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Kevin Maisey, Ruth Montero, Myron Christodoulides
Piscirickettsia salmonis (P. salmonis) is the aetiological bacterium of the contagious disease piscirickettsiosis or salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (SRS) and causes significant economic losses to aquaculture production in Chile. Current strategies to control infection are i) indiscriminate antibiotic use and ii) vaccination with predominantly P. salmonis bacterin vaccines that do not provide acceptable levels of protection against piscirickettsiosis. Areas covered: This review covers the basic biology of P...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
S Velineni, J F Timoney
Immunogenic proteins of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona type kennewicki (Lk) including Sph1, LigA, Hsp15 and LipL45 (Qlp42) are up-regulated in infected horses but are undetectable or expressed in trace amounts on cultured organisms. In contrast, LipL32 is abundant on cultured Lk and elicits infection antibody responses. The aim of this study was to develop an ELISA based on LipL32 or Lk sonicate and host-induced proteins to differentiate vaccine from infection serum antibody. IgG specific for recombinant Sph1, LigA, Lk90 (LigA; 379-1225 a...
September 20, 2016: Veterinary Record
B Pomeroy, A Gurjar, A Sipka, S Klaessig, S Salmon, R Quesnell, Y H Schukken
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary immunization with UV-killed Escherichia coli ECC-Z on prevention of intramammary colonization after a challenge with a dose of the homologous E. coli ECC-Z live bacteria. A total of 10 cows were included in a study to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary immunization. All 10 cows received an intramammary immunization of 100 cfu of UV-killed E. coli ECC-Z bacteria into one hind quarter at the time of dry off. Approximately 2 wk before the anticipated calving date, both hind quarters of all cows were challenged with 100 cfu of live E...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Candice Heath, Christine M Gillen, Panagiotis Chrysanthopoulos, Mark J Walker, Andrew C Barnes
Streptococcus iniae causes septicaemia and meningitis in marine and freshwater fish wherever they are farmed in warm-temperate and tropical regions. Although serotype specific, vaccination with bacterins (killed bacterial cultures) is largely successful and vaccine failure occurs only occasionally through emergence of new capsular serotypes. Previously we showed that mutations in vaccine escapes are restricted to a limited repertoire of genes within the 20-gene capsular polysaccharide (cps) operon. cpsG, a putative UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, has three sequence types based on the insertion or deletion of the three amino acids leucine, serine and lysine in the substrate binding site of the protein...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
M H Marana, J Skov, J K Chettri, B Krossøy, I Dalsgaard, P W Kania, K Buchmann
Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are able to raise a protective immune response against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) following injection vaccination with commercial vaccines containing formalin-killed bacteria, but the protection is often suboptimal under Danish mariculture conditions. We elucidated whether protection can be improved by increasing the concentration of antigen (formalin-killed bacteria) in the vaccine. Rainbow trout juveniles were vaccinated by intraperitoneal (i...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Sonia Martínez-Martínez, Rafael Frandoloso, Elías-Fernando Rodríguez-Ferri, María-José García-Iglesias, Claudia Pérez-Martínez, Álvaro Álvarez-Estrada, César-Bernardo Gutiérrez-Martín
This study aimed to characterize the type of immune response induced by an experimental vaccine based on a mutant Haemophilus parasuis transferrin binding protein (Tbp) B (Y167A) defective in its ability to bind porcine transferrin. Clinical and pathological signs, bacterial clearance, antibody response and the cytokine profile in alveolar macrophages and spleen after the vaccination and challenge of twenty-two colostrum-deprived pigs with 10(8) CFU of H. parasuis were analysed. Pigs vaccinated with Y167A were compared to those vaccinated with native TbpB (nTbpB), those treated with a commercial bacterin (CB) against Glässer's disease, those unvaccinated challenged (CH) and those unvaccinated unchallenged (UNCH) pigs...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mark Schallenberger, Helena Lovick, Jalane Locke, Todd Meyer, Gregory Juda
During August and September of 2013, temperature data loggers were shipped to and from an AATB accredited and FDA registered allograft tissue processing facility in Belgrade, MT (Bacterin International, Inc.) to five warm climate cities (Dallas, TX, El Paso, TX, New Orleans, LA, Phoenix, AZ, and Tampa, FL). Shipping data acquired from 72 independent shipments were analyzed to generate an assessment of temperature exposure, shipment times, and shipping event durations experienced during routine distribution...
