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Sarah A Wolfe, Emily R Workman, Chelcie F Heaney, Farr Niere, Sanjeev Namjoshi, Luisa P Cacheaux, Sean P Farris, Michael R Drew, Boris V Zemelman, R Adron Harris, Kimberly F Raab-Graham
Alcohol promotes lasting neuroadaptive changes that may provide relief from depressive symptoms, often referred to as the self-medication hypothesis. However, the molecular/synaptic pathways that are shared by alcohol and antidepressants are unknown. In the current study, acute exposure to ethanol produced lasting antidepressant and anxiolytic behaviours. To understand the functional basis of these behaviours, we examined a molecular pathway that is activated by rapid antidepressants. Ethanol, like rapid antidepressants, alters γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABABR) expression and signalling, to increase dendritic calcium...
September 26, 2016: Nature Communications
Donald M Caspary, Daniel A Llano
Tinnitus is defined as a phantom sound (ringing in the ears), and can significantly reduce the quality of life for those who suffer its effects. Ten to fifteen percent of the general adult population report symptoms of tinnitus with 1-2% reporting that tinnitus negatively impacts their quality of life. Noise exposure is the most common cause of tinnitus and the military environment presents many challenging high-noise situations. Military noise levels can be so intense that standard hearing protection is not adequate...
August 20, 2016: Hearing Research
Qingwei Huo, Ming Chen, Quansheng He, Jiajia Zhang, Bo Li, Kai Jin, Xi Chen, Cheng Long, Li Yang
Genetic and biochemical studies have focused on the role of amyloid β protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In comparison, the physiological roles of its precursor protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP), in synaptic and network activity is less well studied. Using an APP knockout (APP(-/-)) mouse model, we show that the duration of UP state, which is a key feature of cortical synaptic integration occurring predominantly during slow-wave sleep, is significantly increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the absence of APP...
August 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Camille Mazo, Gabriel Lepousez, Antoine Nissant, Matthew T Valley, Pierre-Marie Lledo
UNLABELLED: Sensory perception emerges from the confluence of sensory inputs that encode the composition of external environment and top-down feedback that conveys information from higher brain centers. In olfaction, sensory input activity is initially processed in the olfactory bulb (OB), serving as the first central relay before being transferred to the olfactory cortex. In addition, the OB receives dense connectivity from feedback projections, so the OB has the capacity to implement a wide array of sensory neuronal computation...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Saad Hannan, Kim Gerrow, Antoine Triller, Trevor G Smart
Here, we uncover a mechanism for regulating the number of active presynaptic GABAB receptors (GABABRs) at nerve terminals, an important determinant of neurotransmitter release. We find that GABABRs gain access to axon terminals by lateral diffusion in the membrane. Their relative accumulation is dependent upon agonist activation and the presence of the two distinct sushi domains that are found only in alternatively spliced GABABR1a subunits. Following brief activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) using glutamate, GABABR diffusion is reduced, causing accumulation at presynaptic terminals in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner that involves phosphorylation of GABABR2 subunits at Ser783...
August 16, 2016: Cell Reports
Nora M McCall, Lydia Kotecki, Sergio Dominguez-Lopez, Ezequiel Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Nicholas Carlblom, Amanda L Sharpe, Michael J Beckstead, Kevin Wickman
The increase in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission stimulated by in vivo cocaine exposure is tempered by G protein-dependent inhibitory feedback mechanisms in DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK/Kir3) channels mediate the direct inhibitory effect of GABAB receptor (GABABR) and D2 DA receptor (D2R) activation in VTA DA neurons. Here, we examined the effect of the DA neuron-specific loss of GIRK channels on D2R-dependent regulation of VTA DA neuron excitability and on cocaine-induced, reward-related behaviors...
