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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149532/exploitation-of-micrornas-by-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-human-microglial-cells
#1
Meghana Rastogi, Neha Srivastava, Sunit K Singh
JEV infection in CNS leads to the JE neuroinflammation. Children and old age individual have been reported to be more prone to JEV infection. MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs, which regulate the gene expression. These are ∼22 nucleotide long, conserved RNA sequence that binds at the 3'UTR of a target mRNA and regulate the post-transcriptional gene expression. The role of microRNAs has been reported in several diseases like cancer, viral infection, neuro-degeneration, diabetes etc. In the present study, the human microglial cells were infected with JEV (JaOAr strain)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109371/seasonal-patterns-of-japanese-encephalitis-and-associated-meteorological-factors-in-taiwan
#2
Che-Liang Lin, Hsiao-Ling Chang, Chuan-Yao Lin, Kow-Tong Chen
The persistent transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Taiwan necessitates exploring the risk factors of occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of JE in Taiwan. We collected data for cases of JE reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) from 2000 to 2014. Meteorological data were obtained from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. The relationships between weather variability and the incidence of JE in Taiwan were determined via Poisson regression analysis and a case-crossover methodology...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083983/investigation-on-mosquito-borne-viruses-at-lancang-river-and-nu-river-watersheds-in-southwestern-china
#3
Lingli Li, Xiaofang Guo, Qiumin Zhao, Yigang Tong, Hang Fan, Qiang Sun, Shaozhen Xing, Hongning Zhou, Jiusong Zhang
During 2007 and 2010, an extensive entomological survey was performed to assess the distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses at Lancang River and Nu River watersheds in southwestern China. A total of 20,450 mosquitoes consisting 20 species was trapped and submitted 261 pools according to species and location. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. Eighty-seven isolates representing 11 virus species in 8 genera were obtained from 6 mosquito species. The new isolates were identified as Getah virus (GETV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yunnan Culex-related flavivirus (YNCxFV), Yunnan Aedes-related flavivirus (YNAeFV), Banna virus (BAV), Yunnan orbivirus (YUOV), Banna orbivirus (BAOV), Yunnan totivirus (YNToV), Nam Dinh virus (NDiV), Menghai rhabdovirus (MRV), and Anopheles minimus iridovirus (AMIV)...
October 30, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076102/epidemiological-profile-of-acute-viral-encephalitis
#4
Rajesh Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Manoj Kumar Singh, Dipti Agarwal, Bendangienla Jamir, Shashi Khare, Samrendra Narayan
OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology and clinico-epidemiological profile of acute viral encephalitis in children with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES). METHODS: An observational study including 100 patients fulfilling the criteria for AES was conducted in children of age group 1 mo - 16 y. Viral isolation was done on RD cells, HEp-2 cells and Vero cells from the cerebrospinal fluid samples of suspected viral encephalitis (VE) cases. An enzyme immunoassay for IgM antibodies was performed for measles, mumps, Varicella zoster virus (VZV), Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
October 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058107/zika-virus-isolated-from-mosquitoes-a-field-and-laboratory-investigation-in-china-2016
#5
Shihong Fu, Song Song, Hong Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Xiaolong Li, Xiaoyan Gao, Ziqian Xu, Guoping Liu, Dingming Wang, Zhenzao Tian, Jingzhu Zhou, Ying He, Wenwen Lei, Huanyu Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaoqing Lu, Guodong Liang
A field investigation of arboviruses was conducted in Dejiang, Guizhou Province in the summer of 2016. A total of 8,795 mosquitoes, belonging to four species of three genera, and 1,300 midges were collected. The mosquito samples were identified on site according to their morphology, and the pooled samples were ground and centrifuged in the laboratory. The supernatant was incubated with mosquito tissue culture cells (C6/36) and mammalian cells (BHK-21) for virus isolation. The results indicated that 40% (3,540/8,795) were Anopheles sinensis, 30% (2,700/8,795) were Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and 29% (2,530/8,795) were Armigeres subbalbeatus...