August 25, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
R A Palomares, D J Hurley, J H J Bittar, J T Saliki, A R Woolums, F Moliere, L J Havenga, N A Norton, S J Clifton, A B Sigmund, C E Barber, M L Berger, M J Clark, M A Fratto
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ)...
October 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Kenneth K Hansraj
INTRODUCTION: Spine surgeons are embracing advanced biologic technologies in an attempt to help millions of people achieve a better outcome in spine surgery. These new technologies may be complicated to understand, partly because the contribution of different types of cells has not been definitively identified. This paper describes the characteristics of the stem cells used in spine surgery, including their actions and possible complications. The description necessitates an overview of all studies to date on the use of stem cells in spine surgery, as well as other cells used in cellular therapy...
July 29, 2016: Surgical Technology International
H C S Fukushima, C A G Leal, R B Cavalcante, H C P Figueiredo, S Arijo, M A Moriñigo, M Ishikawa, R C Borra, M J T Ranzani-Paiva
This study evaluated the control of streptococcosis outbreaks in Brazil, isolated from diseased sorubim and identified as Lactococcus garvieae by genetic sequencing. This report determined the potential for lactococcosis control in sorubim Pseudoplatystoma sp. with two vaccines: an aqueous-based, whole-cell inactivated vaccine (bacterin) and an oil-adjuvanted bacterin. Their efficacy was evaluated at 30 days post-vaccination (d.p.v.) by challenge with L. garvieae, and the antibody production response at 15, 30 and 60 d...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Rozalia Korbut, Foojan Mehrdana, Per Walter Kania, Marianne Halberg Larsen, Dorte Frees, Inger Dalsgaard, Louise von Gersdorff Jørgensen
Immersion-vaccines (bacterins) are routinely used for aquacultured rainbow trout to protect against Yersinia ruckeri (Yr). During immersion vaccination, rainbow trout take up and process the antigens, which induce protection. The zebrafish was used as a model organism to study uptake mechanisms and subsequent antigen transport in fish. A genetically modified Yr was developed to constitutively express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and was used for bacterin production. Larval, juvenile and adult transparent zebrafish (tra:nac mutant) received a bath in the bacterin for up to 30 minutes...
2016: PloS One
Clóvis Moreira, Carlos Eduardo Pouey da Cunha, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia Moreira, Marcelo Mendonça, Felipe Masiero Salvarani, Ângela Nunes Moreira, Fabricio Rochedo Conceição
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes C and D are responsible for cattle botulism, a fatal paralytic disease that results in great economic losses in livestock production. Vaccination is the main approach to prevent cattle botulism. However, production of commercially available vaccines (toxoids) involves high risk and presents variation of BoNT production between batches. Such limitations can be attenuated by the development of novel nontoxic recombinant vaccines through a simple and reproducible process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective potential of recombinant non-purified botulinum neurotoxin serotypes C and D...
