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Fredrik Elinder, Michael Madeja, Hugo Zeberg, Peter Århem
The transmembrane voltage needed to open different voltage-gated K (Kv) channels differs by up to 50 mV from each other. In this study we test the hypothesis that the channels' voltage dependences to a large extent are set by charged amino-acid residues of the extracellular linkers of the Kv channels, which electrostatically affect the charged amino-acid residues of the voltage sensor S4. Extracellular cations shift the conductance-versus-voltage curve, G(V), by interfering with these extracellular charges...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Ursula Ravens, Katja E Odening
Despite the epidemiological scale of atrial fibrillation, current treatment strategies are of limited efficacy and safety. Ideally, novel drugs should specifically correct the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation with no other cardiac or extracardiac actions. Atrial-selective drugs are directed toward cellular targets with sufficiently different characteristics in atria and ventricles to modify only atrial function. Several potassium (K(+)) channels with either predominant expression in atria or distinct electrophysiological properties in atria and ventricles can serve as atrial-selective drug targets...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zhi-Quan Wang, Xue-Jun Jiang, Guang-Yu Zhang, Ming Chen, Chuan-Feng Tong, Dong Zhang
This research is to explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine Ginseng-spikenard heart-nourishing capsule on the inactivation of c-type Kv1.4 channels (Kv1.4∆N) in Xenopus laevis oocytes with two-electrode voltageclamp technique. Defolliculated oocytes (stage V-VI) were injected with transcribed cRNAs of ferret Kv1.4δN channels. During recording, oocytes were continuously perfused with ND96 solution (control group) and solution prepared from Ginseng-spikenard heart-nourishing capsule (experimental group)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hai M Nguyen, Eva M Grössinger, Makoto Horiuchi, Kyle W Davis, Lee-Way Jin, Izumi Maezawa, Heike Wulff
Microglia are highly plastic cells that can assume different phenotypes in response to microenvironmental signals. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) promote differentiation into classically activated M1-like microglia, which produce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide and are thought to contribute to neurological damage in ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. IL-4 in contrast induces a phenotype associated with anti-inflammatory effects and tissue repair. We here investigated whether these microglia subsets vary in their K(+) channel expression by differentiating neonatal mouse microglia into M(LPS) and M(IL-4) microglia and studying their K(+) channel expression by whole-cell patch-clamp, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry...
October 3, 2016: Glia
Robert H Cox, Samantha Fromme
We have shown that three components contribute to functional voltage gated K(+) (K v) currents in rat small mesenteric artery myocytes: (1) Kv1.2 plus Kv1.5 with Kvβ1.2 subunits, (2) Kv2.1 probably associated with Kv9.3 subunits, and (3) Kv7.4 subunits. To confirm and address subunit stoichiometry of the first two, we have compared the biophysical properties of K v currents in small mesenteric artery myocytes with those of Kv subunits heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells using whole cell voltage clamp methods...
September 16, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Namik Kaya, Maysoon Alsagob, Maria Cristina D'Adamo, Albandary Al-Bakheet, Sonia Hasan, Maria Muccioli, Faten B Almutairi, Rawan Almass, Mazhor Aldosary, Dorota Monies, Osama M Mustafa, Banan Alyounes, Rosan Kenana, Jawaher Al-Zahrani, Eva Naim, Faisal S Binhumaid, Alya Qari, Fatema Almutairi, Brian Meyer, Timothy F Plageman, Mauro Pessia, Dilek Colak, Mohammed Al-Owain
BACKGROUND: Voltage-gated potassium channels are highly diverse proteins representing the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from structural and functional perspectives. Deficiency of these channels usually results in various human disorders. OBJECTIVES: To describe a novel autosomal recessive syndrome associated with KCNA4 deficiency leading to congenital cataract, abnormal striatum, intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Timothy A Simeone, Stephanie A Matthews, Kaeli K Samson, Kristina A Simeone
The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective therapy primarily used in pediatric patients whom are refractory to current anti-seizure medications. The mechanism of the KD is not completely understood, but is thought to involve anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant processes. The nutritionally-regulated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, PPARγ, regulates genes involved in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant pathways. Moreover, endogenous ligands of PPARγ include fatty acids suggesting a potential role in the effects of the KD...