October 19, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048288/virulence-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-genotypes-i-and-iii-taiwan
#6
Yi-Chin Fan, Jen-Wei Lin, Shu-Ying Liao, Jo-Mei Chen, Yi-Ying Chen, Hsien-Chung Chiu, Chen-Chang Shih, Chi-Ming Chen, Ruey-Yi Chang, Chwan-Chuen King, Wei-June Chen, Yi-Ting Ko, Chao-Chin Chang, Shyan-Song Chiou
The virulence of genotype I (GI) Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is under debate. We investigated differences in the virulence of GI and GIII JEV by calculating asymptomatic ratios based on serologic studies during GI- and GIII-JEV endemic periods. The results suggested equal virulence of GI and GIII JEV among humans.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043965/japanese-encephalitis-virus-transmitted-via-blood-transfusion-hong-kong-china
#7
Vincent C C Cheng, Siddharth Sridhar, Shuk-Ching Wong, Sally C Y Wong, Jasper F W Chan, Cyril C Y Yip, Chi-Hung Chau, Timmy W K Au, Yu-Yan Hwang, Carol S W Yau, Janice Y C Lo, Cheuk-Kwong Lee, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquitoborne virus endemic to China and Southeast Asia that causes severe encephalitis in <1% of infected persons. Transmission of JEV via blood transfusion has not been reported. We report transmission of JEV via blood donation products from an asymptomatic viremic donor to 2 immunocompromised recipients. One recipient on high-dose immunosuppressive drugs received JEV-positive packed red blood cells after a double lung transplant; severe encephalitis and a poor clinical outcome resulted...
January 15, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033949/microarray-analysis-identifies-the-potential-role-of-long-non-coding-rna-in-regulating-neuroinflammation-during-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection
#8
Yunchuan Li, Hao Zhang, Bibo Zhu, Usama Ashraf, Zheng Chen, Qiuping Xu, Dengyuan Zhou, Bohan Zheng, Yunfeng Song, Huanchun Chen, Jing Ye, Shengbo Cao
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide. JEV-induced neuroinflammation is characterized by profound neuronal cells damage accompanied by activation of glial cells. Albeit long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been emerged as important regulatory RNAs with profound effects on various biological processes, it is unknown how lncRNAs regulate JEV-induced inflammation. Here, using microarray approach, we identified 618 lncRNAs and 1,007 mRNAs differentially expressed in JEV-infected mice brain...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978693/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-inhibit-t-follicular-helper-cell-immune-response-in-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection
#9
Chong Wang, Nan Zhang, Luting Qi, Jiaolong Yuan, Ke Wang, Kunlun Wang, Sicong Ma, Haili Wang, Wenjuan Lou, Pingdong Hu, Muhammad Awais, Shengbo Cao, Zhen F Fu, Min Cui
Resolution of viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. In this study, we examined Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection leading to acute encephalopathy depending on suppression of the adaptive immune responses mediated by innate cells. Infection with P3 strains of JEV enhanced myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) populations, and the survival rate of JEV-infected mice improved after MDSC depletion. Mechanically, P3-induced MDSCs suppressed CD4(+) T cell immune responses, especially responses of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, leading to decreased splenic B cells (CD19(+)) and blood plasma cells (CD19(+)CD138(+)) and reduced levels of total IgM and JEV-specific neutralizing Abs...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969658/characterization-and-epitope-mapping-of-dengue-virus-type-1-specific-monoclonal-antibodies
#10
Wen-Hung Chen, Feng-Pai Chou, Yu-Kuo Wang, Sheng-Cih Huang, Chuan-Hung Cheng, Tung-Kung Wu
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DV) infection causes a spectrum of clinical diseases ranging from dengue fever to a life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Four distinct serotypes (DV1-4), which have similar genome sequences and envelope protein (E protein) antigenic properties, were divided. Among these 4 serotypes, DV1 usually causes predominant infections and fast diagnosis and effective treatments are urgently required to prevent further hospitalization and casualties. METHODS: To develop antibodies specifically targeting and neutralizing DV1, we immunized mice with UV-inactivated DV1 viral particles and recombinant DV1 E protein from residue 1 to 395 (E395), and then generated 12 anti-E monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as the candidates for a series of characterized assays such as ELISA, dot blot, immunofluorescence assay, western blot, and foci forming analyses...
