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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768623/entomological-investigation-of-japanese-encephalitis-outbreak-in-malkangiri-district-of-odisha-state-india
#1
Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu, Smrutidhara Dash, Thankachy Sonia, Subramaniam Muthukumaravel, Thirumal Sankari, Kasinathan Gunasekaran, Purushothaman Jambulingam
BACKGROUND: A severe outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high case fatality was reported from Malkangiri district of Odisha state, India during September to November 2016 affecting 336 children with 103 deaths. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the outbreak in the light of entomological determinants. METHODS: Entomological investigation was carried out in 48 villages from four mostly affected Community Health Centres (CHCs) of Malkangiri district...
May 14, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748549/genotype-i-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-virus-like-particles-elicit-sterilizing-immunity-against-genotype-i-and-iii-viral-challenge-in-swine
#2
Yi-Chin Fan, Jo-Mei Chen, Jen-Wei Lin, Yi-Ying Chen, Guan-Hong Wu, Kuan-Hsuan Su, Ming-Tang Chiou, Shang-Rung Wu, Ji-Hang Yin, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Shyan-Song Chiou
Swine are a critical amplifying host involved in human Japanese encephalitis (JE) outbreaks. Cross-genotypic immunogenicity and sterile protection are important for the current genotype III (GIII) virus-derived vaccines in swine, especially now that emerging genotype I (GI) JE virus (JEV) has replaced GIII virus as the dominant strain. Herein, we aimed to develop a system to generate GI JEV virus-like particles (VLPs) and evaluate the immunogenicity and protection of the GI vaccine candidate in mice and specific pathogen-free swine...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746378/acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-gorakhpur-uttar-pradesh-2016-clinical-and-laboratory-findings
#3
Mahima Mittal, Vijay Bondre, Manoj Murhekar, Hirawati Deval, Winsley Rose, Valsan Philip Verghese, Mahim Mittal, Gajanan Patil, R Sabarinathan, Jeromie Wesley Vivian Thangaraj, K Kanagasabai, John Antony Jude Prakash, Nivedita Gupta, Manish Gupte, Mohan D Gupte
BACKGROUND: Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high fatality have been occurring in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India for several years. We conducted investigations during the 2016 outbreak, to identify the etiology. METHODS: We included 407 hospitalized AES patients with CSF pleocytosis (>5 cells/cmm) in our study. These patients were clinically examined; their blood and CSF samples were collected and investigated for scrub typhus (ST), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus and spotted fever group of rickettsia (SFGR) by serology and/or PCR...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742002/shedding-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-oral-fluid-of-infected-swine
#4
Amy C Lyons, Yan-Jang S Huang, So Lee Park, Victoria B Ayers, Susan M Hettenbach, Stephen Higgs, D Scott McVey, Leela Noronha, Wei-Wen Hsu, Dana L Vanlandingham
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Maintenance of JEV in nature involves enzootic transmission by competent Culex mosquitoes among susceptible avian and swine species. Historically, JEV has been regarded as one of the most important arthropod-borne viruses in Southeast Asia. Oronasal shedding of JEV from infected amplification hosts was not recognized until the recent discovery of vector-free transmission of JEV among domestic pigs. In this study, oral shedding of JEV was characterized in domestic pigs and miniature swine representing the feral phenotype...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740970/japanese-encephalitis-circulation-pattern-in-swine-of-northern-vietnam-and-consequences-for-swine-s-vaccination-recommendations
#5
A-S Ruget, C Beck, A Gabassi, K Trevennec, S Lecollinet, V Chevalier, J Cappelle
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the largest worldwide cause of infectious encephalitis in humans and is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus. JE transmission cycle involves Culex mosquitoes, pigs and aquatic birds as principal vertebrate amplifying hosts. JE infection is responsible for reproductive disorder in pigs when occurring after sexual maturity. In tropical areas, JE is endemic and the majority of pigs get infected before the age of 6 months. However, in subtropical areas, pigs may be infected after sexual maturity and thus experience clinical signs, inducing economic loss...
May 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718435/japanese-encephalitis-the-vectors-ecology-and-potential-for-expansion
#6
James C Pearce, Tristan P Learoyd, Benjamin J Langendorf, James G Logan
Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a viral disease predominantly located in South East Asia and commonly associated with transmission between amplifying hosts, such as pigs, and the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus, where human infection represents a dead end in the life cycle of the virus. The expansion of JE beyond an Asiatic confine is dependent on a multitude of complex factors that stem back to genetic subtype variation. A complex interplay of the genetic variation and vector competencies combine with variables such as geography, climate change and urbanization...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704821/chemokine-receptor-antagonist-block-inflammation-and-therapy-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-mouse-model
#7
Ke Liu, Changguang Xiao, Feifei Wang, Xiao Xiang, Anni Ou, Jianchao Wei, Beibei Li, Donghua Shao, Denian Miao, Fanfan Zhao, Gang Long, Yafeng Qiu, Huaimin Zhu, Zhiyong Ma
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a viral encephalitis disease caused by infection with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The virus can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause death or long-term sequela in infected humans or animals. In this study, we first investigated the distribution of JEV infection in brain and further analyzed the dynamic change in inflammation related genes, chemokines, as well as pathological characteristics. Results demonstrated that CCR2 and CCR5 antagonist could significantly inhibit the inflammation...
