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Fatima Ali, Faisal Alsayegh, Prem Sharma, Mohammad Waheedi, Tania Bayoud, Faisal Alrefai
BACKGROUND: The effects of diabetes mellitus on the differential white blood cell count are not widely studied in the Arab populations. The objective of this cross-sectional, retrospective study is to assess the influence of chronic diabetes mellitus on white blood cell counts, absolute neutrophil (ANC) and lymphocyte counts (ALC) as well as the prevalence of benign ethnic neutropenia among Arabs attending the Dasman Diabetes Institute (DDI) in Kuwait. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1,580 out of 5,200 patients registered in the DDI database qualified for our study...
2018: PloS One
Saroj Lohani, Niranjan Tachamo, Salik Nazir, Anthony Donato
A 41-year-old female presented to the hospital with sore throat and shortness of breath. She was hypoxic with an oxygen saturation of 87% in room air. Physical examination revealed swollen uvula with exudates. She had been started on topiramate for treatment of migraine few months ago. The dose of topiramate was increased to 100 mg twice daily 2 weeks ago. Complete blood count revealed an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 8 c/mm3 . She was intubated and started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. She was transferred to our hospital on the fifth day of hospitalization...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
Paulo Arnaldo, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Jerónimo S Langa, Crizolgo Salvador, Pieter Guetens, Driss Chiheb, Bernardete Xavier, Luc Kestens, Sónia M Enosse, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy leads to serious adverse effects on the mother and the child and accounts for 75,000-200,000 infant deaths every year. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at each scheduled antenatal care (ANC) visit. This study aimed to assess IPTp-SP coverage in mothers delivering in health facilities and at the community. In addition, factors associated with low IPTp-SP uptake and malaria adverse outcomes in pregnancy were investigated...
March 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Katherine E Gallagher, Tusajigwe Erio, Kathy Baisley, Shelley Lees, Deborah Watson-Jones
BACKGROUND: The burden of cervical cancer and shortage of screening services in Tanzania confers an urgent need for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. However, the sustainability and impact of another new vaccine campaign in an under-resourced health system requires consideration. We aimed to determine the impact of the government's school-based HPV vaccine campaign in Kilimanjaro region on the provision of routine primary health services and staff workload. METHODS: Data on daily numbers of consultations were collected from health facility register books in 63 dispensaries and health centres in North-West Tanzania for 20 weeks in 2014...
March 12, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Avinoam Nevler, Yaniv Berger, Avital Rabinovitz, Oded Zmora, Moshe Shabtai, Danny Rosin, Mordechai Gutman
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common indications for emergency abdominal surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the management of acute appendicitis. METHODS: Consecutive emergency department patients referred for a surgical consult for suspected AA were prospectively enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory results were recorded...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Trey Hedden, Sehily Jaimes, Tammie L S Benzinger, Clifford Jack, Beau M Ances, John M Ringman, Daniel S Marcus, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin R Farlow, Adrian Danek, Johannes Levin, Igor Yakushev, Christoph Laske, Robert A Koeppe, Douglas R Galasko, Chengjie Xiong, Colin L Masters, Peter R Schofield, Kirsi M Kinnunen, Stephen Salloway, Ralph N Martins, Eric McDade, Nigel J Cairns, Virginia D Buckles, John C Morris, Randall Bateman, Reisa A Sperling
Converging evidence from structural, metabolic and functional connectivity MRI suggests that neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, target specific neural networks. However, age-related network changes commonly co-occur with neuropathological cascades, limiting efforts to disentangle disease-specific alterations in network function from those associated with normal ageing. Here we elucidate the differential effects of ageing and Alzheimer's disease pathology through simultaneous analyses of two functional connectivity MRI datasets: (i) young participants harbouring highly-penetrant mutations leading to autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an Alzheimer's disease cohort in which age-related comorbidities are minimal and likelihood of progression along an Alzheimer's disease trajectory is extremely high; and (ii) young and elderly participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, a cohort in which imaging biomarkers of amyloid burden and neurodegeneration can be used to disambiguate ageing alone from preclinical Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Joy Ebonwu, Alexandra Mumbauer, Margot Uys, Milton L Wainberg, Andrew Medina-Marino
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare determinates for delayed first presentation to antenatal care (ANC) services. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst pregnant women attending their first ANC visit in rural Capricorn District and peri-urban Tlokwe sub-district communities in South Africa. Data collection included questionnaires and medical record abstraction. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed factors associated with late ANC presentation...
2018: PloS One
Jahidur Rahman Khan, Md Mazharul Islam, Nabil Awan, Olav Muurlink
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) remains a leading global cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. This study leverages a large national survey to determine current prevalence and socioeconomic, demographic and heath related factors associated with LBW in Bangladesh. METHODS: Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2012-13 of Bangladesh were analyzed. A total of 2319 women for whom contemporaneous birth weight data was available and who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey were sampled for this study...
March 6, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Anteneh Amsalu, Getachew Ferede, Demissie Assegu
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective treatment and the implementation of focused antenatal care (ANC), still the prevalence of syphilis persists in Ethiopia. Yet, data is not found in southern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and associated factors of syphilis among pregnant women in Yiregalem Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women from October 2015 to August 2016...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Martin Marufu Gazimbi, Monica Akinyi Magadi
This study contributes to the dialogue on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) through the use of HIV and antenatal care (ANC) integrated services. The determinants of antenatal HIV testing in Zimbabwe were explored. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to data for 8471 women from 406 clusters who gave birth in the 5 years preceding Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005/6 and 2010/11. The uptake of antenatal HIV testing was found to be determined by a wide range of individual-level factors relating to women's economic and demographic status, as well as HIV-related factors, including HIV awareness and stigma within the community...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Jigyasa Sharma, Meaghan O'Connor, R Rima Jolivet
In high-income countries, group antenatal care (ANC) offers an alternative to individual care and is associated with improved attendance, client satisfaction, and health outcomes for pregnant women and newborns. In low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, this model could be adapted to address low antenatal care uptake and improve quality. However, evidence on key attributes of a group care model for low-resource settings remains scant. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on models of group antenatal care in LMICs to identify attributes that may increase the relevance, acceptability and effectiveness of group ANC in such settings...
