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Erum Khan, Kelli L Barr, Joveria Qais Farooqi, Dhani Prakoso, Alizae Abbas, Zain Y Khan, Shanze Ashi, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Z Aziz, Faisal Malik, John A Lednicky, Maureen T Long
Like most of the world, Pakistan has seen an increase in mosquito-transmitted diseases in recent years. The magnitude and distribution of these diseases are poorly understood as Pakistan does not have a nation-wide system for reporting disease. A cross-sectional study to determine which flaviviruses were causing of arboviral disease in Pakistan was instituted. West Nile virus (WNV) is a cause of seasonal fever with neurotropic findings in countries that share borders with Pakistan. Here, we describe the active and persistent circulation of WNV in humans in the southern region of Pakistan...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Han Xia, Yujuan Wang, Evans Atoni, Bo Zhang, Zhiming Yuan
Mosquitoes are classified into approximately 3500 species and further grouped into 41 genera. Epidemiologically, they are considered to be among the most important disease vectors in the world and they can harbor a wide variety of viruses. Several mosquito viruses are considered to be of significant medical importance and can cause serious public health issues throughout the world. Such viruses are Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Others are the newly recognized mosquito viruses such as Banna virus (BAV) and Yunnan orbivirus (YNOV) with unclear medical significance...
March 12, 2018: Virologica Sinica
M M Jamil Al-Obaidi, A Bahadoran, S M Wang, R Manikam, Ch S Raju, S D Sekaran
The blood brain barrier consisting of astrocytes, pericytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses by controlling the access of circulating molecules, immune cells or viruses into the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier is not impenetrable and neuroviruses have evolved to disrupt and evade it. This review aims to describe the underlying entry mechanisms of several neuroviruses such as (Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Nipah virus (NiV), Rabies virus (RABV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) into the CNS through BBB disruption...
2018: Acta Virologica
Estefania Fernandez, Nurgun Kose, Melissa A Edeling, Jagat Adhikari, Gopal Sapparapu, Susana M Lazarte, Christopher A Nelson, Jennifer Govero, Michael L Gross, Daved H Fremont, James E Crowe, Michael S Diamond
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Although JEV-specific antibodies have been described, an assessment of their ability to neutralize multiple genotypes of JEV has been limited. Here, we describe the development of a panel of mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that inhibit infection in cell culture of four different JEV genotypes tested. Mechanism-of-action studies showed that many of these MAbs inhibited infection at a postattachment step, including blockade of virus fusion...
February 27, 2018: MBio
Parul Jain, Shantanu Prakash, Danish N Khan, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Rashmi Kumar, Amit Bhagat, V Ramakrishna, Amita Jain
Background & objectives: It is imperative to know the aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) for patient management and policy making. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of common aetiological agents of AES in Uttar Pradesh (UP) state of India. Methods: Serum and/or CSF samples were collected from AES patients admitted at Gandhi Memorial and Associated Hospital, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, a tertiary care centre, UP during 2014-16...
October 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Wonjun Bae, Jung Heon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Jungyun Lee, Eung Soo Hwang
Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases have been increasingly reported recently especially in Seoul and its vicinity. Pigs are known as amplifying host of JE virus (JEV), but do not play an important role in these recent events because pig-breeding is not common in Seoul. The distribution and the density of migratory birds are correlated with JE cases in cities and they might be highly potential hosts contributing to transmit JEV in metropolitan areas. JE genotype and sero-prevalence in birds should be determined for the verification of the transmission route of JEV in the recent sporadic occurrence of JE cases in Seoul...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Yuyong Zhou, Rui Wu, Qin Zhao, Yung-Fu Chang, Xintian Wen, Yao Feng, Xiaobo Huang, Yiping Wen, Qigui Yan, Yong Huang, Xiaoping Ma, Xinfeng Han, Sanjie Cao
Previously, we isolated the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain SCYA201201. In this study, we passed the SCYA201201 strain in Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells 120 times to obtain the SCYA201201-0901 strain, which exhibited an attenuated phenotype in mice. Comparison of SCYA201201-0901 amino acid sequences with those of other JEV strains revealed a single mutation, I176R, in the E coding region. Using reverse genetic technology, we provide evidence that this single E-I176R mutation does not affect virus growth in BHK-21 cells but significantly decreases JEV neurovirulence in mice...