April 25, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697099/japanese-encephalitis-the-prospects-for-new-treatments
#8
REVIEW
Lance Turtle, Tom Solomon
Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in Asia and is caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus. Although many flaviviruses can cause encephalitis, JEV causes particularly severe neurological manifestations. The virus causes loss of more disability-adjusted life years than any other arthropod-borne virus owing to the frequent neurological sequelae of the condition. Despite substantial advances in our understanding of Japanese encephalitis from in vitro studies and animal models, studies of pathogenesis and treatment in humans are lagging behind...
April 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692243/isatin-derivatives-and-their-antiviral-properties-against-arboviruses-a-review
#9
Paulo Andre Teixeira De Moraes Gomes, Lindomar Jose Pena, Ana Cristina Lima Leite
Arboviruses have been spreading rapidly throughout the Western Hemisphere in recent decades. Among the arboviruses with high morbidity and mortality are members of the Alphavirus and Flavivirus genera. Within the first genus, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is considered one of the most challenging human arboviral infections with global significance and without any specific antiviral agent. Flaviviruses are some of the most important causes of encephalitis, haemorrhagic disease, and developmental defects. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are examples of flaviviruses without clinically approved antiviral agents...
April 23, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685447/assessment-of-data-on-vector-and-host-competence-for-japanese-encephalitis-virus-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#10
Ana R S Oliveira, Erin Strathe, Luciana Etcheverry, Lee W Cohnstaedt, D Scott McVey, José Piaggio, Natalia Cernicchiaro
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a virus of the Flavivirus genus that may result in encephalitis in human hosts. This vector-borne zoonosis occurs in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and an intentional or inadvertent introduction into the United States (US) would have major public health and economic consequences. The objective of this study was to gather, appraise, and synthesize primary research literature to identify and quantify vector and host competence for JEV, using a systematic review (SR) of the literature...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678952/subverting-the-mechanisms-of-cell-death-flavivirus-manipulation-of-host-cell-responses-to-infection
#11
REVIEW
Elisa Vicenzi, Isabel Pagani, Silvia Ghezzi, Sarah L Taylor, Timothy R Rudd, Marcelo A Lima, Mark A Skidmore, Edwin A Yates
Viruses exploit host metabolic and defence machinery for their own replication. The flaviviruses, which include Dengue (DENV), Yellow Fever (YFV), Japanese Encephalitis (JEV), West Nile (WNV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, infect a broad range of hosts, cells and tissues. Flaviviruses are largely transmitted by mosquito bites and humans are usually incidental, dead-end hosts, with the notable exceptions of YFV, DENV and ZIKV. Infection by flaviviruses elicits cellular responses including cell death via necrosis, pyroptosis (involving inflammation) or apoptosis (which avoids inflammation)...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673443/taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-detecting-and-differentiating-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#12
Nan Shao, Fan Li, Kai Nie, Shi Hong Fu, Wei Jia Zhang, Ying He, Wen Wen Lei, Qian Ying Wang, Guo Dong Liang, Yu Xi Cao, Huan Yu Wang
OBJECTIVE: To detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) rapidly and distinguish its genotypes, a TaqMan-based reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection system was developed. METHODS: By aligning the full-length sequences of JEV (G1-G5), six sets of highly specific TaqMan real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were designed based on the highly conserved NS1, NS2, and M genes of JEV, which included one set for non-specific JEV detection and five sets for the detection of specific JEV genotypes...
March 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665373/human-monoclonal-antibodies-against-west-nile-virus-from-japanese-encephalitis-vaccinated-volunteers
#13
Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Hideyuki Masaki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ikuko Aoyama, Takahiro Yumisashi, Atsushi Yamanaka, Eiji Konishi, Yoh Ohnuki, Atsushi Muraguchi, Hiroyuki Kishi
West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex of the Flaviviridae family and causes mosquito-borne infections. Although most human infection cases are asymptomatic, approximately one in 150 infected individuals develops meningoencephalitis, with a mortality rate of 4-14%. While the development of human neutralizing antibody therapeutics against WNV is strongly anticipated, WNV is difficult to study in conventional laboratories due to its high safety level requirement...
