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Antipsychotic agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028643/pharmacotherapy-of-borderline-personality-disorder-replacing-confusion-with-prudent-pragmatism
#1
Vladan Starcevic, Aleksandar Janca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article aims to examine trends in the pharmacological treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and shed more light on the attendant controversies. RECENT FINDINGS: Although specialized, BPD-centred psychotherapy is considered first-line treatment for BPD and no psychotropic drug has been licensed for BPD, medications are frequently prescribed in the management of this condition. Various classes of psychopharmacological agents are used for BPD and there is a prominent polypharmacy...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023321/antipsychotic-medication-and-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-systematic-review
#2
Marta Miarons Font, Laia Rofes Salsench
The association between antipsychotics (also known as neuroleptics) and oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) has been suggested in several case reports. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effect of antipsychotic medication on OD. A systematic literature search was carried out according to PRISMA guidelines using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. In Pubmed, we used the MeSH terms 'antipsychotic agents' OR 'tranquilizing agents' combined with 'deglutition disorders' OR 'deglutition'. In Embase, we used the Emtree terms 'neuroleptic agents' combined with 'swallowing' OR 'dysphagia'...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022654/epidemiology-prevention-and-assessment-of-tardive-dyskinesia-and-advances-in-treatment
#3
Christoph U Correll, John M Kane, Leslie L Citrome
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder characterized by involuntary movements, typically of the orofacial muscles and also of the extremities and other muscle groups. The condition is associated with exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents, including antipsychotics. Because the indications and off-label uses for these agents have expanded over the last 2 decades, a larger number of patients are receiving antipsychotic medications than in the past. While evidence suggests that patients being treated with second-generation antipsychotics have less risk for developing TD than those treated with first-generation antipsychotics, the decreased risk is not as great as was originally expected...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016375/the-impact-of-medication-anticholinergic-burden-on-cognitive-performance-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#4
Mei San Ang, Nur Amirah Abdul Rashid, Max Lam, Attilio Rapisarda, Michael Kraus, Richard S E Keefe, Jimmy Lee
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are prevalent in people with schizophrenia and associated with functional impairments. In addition to antipsychotics, pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia often includes other psychotropics, and some of these agents possess anticholinergic properties, which may impair cognition. The objective of this study was to explore the association between medication anticholinergic burden and cognition in schizophrenia. METHODS: Seven hundred five individuals with schizophrenia completed a neuropsychological battery comprising Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Matrix Reasoning, Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs Version, and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990246/excited-delirium-a-systematic-review
#5
Philippe Gonin, Nicolas Beysard, Bertrand Yersin, Pierre-Nicolas Carron
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to clarify the definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) and to summarize evidence-based treatment recommendations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Ovid, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library for articles published to March 18, 2017. We also searched the grey literature (Google Scholar) and official police or medical expert reports to complete specific epidemiological data...
October 9, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975381/health-status-and-drug-use-1%C3%A2-year-before-and-1%C3%A2-year-after-skilled-nursing-home-admission-during-the-first-quarter-of-2013-in-france-a-study-based-on-the-french-national-health-insurance-information-system
#6
Alice Atramont, Dominique Bonnet-Zamponi, Isabelle Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle Tangre, Anne Fagot-Campagna, Philippe Tuppin
PURPOSE: Changes in prescribing practices following skilled nursing home (SNH) admission have not been clearly described in France. The study aimed to evaluate health status and drug use 1 year before and 1 year after admission to SNH. METHOD: People ≥ 65 years old admitted to SNH in the first quarter of 2013, covered by the national health insurance general scheme (69% of the population of this age) and still alive 1 year after admission were identified in a specific database (Resid-ehpad)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972929/risks-of-road-injuries-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-associations-with-drug-treatments-a-population-based-matched-cohort-study
#7
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Yao-Hsu Yang, Chuan-Pin Lee, Jennifer Wong, Lynn Ponton, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre, Kuo-You Huang, Shu-I Wu
OBJECTIVE: Using a nation-wide, population-based dataset, we aimed to investigate the risk of road injury among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to individuals without BD. In addition, we investigated the putative moderating effects of prescription for lithium, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and/or first- or second-generation antipsychotic agents on the association between BD and risk of road injury. METHOD: As part of an16-year longitudinal cohort study, we compared the risk of road injuries among study subjects aged 16 and above with a diagnosis of BD, with ten age- and sex-matched sample of individuals without BD...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965809/predictors-of-negative-symptoms-in-the-chronic-phase-of-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Koichiro Fujimaki, Shigeru Toki, Hidehisa Yamashita, Takahiro Oyamada, Shigeto Yamawaki
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between negative symptoms and key indicators for long-term hospital stays among inpatients with schizophrenia. A further aim was to elucidate the clinical determinants of negative symptoms. The following were used as index factors: age, duration of illness, duration of hospitalization, age at onset, years of education, smoking status, body mass index, concentrations of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, uric acid, QTc interval duration from electrocardiography, dose equivalents of antipsychotic and anticholinergic agents, neurocognitive function, drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms, involuntary movements, and psychiatric symptoms...