March 5, 2018: Reproductive Health
Qing-Bing Zhou, Xiao-Hong Yang, Hong-Zhi Wang, De-Xiu Wang, Yong-Gang Xu, Xiao-Mei Hu, Feng-Qin Xu, Rou Ma
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Qinghuang Powder (QHP, ) combined with Bupi Yishen Decoction (BPYS, ) on myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) and determine the change of DNA methylation in MDS-RCMD patients after the treatment of Chinese medicine formula. METHODS: All 308 MDS-RCMD patients were treated with QHP combined with BPYS for 2 months at least, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLT), primitive bone marrow cells and chromosome karyotype were chosen as the main evaluation indexes to analyze the treatment effect according to criteria from the MDS International Working Group...
March 2, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Luelseged Assefa, Mussie Alemayehu, Ayal Debie
OBJECTIVE: Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. Most deliveries in developing countries occur at home without skilled birth attendants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district, Ethiopia. RESULTS: Overall, 35...
March 2, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Allison Verney, Barbara A Reed, Jude B Lumumba, Jacqueline K Kung'u
Antenatal care (ANC) offers remarkable opportunities to reach a large number of women with effective nutrition and health interventions, including iron (Fe) supplementation. However, all women do not equally seek nor benefit from ANC. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with ANC and Fe use among women in hard-to-reach areas in Afar, Ethiopia; Sedhiou and Kolda, Senegal; and Kakamega, Kenya. Women who gave birth within 1 year preceding the survey (n = 4,575) from 15 different sub-regions were randomly selected and surveyed...
February 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Jacqueline K Kung'u, Richard Pendame, Mame Bineta Ndiaye, Mulusew Gerbaba, Sophie Ochola, Adama Faye, Sulochana Basnet, Edward A Frongillo, Sara Wuehler, Luz Maria De-Regil
Maternal undernutrition and mortality remain high in several African countries. Key nutrition and health interventions improve maternal and birth outcomes. Evidence is scarce on how to strengthen health systems to ensure pregnant women and newborns are reached with these interventions. We conducted three quasi-experimental nonrandomized Community Based Maternal and Neonatal Health and Nutrition projects in regions of Ethiopia, Senegal, and Kenya to demonstrate how proven nutrition interventions could be integrated into health programs to improve knowledge and practices during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum...
February 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Khadija Begum, Césaire T Ouédraogo, K Ryan Wessells, Rebecca R Young, M Thierno Faye, Sara E Wuehler, Sonja Y Hess
The World Health Organization recommends iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation for pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Niger warrants better understanding of the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and IFA. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with ANC coverage and adherence to IFA recommendation among pregnant women. Pregnant women (n = 923) from 64 randomly selected villages within the catchment area of 12 health centres were interviewed during a baseline household survey in Zinder, Niger...
February 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Raj Singh, Henry Heisey, Ahmed G Elsayed, Maria T Tirona
Background Filgrastim is used in the setting of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia to stimulate recovery of bone marrow, which allows for further chemotherapy administration without delay. The recommended dose is 5 ug/kg. The commercially available vials of the drug come in two strengths; 300 ug and 480 ug. Due to these limitations in dosage formulations, it is a frequent occurrence to administer a lower dosage to patients weighing more than 60 kg, in whom the ideal dose would have been more than 300 ug but less than 480 ug...
December 19, 2017: Curēus
Sukesh Manthri, Naresh K Vasireddy, Sindhura Bandaru, Swati Pathak
Elliptocytosis is commonly seen as a hereditary condition. We present a case of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) del(q20) variant with concomitant acquired elliptocytosis. A 73-year-old male with a history of prostate cancer presented to the hospital for evaluation of bleeding gums. Initial evaluation showed Hgb of 9.3 gm/dl, hematocrit of 28%, platelet count of 36,000 K/cmm, and WBC of 1.8 K/cmm with an ANC of 0.8 K/cmm. A slightly elevated bilirubin of 1.2 mg/dl spurred a hemolytic workup. Peripheral smear showed frequent elliptocytes, teardrop cells, schistocytes, and occasional spherocytes...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
Srinivas Goli, Anu Rammohan, Moradhvaj
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The studies measured Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (OOPE) for hospital births previously suffer from serious data limitations. To overcome such limitations, we designed a hospital-based study for measuring the levels and factors of OOPE on maternity care for hospital births by its detailed components. METHODS: Data were collected from women for non-complicated deliveries 24-h before the survey and complicated deliveries 48-h prior to the survey at the hospital settings in Uttar Pradesh, India during 2014...
February 27, 2018: Health Economics Review
Sucharita Patel, Bhatu Kumar Pal, Raj Kishore Patel
In this study, cow dung was identified as a neutralizing agent for red mud (RM). Present research estimated a significant reduction in pH value of red mud (10 g) from 10.28 to 8.15 and reduction in alkalinity of ~148 mg/L from ~488 mg/L by adding 80 g of cow dung in 40 days of anaerobic condition. XRD results exhibit a high intensity of quartz and found new compound, the calcium carbide. The acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of NRM reduces to ~0.87 from ~1.506 mol H+ /kg. Based on the resultant research, present study proposes cow dung as an efficient neutralizing agent for reducing the pH and alkalinity in the red mud...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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