July 29, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ochuko D Bakpa, Markus Reuber, Sarosh R Irani
PURPOSE: The growing recognition of epilepsies and encephalopathies associated with autoantibodies against surface neuronal proteins (LGI1, NMDAR, CASPR2, GABABR, and AMPAR) means that epileptologists are increasingly asking questions about mechanisms of antibody-mediated epileptogenesis, and about the use of immunotherapies. This review summarizes clinical and paraclinical observations related to autoimmune epilepsies, examines the current evidence for the effectiveness of immunotherapy, and makes epilepsy-specific recommendations for future research...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
J F Holle, F Jessen, J Kuhn
Antibody-associated disorders of the central nervous system constitute a heterogeneous group of disorders that can be roughly divided into two categories: Classic paraneoplastic syndromes associated with so-called well-characterized antibodies (paraneoplastic neurological disorders, PND) and autoimmune disorders with antibodies to membrane-bound or synaptic antigens (autoimmune encephalitis, AE). The discovery of autoimmune encephalitis has led to a paradigm shift in diagnosis and therapy as well as a reclassification of some neuropsychiatric syndromes that were previously classified as idiopathic or simply covered with descriptive terms...
May 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Hanieh Toossi, Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Barbara E Jones
Though overlapping in distribution through the hypothalamus, orexin (Orx) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons play opposite roles in the regulation of sleep-wake states. Orx neurons discharge during waking, whereas MCH neurons discharge during sleep. In the present study, we examined in mice whether GABAA and GABAB receptors (Rs) are present on Orx and MCH neurons and might undergo differential changes as a function of their different activities following sleep deprivation (SD) and sleep recovery (SR)...
May 2016: ENeuro
Jana K Hackert, Lorenz Müller, Marco Rohde, Christian G Bien, Rüdiger Köhling, Timo Kirschstein
Glutamic acid decarboxylase of 65 kDa (GAD65) antibodies have been reported in a variety of neurological disorders such as stiff-person syndrome (SPS), sporadic ataxia and some cases of epilepsy. Since the target is believed to be the cytoplasmic enzyme GAD65, the key enzyme of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis, the pathophysiological role of these antibodies is poorly understood. Here, we stereotactically injected human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing GAD65-antibodies into the hippocampus of rats in vivo and then prepared hippocampal slices 1-2 days after post-operative recovery...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Alison L Barth
Somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons constitute a major class of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian cortex and are characterized by dense wiring into the local network and high basal firing activity that persists in the absence of synaptic input. This firing provides both GABA type A receptor (GABAAR)- and GABABR-mediated inhibition that operates at fast and slow timescales. The activity of somatostatin-expressing neurons is regulated by brain state, during learning and in rewarded behaviour. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of how this class of cells can control network activity, with specific reference to how this is constrained by their anatomical and electrophysiological properties...
July 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Marienke A A M De Bruijn, Maarten J Titulaer
Over the last few year, antibodies to various central nervous system receptors, particularly the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, have been found to be associated with autoimmune neurologic disorders. The receptors include the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and GABA type A and B receptors (respectively GABAAR and GABABR). Compared to the previously described paraneoplastic antibodies directed at intracellular targets, the patients with receptor antibodies are often younger, they less frequently have malignancies, and they respond better to immunotherapy...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Sam A Booker, Daniel Althof, Anna Gross, Desiree Loreth, Johanna Müller, Andreas Unger, Bernd Fakler, Andrea Varro, Masahiko Watanabe, Martin Gassmann, Bernhard Bettler, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Imre Vida, Ákos Kulik
Cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons (CCK-INs) mediate behavior state-dependent inhibition in cortical circuits and themselves receive strong GABAergic input. However, it remains unclear to what extent GABABreceptors (GABABRs) contribute to their inhibitory control. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found that CCK-INs in the rat hippocampus possessed high levels of dendritic GABABRs and KCTD12 auxiliary proteins, whereas postsynaptic effector Kir3 channels were present at lower levels. Consistently, whole-cell recordings revealed slow GABABR-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in most CCK-INs...
April 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Jian Wang, Meishuang Yi, Xueping Chen, Ishfaq Muhammad, Fangping Liu, Rui Li, Jian Li, Jichang Li
Neurotoxicity is one of the major potential side effects of colistin therapy. However, the mechanistic aspects of colistin-induced neurotoxicity remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of colistin on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and amino acid neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex of mouse. Mice were divided into four groups (n=5) and were administrated intravenously with 15mg/kg/day of colistin sulfate for 1, 3 and 7days successively while the control group was administrated intravenously with saline solution...
