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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088249/interactions-of-human-microglia-cells-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#1
Nils Lannes, Viviane Neuhaus, Brigitte Scolari, Solange Kharoubi-Hess, Michael Walch, Artur Summerfield, Luis Filgueira
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus causing mortality and morbidity in humans. Severe Japanese encephalitis cases display strong inflammatory responses in the central nervous system and an accumulation of viral particles in specific brain regions. Microglia cells are the unique brain-resident immune cell population with potent migratory functions and have been proposed to act as a viral reservoir for JEV. Animal models suggest that the targeting of microglia by JEV is partially responsible for inflammatory reactions in the brain...
January 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077444/protein-interactions-during-the-flavivirus-and-hepacivirus-life-cycle
#2
Gisa Gerold, Janina Bruening, Bettina Weigel, Thomas Pietschmann
Protein-protein interactions govern biological functions in cells, in the extracellular milieu and at the border between cells and extracellular space. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on protein interactions to produce progeny inside host cells and to spread from cell to cell. Usage of host proteins by viruses can have severe consequences e.g. apoptosis, metabolic disequilibria or altered cell proliferation and mobility. Understanding protein interactions during virus infection can thus educate us on viral infection and pathogenesis mechanisms...
January 11, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075421/mx-is-not-responsible-for-the-antiviral-activity-of-interferon-%C3%AE-against-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#3
Jing Zhou, Shi-Qi Wang, Jian-Chao Wei, Xiao-Min Zhang, Zhi-Can Gao, Ke Liu, Zhi-Yong Ma, Pu-Yan Chen, Bin Zhou
Mx proteins are interferon (IFN)-induced dynamin-like GTPases that are present in all vertebrates and inhibit the replication of myriad viruses. However, the role Mx proteins play in IFN-mediated suppression of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is unknown. In this study, we set out to investigate the effects of Mx1 and Mx2 expression on the interferon-α (IFNα) restriction of JEV replication. To evaluate whether the inhibitory activity of IFNα on JEV is dependent on Mx1 or Mx2, we knocked down Mx1 or Mx2 with siRNA in IFNα-treated PK-15 cells and BHK-21 cells, then challenged them with JEV; the production of progeny virus was assessed by plaque assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting...
January 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072958/-investigation-on-immunization-program-coverage-rate-and-its-safety-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis
#4
Y Gao, L P Zou, M N Zhang, L Y Pang, Y Y Wang, S F Ma, L L Huang
Objective: To investigate the status of immunization of National Immunization Program (NIP) and its adverse reaction rate in children with tuberous sclerosis. Method: Questionnaire survey was adopted to identify the vaccination coverage and its adverse events; 72 cases of children with tuberous sclerosis and 78 normal controls (healthy children completing age-appropriate NIP) admitted to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from December 2014 to November 2015 were involved into this study. Result: The age-appropriate NIP coverage rate of tuberous sclerosis was 36%(26/72)...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057146/-molecular-epidemiology-of-japanese-encephalitis-viruses-isolated-in-yunnan-province-1977-2010
#5
Y Feng, H L Zhang, W H Yang, Y Z Zhang, L J Huang, S Z Deng, Y J Sun, D J Yang, J H Zhou
Objective: To understand the genetic and molecular epidemiologic characteristics of 63 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) isolated in Yunnan province, China during 1977-2010. Methods: Suckling mice were inoculated with viruses continuously and the viral nucleic acid were extracted from the brain-grinding supernatants of the infected and moribund mice, then the gene fragments of E region were amplified by RT-PCR. Bioinformatics (Clustal X, DNAstar, Mega 5.0 and other software) was used to analyze the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences and phylogenetic trees...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053106/grp78-is-an-important-host-factor-for-japanese-encephalitis-virus-entry-and-replication-in-mammalian-cells
#6
Minu Nain, Sriparna Mukherjee, Sonali Porey Karmakar, Adrienne W Paton, James C Paton, M Z Abdin, Anirban Basu, Manjula Kalia, Sudhanshu Vrati