October 2, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938099/plasmid-dna-launches-live-attenuated-japanese-encephalitis-virus-and-elicits-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-in-balb-c-mice
#11
Brian Nickols, Irina Tretyakova, Alexander Tibbens, Elena Klyushnenkova, Peter Pushko
We describe novel plasmid DNA that encodes the full-length Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genomic cDNA and launches live-attenuated JEV vaccine in vitro and in vivo. The synthetic cDNA based on the sequence of JEV SA14-14-2 live-attenuated virus was placed under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter. The stability and yields of the plasmid in E. coli were optimized by inserting three synthetic introns that disrupted JEV cDNA in the structural and nonstructural genes...
December 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882172/meta-analyses-of-the-proportion-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-vectors-and-vertebrate-hosts
#12
Ana R S Oliveira, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Erin Strathe, Luciana Etcheverry Hernández, D Scott McVey, José Piaggio, Natalia Cernicchiaro
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonosis in Southeast Asia vectored by mosquitoes infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is considered an emerging exotic infectious disease with potential for introduction in currently JEV-free countries. Pigs and ardeid birds are reservoir hosts and play a major role on the transmission dynamics of the disease. The objective of the study was to quantitatively summarize the proportion of JEV infection in vectors and vertebrate hosts from data pertaining to observational studies obtained in a systematic review of the literature on vector and host competence for JEV, using meta-analyses...
September 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876040/-secreted-expression-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-prme-in-pichia-pastoris-and-immunogenicity-evaluation-of-the-virus-like-particles-in-mice
#13
Peng Zhao, Ya Jiang, Jingman Wang, Haojie Fan, Ruibing Cao
The study was to express prME protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Pichia pastoris and then to evaluate the immunological properties of the recombinant protein in mice, so as to explore a new way for subunit vaccine development of JEV. The JEV prME gene was amplified by RT-PCR with genome RNA of JEV vaccine strain SA14-14-2 and subcloned into pPICZa-A vector, designated as pPICZα-prME. pPICZα-SprME was constructed same as pPICZα-prME besides with the additional 19 Aa signal peptides coding gene of the JEV cap protein C terminal...
May 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869941/identifying-attenuating-mutations-tools-for-a-new-vaccine-design-against-flaviviruses
#14
Cécile Khou, Nathalie Pardigon
Emerging Flaviviruses pose an increasing threat to global human health. To date, human vaccines against yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) exist. However, there is no human vaccine against other Flaviviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV). In order to restrict their spread and to protect populations against the diseases they induce, vaccines against these emerging viruses must be designed. Obtaining new live attenuated Flavivirus vaccines using molecular biology methods is now possible...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867626/enhanced-cytopathic-effect-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-strain-sa14-14-2-probable-association-of-mutation-in-amino-acid-of-its-envelope-protein
#15
Barnali Nath, Ashutosh Gupta, Siraj A Khan, Sachin Kumar
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne viral disease. It is a global public health concern since it causes an acute encephalitis syndrome (AES). A large number of JE/AES cases are reported to occur in areas with established or developing JE vaccination program. Partial vaccine coverage and emergence of new variants of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) might be playing an important role. The envelope protein (E) of JEV is a major antigenic determinant and responsible for immunogenic responses as well as membrane fusion and virion assembly...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865053/dc-sign-promotes-japanese-encephalitis-virus-transmission-from-dendritic-cells-to-t-cells-via-virological-synapses
#16
Ping Wang, Mei Li, Wei Lu, Di Zhang, Qinxue Hu, Yalan Liu
Skin-resident dendritic cells (DCs) likely encounter incoming viruses in the first place, and their migration to lymph nodes following virus capture may promote viral replication. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. In the present study, we found that compared to cell-free viruses, DC-bound viruses showed enhanced capture of JEV by T cells. Additionally, JEV infection was increased by co-culturing DCs and T cells. Blocking the C-type lectin receptor DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with neutralizing antibodies or antagonists blocked JEV transmission to T cells...