February 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Bharti Malhotra, Aradhana Chauhan, Hemant Malhotra, Pratibha Sharma, Farah Deeba, Khushbu Trivedi, Anjenya M Swamy
CONTEXT: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a serious public health problem, caused mainly by viruses. However, the profile of viruses causing AES in Rajasthan is not well characterised. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to identify the viruses causing AES and develop diagnostic algorithm so as to help in improved diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study is a hospital-based descriptive, observational study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yuki Takamatsu, Leo Uchida, Muhareva Raekiansyah, Mark Anthony Luz, Kouichi Morita, Daisuke Hayasaka
For the development of effective treatment strategies for Japanese encephalitis (JE), it is important to identify the viral factors causing severe disease during JE virus (JEV) infection. In this study, we assessed whether amino acid substitutions are critical factors for higher mortality of JaTH160 compared with JaOArS982 in mice using the technique of infectious cDNA clones. We raised the possibility that two amino acids of C124 and NS3482 of JaTH160 may contribute to increased mortality in mice. However, simultaneous substitutions of these amino acids did not significantly increase the virulence of JaOArS982, suggesting that high mortality due to JaTH160 viral infection cannot be simply attributed to the specific amino acids...
February 3, 2018: Viruses
Glady Hazitha Samuel, Zach N Adelman, Kevin M Myles
More than 100 pathogens, spanning multiple virus families, broadly termed 'arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses)' have been associated with human and/or animal diseases. These viruses persist in nature through transmission cycles that involve alternating replication in susceptible vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Collectively, these viruses are among the greatest burdens to global health, due to their widespread prevalence, and the severe morbidity and mortality they cause in human and animal hosts. Specific examples of mosquito-borne pathogens include Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV)...
January 29, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Xiaodi Qiu, Yingfeng Lei, Pan Yang, Qiang Gao, Nan Wang, Lei Cao, Shuai Yuan, Xiaofang Huang, Yongqiang Deng, Wenyu Ma, Tianbing Ding, Fanglin Zhang, Xingan Wu, Junjie Hu, Shan-Lu Liu, Chengfeng Qin, Xiangxi Wang, Zhikai Xu, Zihe Rao
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), closely related to dengue, Zika, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, remains neglected and not well characterized 1 . JEV is the leading causative agent of encephalitis, and is responsible for thousands of deaths each year in Asia. Humoral immunity is essential for protecting against flavivirus infections and passive immunization has been demonstrated to be effective in curing disease2,3. Here, we demonstrate that JEV-specific monoclonal antibodies, 2F2 and 2H4, block attachment of the virus to its receptor and also prevent fusion of the virus...
