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Antipsychotic agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545329/psychotropic-drug-use-before-during-and-after-pregnancy-a-population-based-study-in-a-canadian-cohort-2001-2013
#1
Christine Leong, Colette Raymond, Dan Château, Matthew Dahl, Silvia Alessi-Severini, Jamie Falk, Shawn Bugden, Alan Katz
OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent of increase in use and the rate of continuation versus discontinuation of psychotropic agents before, during, and after pregnancy. METHODS: Rates of psychotropic use (antidepressants, anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotics, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, lithium, stimulants) among women with a hospital-recorded pregnancy outcome were assessed using databases at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Rate of use was defined as ≥1 prescription over the total number of pregnancies in the 3-12 months before pregnancy, 0-3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, or 3 months after pregnancy...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542034/dopamine-d2-receptor-affinity-of-antipsychotics-in-relation-to-subjective-well-being-in-patients-with-a-psychotic-disorder
#2
Iris E de Wit, Floor A van Dijk, Carin J Meijer, Mirjam J van Tricht, Lieuwe de Haan
Dopamine D2-receptor blockade by antipsychotic medication reduces psychotic symptoms, but may reduce subjective well-being. The current study aims to further explore the relation between dopamine D2-receptor affinity and subjective well-being within a large sample of patients with psychotic disorders. Patients participated in a longitudinal naturalistic cohort study: the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. Three groups of antipsychotic medication were created on the basis of their affinity for the D2-receptor: (i) loose or partial agonistic binding, (ii) moderate binding, and (iii) tight binding...
May 24, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539959/tardive-dystonia-related-with-aripiprazole
#3
Sunghwan Kim, Seung-Yup Lee, MinSeob Kim, Kyoung-Uk Lee
Tardive dystonia is characterized by sustained, generally slow involuntary twisting movements. It is estimated to occur at a frequency of 1% to 4% among patients who are taking an antipsychotic agent. Unlike the first generation antipsychotics, the second generation antipsychotics are less likely to cause neuroleptic-induced movement disorder. For aripiprazole, only a few cases have been reported for tardive dystonia. We present a young male, who developed a severe tardive dystonia after taking aripiprazole for 5 years...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530539/preparation-optimization-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-aripiprazole-loaded-nano-porous-in-situ-forming-implant
#4
Ashkan Hedayati, Sina Ghafurzadeh Yazdi, Pouya Dehghankelishadi, Nika Bahari Javan, Hamid Akbari, Farid A Dorkoosh
BACKGROUND: Multiple applications of antipsychotic agents are the main obstacle upon treatment of schizophrenia. Due to behavioral abnormalities, low compliance is observed in the most of psychotic patients. Designing of new drug delivery systems to overcome compliance problem seems to be necessary. In situ forming implants are a suitable choice for delivery of antipsychotic agents due to easy administration process and sustained release kinetics. OBJECTIVE: In this study, a novel poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) based nano-porous in situ implant system is developed for delivery of aripiprazole...
May 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522847/a-molecular-basis-for-selective-antagonist-destabilization-of-dopamine-d3-receptor-quaternary-organization
#5
Sara Marsango, Gianluigi Caltabiano, Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Mark J Millan, John D Pediani, Richard J Ward, Graeme Milligan
The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a molecular target for both first-generation and several recently-developed antipsychotic agents. Following stable expression of this mEGFP-tagged receptor, Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis indicated that a substantial proportion of the receptor was present within dimeric/oligomeric complexes and that increased expression levels of the receptor favored a greater dimer to monomer ratio. Addition of the antipsychotics, spiperone or haloperidol, resulted in re-organization of D3R quaternary structure to promote monomerization...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504976/ce-antipsychotic-medications
#6
Donna Sabella
: Antipsychotic medications are primarily used to manage various symptoms of psychosis. In recent years, more adults-and teenagers-are taking at least one type of psychotropic medication, the majority of which are prescribed by primary care and family physicians. Because nurses are now caring for people of varying ages, and with varying diagnoses, who are taking these types of medications, they need to develop a working knowledge of the agents available and know when it's appropriate to prescribe them for mental health disorders as well as for disorders unrelated to mental health...