May 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Rama M Kamal, Martijn S van Noorden, Ernst Franzek, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Anton J M Loonen, Cornelius A J De Jong
OBJECTIVE: x03B3;-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has gained popularity as a drug of abuse. In the Netherlands the number of patients in treatment for GHB dependence has increased sharply. Clinical presentation of GHB withdrawal can be life threatening. We aim, through this overview, to explore the neurobiological pathways causing GHB dependency and withdrawal, and their implications for treatment choices. METHODS: In this work we review the literature discussing the findings from animal models to clinical studies focused on the neurobiological pathways of endogenous but mainly exogenous GHB...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Michaelanne B Munoz, Claire L Padgett, Robert Rifkin, Miho Terunuma, Kevin Wickman, Candice Contet, Stephen J Moss, Paul A Slesinger
UNLABELLED: Repeated exposure to psychostimulants induces locomotor sensitization and leads to persistent changes in the circuitry of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system. G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK; also known as Kir3) channels mediate a slow IPSC and control the excitability of DA neurons. Repeated 5 d exposure to psychostimulants decreases the size of the GABAB receptor (GABABR)-activated GIRK currents (IBaclofen) in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons of mice, but the mechanism underlying this plasticity is poorly understood...
March 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
E I Kampylafka, H Alexopoulos, P Fouka, H M Moutsopoulos, M C Dalakas, A G Tzioufas
We investigated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with epilepsy, a major and organic neurological symptom. Our aim was to test patients for the autoimmune epilepsy-associated antibodies anti-GAD, anti-NMDAR, anti-AMPAR1/2, anti-GABABR and anti-VGKC. We tested sera from ten SLE patients with current or previous episodes of epileptic seizures. In addition, sera were tested for staining on primary hippocampal neurons. The patients' clinical and neuroimaging profile, disease activity and accumulated damage scores and therapeutic regimens administered were recorded, and correlations were evaluated...
October 2016: Lupus
Reagan L Pennock, Shane T Hentges
Whereas the activation of Gαi/o-coupled receptors commonly results in postsynaptic responses that show acute desensitization, the presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release caused by many Gαi/o-coupled receptors is maintained during agonist exposure. However, an exception has been noted where GABAB receptor (GABABR)-mediated inhibition of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded in mouse proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons exhibit acute desensitization in ∼25% of experiments. To determine whether differential effector coupling confers sensitivity to desensitization, voltage-clamp recordings were made from POMC neurons to compare the mechanism by which μ-opioid receptors (MORs) and GABABRs inhibit transmitter release...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Joel Castro, Andrea M Harrington, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Jessica Maddern, Luke Grundy, Jingming Zhang, Guy Page, Paul E Miller, David J Craik, David J Adams, Stuart M Brierley
OBJECTIVE: α-Conotoxin Vc1.1 is a small disulfide-bonded peptide from the venom of the marine cone snail Conus victoriae. Vc1.1 has antinociceptive actions in animal models of neuropathic pain, but its applicability to inhibiting human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuroexcitability and reducing chronic visceral pain (CVP) is unknown. DESIGN: We determined the inhibitory actions of Vc1.1 on human DRG neurons and on mouse colonic sensory afferents in healthy and chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH) states...
February 17, 2016: Gut
Sven Jarius, Imke Metz, Fatima Barbara König, Klemens Ruprecht, Markus Reindl, Friedemann Paul, Wolfgang Brück, Brigitte Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Histopathological studies have revealed four different immunopathological patterns of lesion pathology in early multiple sclerosis (MS). Pattern II MS is characterised by immunoglobulin and complement deposition in addition to T-cell and macrophage infiltration and is more likely to respond to plasma exchange therapy, suggesting a contribution of autoantibodies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), anti-M1-aquaporin-4 (AQP4), anti-M23-AQP4, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) and 25 other anti-neural antibodies in pattern II MS...
February 11, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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