwiartek, Kristian Kragholm, Christopher Rohde, Nasseh Hashemi, Torkel Vang, Jimmi Nielsen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially fatal metabolic emergency of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in schizophrenia, the incidence of DKA is tenfold higher than that of the general population. Thus, we aimed to investigate associations between exposure to antipsychotic medication (within 3 months prior to event) and DKA, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. We also reported related, clinically relevant outcomes...
June 7, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590366/effect-of-gwas-identified-genetic-variants-on-maximum-qt-interval-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-receiving-antipsychotic-agents-a-24-hour-holter-ecg-study
#19
Junzo Watanabe, Naoki Fukui, Yutaro Suzuki, Takuro Sugai, Shin Ono, Nobuto Tsuneyama, Mami Saito, Misuzu Tajiri, Toshiyuki Someya
BACKGROUND: Users of antipsychotics (APs) have a risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Sudden cardiac death in such patients is thought to be largely due to drug-induced QT prolongation. It has been reported that many subjects with drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) have risk alleles associated with subclinical congenital long QT syndrome. METHODS: We investigated the effects of the risk alleles associated with long QT on the QT interval in patients receiving APs using 24-hour Holter electrocardiograms to take into account the circadian fluctuation of QT intervals...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579725/cost-savings-from-an-antipsychotic-tablet-splitting-program
#20
Heather Carey, Mark Fondriest
BACKGROUND: Newer atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole (Abilify, Otsuka) and lurasidone (Latuda, Sunovion) have favorable safety and efficacy profiles, but their use is limited by high cost. University Hospitals Richmond Medical Center initiated an antipsychotic tablet-splitting program in August 2015 to counter the costs based on the identical pricing structure of aripiprazole and lurasidone doses. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for all patients dispensed aripiprazole or lurasidone oral tablets from May 1, 2015, through December 31, 2015, to evaluate the potential cost-savings for our facility...
June 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
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