: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in South-East Asia with potential to become a global pathogen. Here we identify the Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as an important host protein for virus entry and replication. Using the plasma membrane fractions from mouse neuronal (Neuro2a) cells, mass spectroscopy analysis identified GRP78 as a protein interacting with recombinant JEV envelope protein domain III. GRP78 was found to express on the plasma membrane of Neuro2a, mouse primary neurons, and human epithelial Huh-7 cells...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051352/antisense-oligonucleotides-targeting-raf-1-block-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Li Zhang, Qingjun Li, Xiaoran Ding, Bo Zhang, Qiling Zhang, Xinyan Qu, Yujia Huo, Jing Yang, Shengqi Wang
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infections represent a major health concern in Southeast Asia since no effective treatments are available. Recently, several reports have demonstrated that inhibition of certain host cell proteins prevents viral infection. Raf-1 kinase is a central component of many signaling pathways involved in normal cell growth and oncogenic transformation, and Ras/Raf/ERK signaling activation has been observed during viral infections (including JEV infection). In this study, Raf-1 was confirmed to be upregulated by JEV infection, which suggested that Raf-1 might be important for JEV infection and might be a target for novel anti-JEV drugs...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043010/integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-promotes-infection-by-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#8
Wenchun Fan, Ping Qian, Dandan Wang, Xianwei Zhi, Yanming Wei, Huanchun Chen, Xiangmin Li
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis diseases worldwide. The JEV envelope protein facilitates viral entry, and its domain III contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, that may modulate JEV entry through the RGD-binding integrin. In this study, the roles of integrin αv and β3 on the infection of JEV were evaluated. Reduced expression of integrin αv/β3 by special shRNA confers 2 to 4-fold inhibition of JEV replication in BHK-21 cells...
December 28, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030526/long-term-immunogenicity-of-a-single-dose-of-japanese-encephalitis-chimeric-virus-vaccine-in-toddlers-and-booster-response-5-years-after-primary-immunization
#9
Pope Kosalaraksa, Veerachai Watanaveeradej, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Maria Rosario Capeding, Emmanuel Feroldi, Alain Bouckenooghe
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in Asia, Western Pacific countries, and Northern Australia. Although there is no antiviral treatment, vaccination is effective in preventing this disease. METHODS: We followed a cohort of 596 children for 5 years after primary vaccination at 12-18 months of age with JE chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV; IMOJEV) in a multicenter, phase III trial in Thailand and the Philippines to assess antibody persistence and safety...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006649/serodiagnosis-of-zika-virus-zikv-infections-by-a-novel-ns1-based-elisa-devoid-of-cross-reactivity-with-dengue-virus-antibodies-a-multicohort-study-of-assay-performance-2015-to-2016
#10
Katja Steinhagen, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Petra Emmerich, Marjan van Esbroeck, Janke Schinkel, Martin P Grobusch, Abraham Goorhuis, Jens M Warnecke, Erik Lattwein, Lars Komorowski, Andrea Deerberg, Sandra Saschenbrecker, Winfried Stöcker, Wolfgang Schlumberger
Serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections is challenging due to high cross-reactivity between flaviviruses. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a novel anti-ZIKV ELISA based on recombinant ZIKV non-structural protein 1 (NS1). Assay sensitivity was examined using sera from 27 patients with reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-confirmed and 85 with suspected ZIKV infection. Specificity was analysed using sera from 1,015 healthy individuals. Samples from 252 patients with dengue virus (n = 93), West Nile virus (n = 34), Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 25), chikungunya virus (n = 19) or Plasmodium spp...
December 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004418/sublingual-immunization-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus-vaccines-induces-effective-immunity-through-both-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-in-mice
#11
Eun-Young Lee, Joo-Young Kim, Deuk-Ki Lee, Il-Sub Yoon, Hae Li Ko, Ji-Woo Chung, Jun Chang, Jae-Hwan Nam
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis. Although there are four classes of vaccines against JEV, the immunization routes for all vaccines are subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. In here, we investigated the effectiveness of sublingual administration of the JEV live-attenuated vaccine or the recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine including JEV prM/E. The mice were immunized three times intramuscularly (i.m.) or sublingually (s.l.). One week after the final immunization by both s...