September 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965423/treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia-with-tetrabenazine-or-valbenazine-a-systematic-review
#9
Stanley N Caroff, Saurabh Aggarwal, Charles Yonan
Up to 30% of patients taking antipsychotics may develop tardive dyskinesia (TD). Recent evidence-based recommendations demonstrate an unmet need for effective TD management. This systematic review was designed to update the evidence for TD treatment, comparing two vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors, tetrabenazine and valbenazine. Of 487 PubMed/Embase search results, 11 studies met the review criteria. Valbenazine efficacy was demonstrated in rigorously designed clinical trials that meet the guidelines for AAN Class I evidence...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964996/psychotropic-use-and-risk-of-stroke-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorders-10-year-nationwide-population-based-study
#10
Chi-Shin Wu, Kuan-Yi Wu, Yu-Ru Lo, Ya-Wen Huang, Yu-Ting Tsai, Yashiun Li, Hui-Ju Tsai
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between psychotropic agents (including antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers) and risk of stroke among patients with bipolar disorders. METHODS: We conducted a disease risk score-matched nested case-control study and identified patients with bipolar disorders (ICD-9 codes: 296.0x, 296.1x, 296.4x, 296.5x, 296.6x, 296.7x, 296.80, 296.81 or 296.89) from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953679/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-with-thyroid-disorder-an-unusual-case-report
#11
Fan Zhang, Parisa Kanzali, Vadim Rubin, Chris Paras, Joel Goldman
RATIONALE: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life threatening neurologic emergency associated with neuroleptic or antipsychotic agent use. NMS is rarely related to thyroid disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of NMS in a 66-year-old male with past medical history of paranoid schizophrenia on chlorpromazine, diabetes, hypertension and asthma, who presented with a humeral fracture after a fall. Patient developed hyperpyrexia, altered consciousness, autonomic instability, elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) without rigidity...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947112/medical-management-of-motor-manifestations-of-huntington-disease
#12
Elizabeth A McCusker, Clement T Loy
The motor and movement disorders of Huntington disease (HD) are managed in the context of the other disease features. Chorea and dystonia are the most common HD-associated movement disorders, and they can be assessed on research rating scales. However other motor manifestations have a significant impact. In particular, dysphagia influences choice and tolerance of treatment for the movement disorder, as will comorbidities, patient awareness, and distress related to the motor feature or movement. Treatment for other disease features may aggravate the motor disorder, e...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936154/potential-role-of-amino-acids-in-pathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Shamaila Saleem, Faiza Shaukat, Anjuman Gul, Mahwish Arooj, Arif Malik
Schizophrenia is a syndrome of inconclusive etiopathogenesis with a prevalence of about 1% in general population. Underlying factors include genetic predisposition and defected neurodevelopment in early stages of life. The role of amino acids has been indicated in some reports. However, very few workers have detailed the effect of each amino acid in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus, in the present review, we aimed to provide an insight into the potential role of amino acids levels during schizophrenia...