June 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491214/prescribing-pattern-of-psychotropic-medications-in-child-psychiatric-practice-in-a-mental-referral-hospital-in-botswana
#7
Anthony Olashore, James Ayugi, Philip Opondo
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing preference for psycho-pharmacological therapy over non-pharmacological care. The prescription pattern and the choice of psychotropic medications vary in different settings. Whilst newer agents and rational prescribing are favored in the more specialized settings, the pattern remains unclear in less specialized units, largely due to lack of data. The aims were to conduct a treatment audit in the only mental referral hospital in Botswana, which is a non-specialized child and adolescent care setting and see how it conforms to best practice...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489133/association-between-antipsychotics-and-cardiovascular-adverse-events-a-systematic-review
#8
Ana Amancio Santos Da Silva, Marina Viegas Moura Rezende Ribeiro, Célio Fernando de Sousa-Rodrigues, Fabiano Timbó Barbosa
Objective: Determine whether there is an association between the risk of cardiovascular adverse events and the use of antipsychotic agents. Method: Analysis of original articles retrieved from the following databases: LILACS, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Clinical Data Bank (CENTRAL) and PsycINFO, without language restriction, dated until November 2015. After screening of 2,812 studies, three cohort original articles were selected for quality analysis. Results: 403,083 patients with schizophrenia and 119,015 participants in the control group data were analyzed...
March 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487307/aripiprazole-induced-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#9
Kulothungan Gunasekaran, Swetha Murthi, Jeffrey Jennings, Nazir Lone
Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic agent commonly used in the management of schizophrenia. Aripiprazole has not been reported to have an association with interstitial lung disease. We describe a case of a 36-year-old woman who began to experience respiratory issues shortly after starting aripiprazole and presented to us 4 years later with progressive exertional shortness of breath. High-resolution CT of the chest showed a bilateral ground glass pattern. Video-assisted thoracoscopy with biopsy revealed alveolar septal thickening and an inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of lymphocytes, suggestive of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486308/effect-of-n-desalkylquetiapine-quetiapine-plasma-level-ratio-on-anxiety-and-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
C Rovera, M C Mauri, C Di Pace, S Paletta, A Reggiori, V Ciappolino, D Cattaneo, S Baldelli, E Clementi, A C Altamura
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between quetiapine and N-desalkylquetiapine plasma levels and clinical improvement, particularly, in regard to depressive and anxious symptoms and to hostility. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study that involved 37 outpatients diagnosed as having bipolar disorder I or II. All the patients were observed during a clinical acute and postacute phase. Patients were prescribed 50-800 mg of quetiapine...
May 5, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483006/2017-new-drug-update
#11
Daniel A Hussar, Laura A Finn
Five new drugs marketed within the last year that are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are discussed, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating system developed by the author (DAH). Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding each new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating. The drugs include two antidiabetic agents, an agent for gout, an antipsychotic agent, and a drug for dry eye disease...
May 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479814/aripiprazole-in-tardive-dyskinesia-is-it-a-safe-choice
#12
Nimisha Doval, Soumitra Das, Vikas Moun
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially irreversible drug-induced movement disorder associated with prolonged administration of antipsychotics. Conventionally, first generation antipsychotics were the agents thought to have a higher risk of TD as compared to second and third generation antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is a third generation antipsychotic with a novel mechanism of action, and until recently, cases of drug-induced movement disorders were less well known with it. But off late, several cases of TD with aripiprazole have been reported...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478726/pattern-of-psychotropic-medication-use-over-two-decades-in-australian-women
#13
Amanda L Stuart, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Julie A Pasco, Shae E Quirk, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Michael Berk, Lana J Williams
OBJECTIVE: Few population-based studies have been used to investigate secular trends in psychotropic medication use. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine psychotropic medication use over time using data from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, an on-going, population-based, cohort study of Australian women. METHODS: Of the 1494 women recruited at Time 1 (1993-1997), self-reported medication use from Time 2 (2004-2008) and/or Time 3 (2011-2014) was available for 889 women...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474552/new-directions-in-the-use-of-brain-stimulation-interventions-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Laura Cremaschi, Lucio Oldani, Altamura Alfredo Carlo
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition with early onset and chronic course in most of the affected patients. In addition, OCD may show high comorbidity and suicide attempt rates, which worsen the overall burden of the disease for patients and their caregivers. First-line treatments for OCD consist of pro-serotonergic compounds and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Nonetheless, many patients show only limited benefit from such interventions and require additional "next-step" interventions, including augmentative antipsychotics and glutamate-modulating agents...