August 12, 2016: Experimental Neurology
David Meneses, Ana V Vega, Francisco Miguel Torres-Cruz, Jaime Barral
In the last years it has been increasingly clear that KV-channel activity modulates neurotransmitter release. The subcellular localization and composition of potassium channels are crucial to understanding its influence on neurotransmitter release. To investigate the role of KV in corticostriatal synapses modulation, we combined extracellular recording of population-spike and pharmacological blockage with specific and nonspecific blockers to identify several families of KV channels. We induced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and studied the changes in paired-pulse ratio (PPR) before and after the addition of specific KV blockers to determine whether particular KV subtypes were located pre- or postsynaptically...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Sha-Sha Huang, Si-Li He, Yuan-Ming Zhang
HYPOTHESIS: Previous studies provide links between the nuclear factor of activated T lymphocytes (NFAT) signalling pathway and the development of hypertension. Our preliminary studies indicate that telmisartan can block Kv1.3 potassium channels and effectively inhibit potassium current densities, along with Kv1.3 mRNA and protein expression levels. This paper aims to investigate whether telmisartan has an inhibitory effect on the NFAT signalling pathway after activation and proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in Kazakh patients with essential hypertension (EH) from Xinjiang, China...
April 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
N E Farag, D Jeong, T Claydon, J Warwicker, M R Boyett
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate voltage-gated K(+) channel inactivation by an unknown site and mechanism. The effects of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs were investigated on the heterologously expressed Kv1.4 channel. PUFAs inhibited wild-type Kv1.4 during repetitive pulsing as a result of slowing of recovery from inactivation. In a mutant Kv1.4 channel lacking N-type inactivation, PUFAs reversibly enhanced C-type inactivation (Kd, 15-43 μM). C-type inactivation was affected by extracellular H(+) and K(+) as well as PUFAs and there was an interaction among the three: the effect of PUFAs was reversed during acidosis and abolished on raising K(+) Replacement of two positively charged residues in the extracellular pore (H508 and K532) abolished the effects of the PUFAs (and extracellular H(+) and K(+)) on C-type inactivation but had no effect on the lipoelectric modulation of voltage sensor activation, suggesting two separable interaction sites/mechanisms of action of PUFAs...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Lasse Skibsbye, Ursula Ravens
Any disturbance of electrical impulse formation in the heart and of impulse conduction or action potential (AP) repolarization can lead to rhythm disorders. Potassium (K(+)) channels play a prominent role in the AP repolarization process. In this review we describe the causes and mechanisms of proarrhythmic effects that arise as a response to blockers of cardiac K(+) channels. The largest and chemically most diverse groups of compound targets are Kv11.1 (hERG) and Kv7.1 (KvLQT1) channels. Finally, the proarrhythmic propensity of atrial-selective K(+) blockers inhibiting Kv1...
June 2016: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Wei Wu, Michael C Sanguinetti
Human cardiomyocytes express 3 distinct types of delayed rectifier potassium channels. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels conduct the rapidly activating current IKr; KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels conduct the slowly activating current IKs; and Kv1.5 channels conduct an ultrarapid activating current IKur. Here the authors provide a general overview of the mechanistic and structural basis of ion selectivity, gating, and pharmacology of the 3 types of cardiac delayed rectifier potassium ion channels. Most blockers bind to S6 residues that line the central cavity of the channel, whereas activators interact with the channel at 4 symmetric binding sites outside the cavity...