July 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936010/dextromethorphan-in-cough-syrup-the-poor-man-s-psychosis
#14
Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923179/drugs-and-hyperglycemia-a-practical-guide
#15
REVIEW
Vandana Jain, Ronak Kumar Patel, Zaureen Kapadia, Sneha Galiveeti, Maryann Banerji, Lisel Hope
Drug-induced diabetes is one of the factors contributing to the increasing incidence of diabetes worldwide. This review considers the frequency, pathogenesis and treatment of drug-induced diabetes. Drugs that induce diabetes include hormonal therapy, especially glucocorticoids and androgen blockers, cardiovascular drugs, especially statins, beta-blockers and diuretics, antipsychotics, especially clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine, antiretrovirals (protease inhibitors and non-reverse transcriptase inhibitors - NRTIs) and other drugs (mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors -mTORs, post organ transplantation drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and interferon-alpha)...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919802/abcb1-and-abcc1-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-patients-treated-with-clozapine
#16
Irina Piatkov, Dorgival Caetano, Yolinda Assur, Sue Lynn Lau, Trudi Jones, Steven C Boyages, Mark McLean
Clozapine (CZ) has superior efficacy to other antipsychotic agents in the treatment of schizophrenia and has been extensively used in clinical practice. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins are responsible for the distribution of various molecules as well as drugs across extracellular and intracellular membranes, including the blood-brain barrier. Genetic variations in these proteins can account for differences in treatment response. We investigated the influence of ABCB1 rs1045642 and ABCC1 rs212090 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on CZ serum level, clinical outcome, and changes in body mass index (BMI) in the first year of CZ treatment...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919292/treatment-patterns-health-care-resource-utilization-and-spending-in-medicaid-beneficiaries-initiating-second-generation-long-acting-injectable-agents-versus-oral-atypical-antipsychotics
#17
Dominic Pilon, Neeta Tandon, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Rhiannon Kamstra, Bruno Emond, Patrick Lefebvre, Kruti Joshi
PURPOSE: Second-generation long-acting injectable therapies (SGA-LAIs) may reduce health care resource utilization (HRU) and health care costs compared with daily oral atypical antipsychotics (OAAs) in patients with schizophrenia due to reduced dosing frequency, delivery/monitoring by a health care provider, and improved adherence. The aim of the present study was to compare treatment patterns, HRU, and Medicaid spending in patients with schizophrenia initiated on SGA-LAIs (overall and according to agent) versus OAAs...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918734/the-2016-royal-australian-and-new-zealand-college-of-psychiatrists-guidelines-for-the-management-of-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders
#18
David J Castle, Cherrie A Galletly, Frances Dark, Verity Humberstone, Vera A Morgan, Eóin Killackey, Jayashri Kulkarni, Patrick McGorry, Olav Nielssen, Nga T Tran, Assen Jablensky
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders provide evidence-based recommendations for optimising treatment and prognosis. This update to the 2005 RANZCP guidelines has a greater emphasis on psychosocial treatments, physical health comorbidities and vocational rehabilitation. Main recommendations: The guidelines advise a clinical staging approach and deliver specific recommendations for:•comprehensive treatment using second generation antipsychotic agents continuously for 2-5 years;•early treatment of comorbid substance use;•community treatment after initial contact, during crises and after discharge from hospital;•physical health monitoring and management of comorbidities, particularly metabolic health;•interventions to optimise recovery of social function and return to study or work; and•management of schizophrenia in specific populations and circumstances...
June 19, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918419/-about-the-association-between-antipsychotic-medication-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-epidemiology-and-possible-background-mechanisms
#19
Gabor Gaszner, Gabor Barna, Peter Dome
The history of antipsychotics began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950s. Since then this group of medications has become one of the most important element of the armamentarium of psychopharmacology. While initially these pharmacons were used in the treatment of psychotic states (including psychotic mania) in the last approximately 10-15 years new indications - such as treatment of depressive, manic and mixed states and also mood-stabilization in bipolar disorder and also the treatment of major depressive disorder - for several second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) agents have been introduced...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917389/alternative-treatment-strategies-for-catatonia-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Scott R Beach, Federico Gomez-Bernal, Jeff C Huffman, Gregory L Fricchione
BACKGROUND: Catatonia is a commonly encountered syndrome, affecting 10-20% of various psychiatric populations and carrying significant medical co-morbidities. However, there are few established alternative treatment strategies when benzodiazepines are ineffective and electroconvulsive therapy is unavailable. OBJECTIVE: The authors systematically review evidence for alternative treatment strategies for catatonia using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
September 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
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