August 31, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860941/dengue-virus-and-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-share-similar-profiles-of-cytokine-accumulation-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#17
Haipeng Li, Yuanyuan Li, Bo Wen, Jian Zhang, Chengwu Wang, Zhanyi Song, Shuochi Li, Xiaowang Qu, Renbin Huang, Wenpei Liu
Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are two important pathogenic viruses that can cause severe encephalitis, which is accompanied by inflammatory cytokines. However, the inflammatory cytokine content of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in DENV and JEV infection of central nervous system are not sufficiently studied. To investigate cytokine levels in serum and CSF of hospitalised children with DENV and JEV infection of the central nervous system, a total of 183 hospitalised children with viral encephalitis-like syndrome were enrolled between May 2014 and April 2015 at the Children's Hospital of Chenzhou, Hunan, China...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846635/regulation-of-apoptosis-during-flavivirus-infection
#18
REVIEW
Toru Okamoto, Tatsuya Suzuki, Shinji Kusakabe, Makoto Tokunaga, Junki Hirano, Yuka Miyata, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death that regulates cellular homeostasis by removing damaged or unnecessary cells. Its importance in host defenses is highlighted by the observation that many viruses evade, obstruct, or subvert apoptosis, thereby blunting the host immune response. Infection with Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) has been shown to activate several signaling pathways such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and AKT/PI3K pathway, resulting in activation or suppression of apoptosis in virus-infected cells...
August 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840803/isolation-and-full-genome-sequences-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-genotype-i-strains-from-cambodian-human-patients-mosquitoes-and-pigs
#19
Veasna Duong, Rithy Choeung, Christopher Gorman, Denis Laurent, Yoann Crabol, Channa Mey, Borin Peng, Juliette Di Francesco, Vibol Hul, Heng Sothy, Ky Santy, Beat Richner, Jean-David Pommier, San Sorn, Véronique Chevalier, Philippe Buchy, Xavier de Lamballerie, Julien Cappelle, Paul Francis Horwood, Philippe Dussart
Japanese encephalitis remains the most important cause of viral encephalitis in humans in several southeast Asian countries, including Cambodia, causing at least 65 000 cases of encephalitis per year. This vector-borne viral zoonosis - caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) - is considered to be a rural disease and is transmitted by mosquitoes, with birds and pigs being the natural reservoirs, while humans are accidental hosts. In this study we report the first two JEV isolations in Cambodia from human encephalitis cases from two studies on the aetiology of central nervous system disease, conducted at the two major paediatric hospitals in the country...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821775/atf3-negatively-regulates-cellular-antiviral-signaling-and-autophagy-in-the-absence-of-type-i-interferons
#20
Vikas Sood, Kiran Bala Sharma, Vishal Gupta, Dhurjhoti Saha, Parashar Dhapola, Manish Sharma, Utsav Sen, Shigetaka Kitajima, Shantanu Chowdhury, Manjula Kalia, Sudhanshu Vrati
Stringent regulation of antiviral signaling and cellular autophagy is critical for the host response to virus infection. However, little is known how these cellular processes are regulated in the absence of type I interferon signaling. Here, we show that ATF3 is induced following Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, and regulates cellular antiviral and autophagy pathways in the absence of type I interferons in mouse neuronal cells. We have identified new targets of ATF3 and show that it binds to the promoter regions of Stat1, Irf9, Isg15 and Atg5 thereby inhibiting cellular antiviral signaling and autophagy...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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