December 22, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003593/dengue-virus-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-rat-microglia-cells
#12
Lattapon Suwanprinya, Noppawan Phumala Morales, Pimtip Sanvarinda, Hamady Dieng, Tamaki Okabayashi, Ronald Enrique Morales Vargas
Encephalitis has been reported worldwide as a severe complication in patients infected by dengue virus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a key mechanism involved in the neuronal damage caused by viral encephalitis. Here the capability of the dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 (DV2 and DV4) to induce ROS production was investigated in a rat microglia cell line, HAPI cells. The cells were infected with DV2 and DV4 at a MOI of 0.1 for a 2-h adsorption period. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was used as the reference...
December 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003589/acute-encephalitic-syndrome-in-adults-and-its-correlation-with-cytokine-levels-in-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid
#13
Santosh K Singh, Dinkar Kulshreshtha, Ajai K Singh, Pradeep K Maurya, Anup K Thacker
Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a major health problem in developing countries like India. Neuronal injury in encephalitis is attributed to direct toxicity from pathogens and proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we assessed the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and their correlation with clinical symptoms. Patients with AES of less than 2 weeks duration underwent brain imaging followed by a CSF examination for routine parameters and viral studies. Cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and RANTES levels were assessed in the serum in all patients and in 50 CSF samples and compared with serum cytokine levels in 64 age and sex matched controls...
December 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999325/pharmacokinetics-of-the-antiviral-lectin-griffithsin-administered-by-different-routes-indicates-multiple-potential-uses
#14
Christopher Barton, J Calvin Kouokam, Harrell Hurst, Kenneth E Palmer
Griffithsin (GRFT) is a red alga-derived lectin with demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2). However, its pharmacokinetic profile remains largely undefined. Here, Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of GRFT at 10 or 20 mg/kg by intravenous, oral, and subcutaneous routes, respectively, and serum GRFT levels were measured at select time points...
December 17, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993624/introducing-a-cleavable-signal-peptide-enhances-the-packaging-efficiency-of-lentiviral-vectors-pseudotyped-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus-envelope-proteins
#15
Hanyang Liu, Rui Wu, Lei Yuan, Geng Tian, Xiaobo Huang, Yiping Wen, Xiaoping Ma, Yong Huang, Qigui Yan, Qin Zhao, Sanjie Cao, Xintian Wen
Research into the properties of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has been facilitated by use of pseudotyped viruses. The signal peptide is a key determinant for membrane targeting and membrane insertion, which could affect packaging of pseudotyped viruses. In this study, we generated three lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with JEV envelope proteins that co-express either a strong signal peptide from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G (VSVMEpv) or a weak signal peptide of JEV (SPMEpv), or a virus without a signal peptide in front of the JEV prM/E (MEpv)...
February 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990003/current-status-of-genome-editing-in-vector-mosquitoes-a-review
#16
Appadurai Daniel Reegan, Stanislaus Antony Ceasar, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases...
December 18, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986564/inhibition-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-jev-replication-by-specific-rna-aptamer-against-jev-methyltransferase
#17
Seung Ryul Han, Seong-Wook Lee
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most common etiological agent of epidemic viral encephalitis. JEV encodes a single methyltransferase (MTase) domain located at the N-terminal region of the viral nonstructural protein NS5. JEV MTase is essential for viral replication and specifically catalyzes methylation of the viral RNA cap, which occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm. Therefore, JEV MTase is a potential target for antiviral therapy. Here, we identified specific and avid RNA aptamer (Kd ∼ 12 nM) with modified 2'-O-methyl pyrimidines against JEV MTase...
December 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971791/knowledge-attitude-and-perception-of-japanese-encephalitis-among-healthcare-students-of-medicine-pharmacy-and-dentistry-of-a-private-university-in-malaysia
#18
M Z Iqbal, M S Iqbal, M Tahir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960239/histopathology-of-vaccine-preventable-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Isaac H Solomon, Danny A Milner
The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936448/flavivirus-transmission-focusing-on-zika
#20
REVIEW
Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. Taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplification hosts and arboreal mosquitoes; and an urban transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between humans and peridomestic Aedes spp...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
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