January 29, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Ana R S Oliveira, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Erin Strathe, Luciana Etcheverry, D Scott McVey, José Piaggio, Natalia Cernicchiaro
The objective of this work was to summarize and quantify Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, dissemination, and transmission rates in mosquitoes, using a meta-analysis approach. Data were obtained from experimental studies, gathered by means of a systematic review of the literature. Random-effects subgroup meta-analysis models by mosquito species were performed to estimate pooled estimates and to calculate the variance between studies for three outcomes of interest: JEV infection, dissemination, and transmission rates in mosquitoes...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Thanalai Poonsiri, Gareth S A Wright, Michael S Diamond, Lance Turtle, Tom Solomon, Svetlana V Antonyuk
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens including dengue, West Nile (WNV) and Zika viruses. JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases worldwide each year. In this study, we present a 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal β-ladder domain of JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1-C)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
S Saif Hasan, Madhumati Sevvana, Richard J Kuhn, Michael G Rossmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped, icosahedral flavivirus that has structural and functional similarities to other human flavivirus pathogens such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) viruses. ZIKV infections have been linked to fetal microcephaly and the paralytic Guillain-Barré syndrome. This review provides a comparative structural analysis of the assembly, maturation and host-cell entry of ZIKV with other flaviviruses, especially DENV. We also discuss the mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Nikhil Pathak, Mei-Ling Lai, Wen-Yu Chen, Betty-Wu Hsieh, Guann-Yi Yu, Jinn-Moon Yang
BACKGROUND: Viruses of the flaviviridae family are responsible for some of the major infectious viral diseases around the world and there is an urgent need for drug development for these diseases. Most of the virtual screening methods in flaviviral drug discovery suffer from a low hit rate, strain-specific efficacy differences, and susceptibility to resistance. It is because they often fail to capture the key pharmacological features of the target active site critical for protein function inhibition...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Zhong Li, Srilatha Sakamuru, Ruili Huang, Matthew Brecher, Cheri A Koetzner, Jing Zhang, Haiying Chen, Cheng-Feng Qin, Qing-Yu Zhang, Jia Zhou, Laura D Kramer, Menghang Xia, Hongmin Li
Many flaviviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), Dengue virus (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV), are significant human pathogens. Infection with ZIKV, an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, is associated with increased risk of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome and other complications in adults. Currently, specific therapy does not exist for any flavivirus infections. In this study, we found that erythrosin B, an FDA-approved food additive, is a potent inhibitor for flaviviruses, including ZIKV and DENV2...
December 27, 2017: Antiviral Research
Paul Turner, Kuong Suy, Le Van Tan, Pora Sar, Thyl Miliya, Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Sona Soeng, Nicholas P J Day, H Rogier van Doorn, Claudia Turner
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The aetiologies of these potentially vaccine-preventable infections have not been well established in Cambodia. METHODS: We did a one year prospective study of children hospitalised with suspected CNS infection at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) samples underwent culture, multiplex PCR and serological analysis to identify a range of bacterial and viral pathogens...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lance Turtle, Carolyn Driver
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most commonly diagnosed viral encephalitis in Asia. JE is caused by a virus called JE virus (JEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Neutralising antibody to JEV protects against JE, and can be induced by vaccination. JE is a potential threat to travellers to endemic areas, which are most of South and Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands. The risk of JE can be expected to increase with increasing mosquito exposure and time spent in regions and seasons of active transmission...
January 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Josée Castonguay-Vanier, Anisone Chanthongthip, Ooyanong Phonemixay, Soulignasack Thongpaseuth, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Paul N Newton, Tehmina Bharucha, Audrey Dubot-Pérès
Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading identified cause of encephalitis in Asia, often occurring in rural areas with poor access to laboratory diagnostics. We evaluated two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for anti-JEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) detection. Methods: Consecutive cerebrospinal fluid and serum from 388 patients (704 samples) with suspected JEV infections admitted to six hospitals in Laos were tested with one of two SD-Bioline anti-JEV IgM RDTs and the World Health Organization standard anti-JEV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Panbio Japanese Encephalitis-Dengue IgM Combo ELISA...
August 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kiven Kumar, Siti Suri Arshad, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Jalila Abu, Ooi Peck Toung, Yusuf Abba, Faruku Bande, A R Yasmin, Reuben Sharma, Bee Lee Ong, Anisah Abdul Rasid, Norsuzana Hashim, Amira Peli, E P Heshini, Ahmad Khusaini Mohd Kharip Shah
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes encephalitis in humans and horses. Clinical signs for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection are not clearly evident in the majority of affected animals. In Malaysia, information on the prevalence of JEV infection has not been established. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted during two periods, December 2015 to January 2016 and March to August in 2016, to determine the prevalence and risk factors in JEV infections among animals and birds in Peninsular Malaysia...
December 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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