June 2016: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Shuen-Hsin Liu, Ya-Wen Hsiao, Eric Chong, Rahul Singhal, Man-Cai Fong, Yung-Nan Tsai, Chiao-Po Hsu, Yao-Chang Chen, Yi-Jen Chen, Chuen-Wang Chiou, Shuo-Ju Chiang, Shih-Lin Chang, Shih-Ann Chen
INTRODUCTION: Rhodiola, a popular plant in Tibet, has been proven to decrease arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism and electrophysiological properties of rhodiola in the suppression of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: This study consisted of 3 groups as follows: Group 1: normal control rabbits (n = 5); Group 2: rabbits with heart failure (HF) created by coronary ligation and who received 2 weeks of water orally as a placebo (n = 5); and Group 3: rabbits with HF who received 2 weeks of a rhodiola 270 mg/kg/day treatment orally (n = 5)...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Hye Duck Yeom, Jun-Ho Lee
Metergoline is an ergot-derived psychoactive drug that is a ligand for various serotonin and dopamine receptors. Little is known about the effect of metergoline on different types of receptors and ion channels. Potassium channels are the most diverse group of ion channels. Kv1.4, a shaker family K channel alpha subunit, is one of a family of voltage gated K channels that mediates transient and rapid inactivating A-type currents and N-type inactivation. We demonstrated previously that metergoline inhibited the activity of neuronal voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes (Acta Pharmacol...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Christopher P Kovach, Dolly Al Koborssy, Zhenbo Huang, Brandon M Chelette, James M Fadool, Debra A Fadool
Gene-targeted deletion of the potassium channel Kv1.3 (Kv1.3(-∕-)) results in "Super-smeller" mice with a sensory phenotype that includes an increased olfactory ability linked to changes in olfactory circuitry, increased abundance of olfactory cilia, and increased expression of odorant receptors and the G-protein, Golf. Kv1.3(-∕-) mice also have a metabolic phenotype including lower body weight and decreased adiposity, increased total energy expenditure (TEE), increased locomotor activity, and resistance to both diet- and genetic-induced obesity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Da Hye Hong, Hongliang Li, Hye Won Kim, Han Sol Kim, Youn Kyoung Son, Se-Ran Yang, Jeong-Ran Park, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Seok-Ho Hong, Amy L Firth, Sung Hun Na, Won Sun Park
This study investigated the alteration of voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channels in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells from control (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) and diabetic (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty [OLETF]) rats during the early and chronic phases of diabetes. We demonstrated alterations in the mesenteric Kv channels during the early and chronic phase of diabetes using the patch-clamp technique, the arterial tone measurement system, and RT-PCR in Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO; for control) and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; for diabetes) type 2 diabetic model rats...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Christian Jorgensen, Leonardo Darré, Victoria Oakes, Rubben Torella, David Pryde, Carmen Domene
Potassium channels are of paramount physiological and pathological importance and therefore constitute significant drug targets. One of the keys to rationalize the way drugs modulate ion channels is to understand the ability of such small molecules to access their respective binding sites, from which they can exert an activating or inhibitory effect. Many computational studies have probed the energetics of ion permeation, and the mechanisms of voltage gating, but little is known about the role of fenestrations as possible mediators of drug entry in potassium channels...
July 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Akiko Kojima, Jia-Yu Bai, Yuki Ito, Wei-Guang Ding, Hirotoshi Kitagawa, Hiroshi Matsuura
The intravenous anesthetic propofol modulates various ion channel functions. It is generally accepted that approximately 98% of propofol binds to blood constituents and that the free (unbound) drug preferentially affects target proteins including ion channels. However, modulatory effects of propofol on ion channels have not been previously explored in the presence of serum albumin. This study was designed to investigate the effects of serum albumin on the blocking action of propofol on the human Kv1.5 (hKv1...
July 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Anastasia Zekeridou, Andrew McKeon, Vanda A Lennon
IMPORTANCE: Thymoma is commonly recognized in association with paraneoplastic autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG), an IgG-mediated impairment of synaptic transmission targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of muscle. Newly identified synaptic autoantibodies may expand the serological profile of thymoma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of potentially pathogenic neural synaptic autoantibodies in patients with thymoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively identified patients with histopathologically confirmed thymoma and serum available to test for synaptic autoantibodies (collected 1986-2014) at the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Luo-Sheng Wan, Yin Nian, Chen-Jun Ye, Li-Dong Shao, Xing-Rong Peng, Chang-An Geng, Zhi-Li Zuo, Xiao-Nian Li, Jian Yang, Ming Zhou, Ming-Hua Qiu
Euphorbia peplus has been used in traditional medicine to treat asthma and psoriasis. Three highly modified diterpenoids, namely, pepluacetal (1) and pepluanol A-B (2-3), have been isolated and identified from this plant. Compounds 1-3 exhibit unprecedented 5/4/7/3, 5/6/7/3, and 5/5/8/3 ring systems, respectively. Their structures with absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystallography, and electronic circular dichroism calculations. Since Kv1.3 is a validated target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, asthma, and psoriasis, Kv1...
May 6, 2016: Organic Letters
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