April 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605839/genomic-changes-in-an-attenuated-genotype-i-japanese-encephalitis-virus-and-comparison-with-virulent-parental-strain
#14
Yuyong Zhou, Rui Wu, Yao Feng, Qin Zhao, Xintian Wen, Xiaobo Huang, Yiping Wen, Qigui Yan, Yong Huang, Xiaoping Ma, Xinfeng Han, Sanjie Cao
Genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain SCYA201201 was previously isolated from brain tissues of aborted piglets. In this study, we obtained an attenuated SCYA201201-0901 strain by serial passage of strain SCYA201201-1 in Syrian baby hamster kidney cells, combined with multiple plaque purifications and selection for virulence in mice. We investigated the genetic changes associated with attenuation by comparing the entire genomes of SCYA201201-0901 and SCYA201201-1. Sequence comparisons identified 14 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with two nucleotide point mutations in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and another three in the 3'-UTR, which differed between the attenuated and virulent strains...
March 31, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593046/host-factor-spcs1-regulates-the-replication-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-through-interactions-with-transmembrane-domains-of-ns2b
#15
Le Ma, Fang Li, Jing-Wei Zhang, Wei Li, Dong-Ming Zhao, Han Wang, Rong-Hong Hua, Zhi-Gao Bu
Signal peptidase complex subunit 1 (SPCS1) is a newly identified host factor that regulates flavivirus replication, but the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Herein, using Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as a model, we investigated the mechanism through which host factor SPCS1 regulates the replication of flaviviruses. We first validated the regulatory function of SPCS1 in JEV propagation by knocking down and knocking out endogenous SPCS1. Loss of SPCS1 function markedly reduced intracellular virion assembly and production of infectious JEV particles, but did not affect virus cell entry, RNA replication, or translation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590177/emergence-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-as-an-important-cause-of-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-india
#16
Parul Jain, Shantanu Prakash, Piyush K Tripathi, Archana Chauhan, Shikha Gupta, Umesh Sharma, Anil K Jaiswal, Devraj Sharma, Amita Jain
BACKGROUND: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) is a major seasonal public health problem in Bihar, India. Despite efforts of the Bihar health department and the Government of India, burden and mortality of AES cases have not decreased, and definitive etiologies for the illness have yet to be identified. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to study the specific etiology of AES in Bihar. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid and/or serum samples from AES patients were collected and tested for various pathogens, including viruses and bacteria by ELISA and/or Real Time PCR...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570739/development-of-an-improved-rt-qpcr-assay-for-detection-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-jev-rna-including-a-systematic-review-and-comprehensive-comparison-with-published-methods
#17
Tehmina Bharucha, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Malavanh Vongsouvath, Viengmon Davong, Phonepasith Panyanouvong, Géraldine Piorkowski, Jeremy A Garson, Paul N Newton, Xavier de Lamballerie, Audrey Dubot-Pérès
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia, and the commonest cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis worldwide. Detection of JEV RNA remains challenging due to the characteristic brief and low viraemia, with 0-25% of patients positive, and the mainstay of diagnosis remains detection of anti-JEV IgM antibody. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of published RT-PCR protocols, and evaluated them in silico and in vitro alongside new primers and probes designed using a multiple genome alignment of all JEV strains >9,000nt from GenBank, downloaded from the NCBI website (November 2016)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535994/human-west-nile-virus-disease-outbreak-in-pakistan-2015-2016
#18
Erum Khan, Kelli L Barr, Joveria Qais Farooqi, Dhani Prakoso, Alizae Abbas, Zain Y Khan, Shanze Ashi, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Z Aziz, Faisal Malik, John A Lednicky, Maureen T Long
Like most of the world, Pakistan has seen an increase in mosquito-transmitted diseases in recent years. The magnitude and distribution of these diseases are poorly understood as Pakistan does not have a nation-wide system for reporting disease. A cross-sectional study to determine which flaviviruses were causing of arboviral disease in Pakistan was instituted. West Nile virus (WNV) is a cause of seasonal fever with neurotropic findings in countries that share borders with Pakistan. Here, we describe the active and persistent circulation of WNV in humans in the southern region of Pakistan...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532388/mosquito-associated-viruses-in-china
#19
Han Xia, Yujuan Wang, Evans Atoni, Bo Zhang, Zhiming Yuan
Mosquitoes are classified into approximately 3500 species and further grouped into 41 genera. Epidemiologically, they are considered to be among the most important disease vectors in the world and they can harbor a wide variety of viruses. Several mosquito viruses are considered to be of significant medical importance and can cause serious public health issues throughout the world. Such viruses are Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Others are the newly recognized mosquito viruses such as Banna virus (BAV) and Yunnan orbivirus (YNOV) with unclear medical significance...
February 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521099/disruption-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-is-vital-property-of-neurotropic-viral-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system
#20
M M Jamil Al-Obaidi, A Bahadoran, S M Wang, R Manikam, Ch S Raju, S D Sekaran
The blood brain barrier consisting of astrocytes, pericytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses by controlling the access of circulating molecules, immune cells or viruses into the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier is not impenetrable and neuroviruses have evolved to disrupt and evade it. This review aims to describe the underlying entry mechanisms of several neuroviruses such as (Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Nipah virus (NiV), Rabies virus (RABV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) into the CNS through BBB disruption...
2018: Acta Virologica
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