August 2016: Anaerobe
Tracy Prysliak, Jose Perez-Casal
Most vaccines for protection against Mycoplasma bovis disease are made of bacterins, and they offer varying degrees of protection. Our focus is on the development of a subunit-based protective vaccine, and to that end, we have identified 10 novel vaccine candidates. After formulation of these candidates with TriAdj, an experimental tri-component novel vaccine adjuvant developed at VIDO-InterVac, we measured humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated animals. In addition, we compared the immune responses after formulation with TriAdj with the responses measured in animals vaccinated with a mix of a commercial adjuvant (Emulsigen™) and 2 of the components of the TriAdj, namely polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and the cationic innate defense regulator (IDR) peptide 1002 (VQRWLIVWRIRK)...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Gustavo Marçal S G Moreira, Clóvis Moreira, Carlos Eduardo P da Cunha, Marcelo Mendonça, Fabricio R Conceição
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacillus that produces a potent neurotoxin. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified from serotypes A to H, and even though they have similar mechanisms of action, they show preferential hosts. In veterinary medicine, BoNT serotypes C and D are the most important, once several animal species are susceptible to them. Since BoNTs are the most potent toxins known in nature, the best way to control botulism in animals is through vaccination...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ioannis Arsenakis, Luca Panzavolta, Annelies Michiels, Rubén Del Pozo Sacristán, Filip Boyen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Dominiek Maes
BACKGROUND: Commercial bacterins are widely used at weaning to control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. However, it is not known whether the efficacy of vaccinating against M. hyopneumoniae can be influenced by the weaning process when vaccination is applied at the day of weaning. The present study assessed the efficacy of a single M. hyopneumoniae vaccination (Ingelvac MycoFLEX®) three days before weaning (V1) or at weaning (V2) against experimental challenge infection. Four weeks after vaccination, groups V1 and V2 (n = 20 pigs each) and a non-vaccinated, positive control group (PCG) (n = 20) were endotracheally inoculated with a virulent M...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
P L M Aquino, F S Fonseca, O D Mozzer, R C Giordano, R Sousa
Clostridium novyi causes necrotic hepatitis in sheep and cattle, as well as gas gangrene. The microorganism is strictly anaerobic, fastidious, and difficult to cultivate in industrial scale. C. novyi type B produces alpha and beta toxins, with the alpha toxin being linked to the presence of specific bacteriophages. The main strategy to combat diseases caused by C. novyi is vaccination, employing vaccines produced with toxoids or with toxoids and bacterins. In order to identify culture medium components and concentrations that maximized cell density and alpha toxin production, a neuro-fuzzy algorithm was applied to predict the yields of the fermentation process for production of C...
July 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
S Carnaccini, H L Shivaprasad, G Cutler, M Bland, X J Meng, S P Kenney, A A Bickford, G Cooper, B Charlton, C G Sentíes-Cué
Between April 2013 and April 2015, seven flocks belonging to three different major commercial egg producers inCalifornia experienced a mild increase in mortality 2 to 3 wk after administration of Salmonella Enteritidis bacterins. Strains of chickens involved were H&N (flock A1, A2, B2, C1, C2, and C3) and Lohmann white (flock B1). Vaccination was administered individually through injection either in the breast muscles or subcutis in the legs between 11 and 18 wk of age in all flocks. Clinical signs ranged from inapparent to lameness, reluctance to walk, greenish diarrhea, and retching-like symptoms...
March 2016: Avian Diseases
Yujuan Wang, Xiuhua Wang, Jie Huang, Jun Li
The adjuvant effect of Quillaja saponaria saponin (QSS) on protection of turbot fry was investigated with immersion vaccination of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum O1 and various concentrations of QSS (5, 25, 45 and 65 mg/L). Fish were challenged at days 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination. Significantly high relative percent of survival (RPS) ((59.1 ± 13.6)%, (81.7 ± 8.2)%, (77.8 ± 9.6)%) were recorded in the fish that received bacterins immersion with QSS at 45 mg/L, which is comparable to the positive control group vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection (IP)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
William D McCaig, Crystal L Loving, Holly R Hughes, Susan L Brockmeier
Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine and is capable of causing a systemic infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of virulence and virulence factors are largely unknown. Commercial bacterins are often used to vaccinate swine against H. parasuis, though strain variability and lack of cross-reactivity can make this an ineffective means of protection. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and OMV are often enriched in toxins, signaling molecules and other bacterial components...
2016: PloS One
Juver D Membrebe, Nam-Kyung Yoon, Minhee Hong, Jeongsoo Lee, Hongweon Lee, Kyoungmoon Park, Sin-hye Seo, Injoong Yoon, Sungsik Yoo, Yeu-Chun Kim, Jungoh Ahn
Enolase (ENO) is one of the surface-exposed proteins of Streptococcus iniae, which previously had been identified as a plasminogen-binding protein. In this study, ENO was evaluated to induce cross-protective immunity against S. iniae and Streptococcus parauberis which are major pathogens causing streptococcosis in fish. Immunoblot analysis shows that S. iniae recombinant ENO (rENO) produced in Escherichia coli was cross-reactive with antisera against S. iniae, and S. parauberis serotype I and II. In the challenge experiment of streptococcal infection after vaccination in zebrafish, rENO elicited a similar protection with a whole cell bacterin against S...
February 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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