May 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466366/adjunctive-minocycline-in-clozapine-treated-patients-with-schizophrenia-analyzing-the-effects-of-minocycline-on-clozapine-plasma-levels
#15
Heidi J Wehring, Teresa Elsobky, Joseph P McEvoy, Gopal Vyas, Charles M Richardson, Robert P McMahon, Bethany A DiPaula, Fang Liu, Kelli Sullivan, Robert W Buchanan, Stephanie Feldman, Elizabeth M McMahon, Deanna L Kelly
Clozapine is the sole antipsychotic agent effective for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Sixty percent of clozapine-treated patients, however, fail to adequately respond. Minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, possesses antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties that may play a role in schizophrenia. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2 enzymes, and minocycline may potentially inhibit CYP1A2 as hypothesized by case report data. To date, no pharmacokinetic interaction has been reported between minocycline and clozapine...
May 3, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465709/aromatherapy-and-aromatic-plants-for-the-treatment-of-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Damiana Scuteri, Luigi Antonio Morrone, Laura Rombolà, Pina Rosa Avato, Anna Rita Bilia, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Shinobu Sakurada, Tsukasa Sakurada, Giacinto Bagetta
The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464773/the-role-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-sexuality-road-to-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#17
Raja Lope Adam, Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Hazli Zakaria, Srijit Das, Khairi Che Mat
Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463344/minimizing-weight-gain-for-patients-taking-antipsychotic-medications-the-potential-role-for-early-use-of-metformin
#18
Victoria Hendrick, Robert Dasher, Michael Gitlin, Mehrban Parsi
BACKGROUND: Patients taking antipsychotic medications are at high risk for weight gain, which in turn leads to poor health outcomes, nonadherence with treatment, and low self-esteem. METHODS: We reviewed published studies of pharmacologic interventions aimed at minimizing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Treatments initiated prior to onset of weight gain were compared with those that started once weight gain already had occurred. RESULTS: Although data are limited, adjunctive medications for weight management appear to be more effective when initiated at or near the time when patients are first exposed to antipsychotic medications...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463343/biological-treatment-of-acute-agitation-or-aggression-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder-in-the-inpatient-setting
#19
Christoph U Correll, Xin Yu, Yutao Xiang, John M Kane, Prakash Masand
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are chronic illnesses that commonly present with symptoms of acute agitation and aggression. These symptoms must be managed rapidly to prevent potential harm to the patient and others, including their caregivers, peers, and health care workers. A number of treatment options are available to clinicians to manage acute agitation and aggression, including non-pharmacologic behavioral and environmental de-escalation strategies, as well as biological treatment options such as pharmacologic agents and electroconvulsive therapy...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462720/homology-modeling-inspired-synthesis-of-5-ht2a-receptor-inhibitors-a-diazepine-analogue-of-the-atypical-antipsychotic-jl13
#20
Enrico Mongeau, Gengyang Yuan, Zachary Minden, Scott Waldron, Raymond Booth, Daniel Felsing, Mary Jo Ondrechen, Graham B Jones
The benzoxazepine JL13 is an analogue of the clozapine family which targets the 5-HT2A receptor, and has showed promise as an atypical antipsychotic agent. Following structure function analysis with a series of synthetic analogues, homology modeling was performed to determine key interaction sites with the receptor. An aza analogue was synthesized for evaluation, and demonstrated seventeen times greater affinity for the receptor. An improved synthetic route was developed to allow rapid modifications of the core and synthesis of related libraries...
April 26, 2017: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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