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Images in Clinical Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224259/-expert-consensus-of-precise-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-pancreatic-head-cancer-using-three-dimensional-visualization-technology
#1
(no author information available yet)
Three-dimensional (3D) visualization technology in pancreatic head cancers could offer decision-making support to preoperative diagnosis, resectability assessment and individualized surgical planning. In addition, the pancreas 3D printing helps to realize the leapfrog development from 3D images to 3D physical models and provides better guidance of the precise surgery of complicated cancers of the pancreatic head. In order to standardize the application of 3D visualization and 3D printing technology in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic head cancer, Chinese experts in relevant fields were organized by four committees to formulate this expert consensus...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222305/biology-of-cns-lymphoma-and-the-potential-of-novel-agents
#2
REVIEW
James L Rubenstein
Primary and secondary CNS lymphomas are aggressive brain tumors that pose an immense challenge to define in terms of molecular pathogenesis, as well as to effectively treat. During the past 10 years improvements in survival have been achieved with the implementation of anti-CD20 immunotherapy and optimization of dose-intensive consolidation strategies. The applications of whole-exome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and examination of the tumor microenvironment, particularly in the context of clinical investigation, provide insights that create a roadmap for the development and implementation of novel targeted agents for this disease...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222120/targeting-cardiovascular-implant-infection-multimodality-and-molecular-imaging
#3
Jan M Sohns, Udo Bavendiek, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel
Owing to their success in clinical practice, the prevalence of cardiovascular implants is continuously increasing. Implant infection is a relevant complication but remains a diagnostic challenge because echocardiography as a first-line test may be limited. Accordingly, a multimodality approach is increasingly used for diagnostic workup and supported by recent guidelines. As reviewed here, computed tomography and nuclear imaging provide incremental diagnostic value and may be combined in a single hybrid imaging session using positron emission tomography/computed tomography or single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218477/safety-and-efficacy-of-facial-fat-grafting-under-local-anesthesia
#4
Xiaorong Ma, Liming Wu, Tianxiang Ouyang, Wenjia Ge, Jingwen Ke
BACKGROUND: Facial fat grafting under local anesthesia has been widely performed in outpatient departments and private settings in China. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of facial fat grafting under local anesthesia. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted on 155 patients who underwent facial fat grafting. The clinical data were recorded. Preoperative and postoperative two-dimensional images were acquired to evaluate the effect of facial fat grafting on refining facial contouring, rejuvenation as well as deformity reconstruction...
December 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218269/blood-based-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-precision-radiation-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Dirk De Ruysscher, Jianyue Jin, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Jin-Xiong She, Zhongxing Liao, Feng-Ming Spring Kong
Both tumors and patients are complex and models that determine survival and toxicity of radiotherapy or any other treatment ideally must take into account this variability as well as its dynamic state. The genetic features of the tumor and the host, and increasingly also the epi-genetic and proteomic characteristics, are being unraveled. Multiple techniques, including histological examination, blood sampling, measurement of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and functional and molecular imaging, can be used for this purpose...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218267/radiomics-in-precision-medicine-for-lung-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Julie Constanzo, Lise Wei, Huan-Hsin Tseng, Issam El Naqa
With the improvement of external radiotherapy delivery accuracy, such as intensity-modulated and stereotactic body radiation therapy, radiation oncology has recently entered in the era of precision medicine. Despite these precise irradiation modalities, lung cancers remain one of the most aggressive human cancers worldwide, possibly because of diverse genotypic alterations that drive and maintain lung tumorigenesis. It has been long recognized that imaging could aid in the diagnosis, tumor delineation, and monitoring of lung cancer...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218265/the-role-of-imaging-and-radiation-oncology-core-for-precision-medicine-era-of-clinical-trial
#7
Ying Xiao, Mark Rosen
Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) services have been established for the quality assurance (QA) of imaging and radiotherapy (RT) for NCI's Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) for any trials that contain imaging or RT. The randomized clinical trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine. QA ensures data quality, preventing noise from inferior treatments obscuring clinical trial outcome. QA is also found to be cost-effective. IROC has made great progress in multi-institution standardization and is expected to lead QA standardization, QA science in imaging and RT and to advance quality data analysis with big data in the future...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217832/inter-and-intra-hemispheric-structural-imaging-markers-predict-depression-relapse-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-multisite-study
#8
Benjamin S C Wade, Jing Sui, Gerhard Hellemann, Amber M Leaver, Randall T Espinoza, Roger P Woods, Christopher C Abbott, Shantanu H Joshi, Katherine L Narr
Relapse of depression following treatment is high. Biomarkers predictive of an individual's relapse risk could provide earlier opportunities for prevention. Since electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) elicits robust and rapidly acting antidepressant effects, but has a >50% relapse rate, ECT presents a valuable model for determining predictors of relapse-risk. Although previous studies have associated ECT-induced changes in brain morphometry with clinical response, longer-term outcomes have not been addressed. Using structural imaging data from 42 ECT-responsive patients obtained prior to and directly following an ECT treatment index series at two independent sites (UCLA: n = 17, age = 45...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216479/diagnosis-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-recurrence-ultrasound-criteria
#9
REVIEW
Mario Maufus, Antoine Elias, Marie-Thérèse Barrellier, Gilles Pernod
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is often suspected in patients after anticoagulant drug withdrawal. The clinical signs can be confused with the onset of post-thrombotic syndrome. For these reasons, diagnosis of DVT recurrence must rely on an accurate method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to assess this challenging clinical issue, we performed an overview of the literature regarding ultrasound criteria for the diagnosis of recurrent DVT through a Medline search, which included articles published from January 1, 1980 to February 20, 2017...
November 14, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210936/optical-coherence-tomography-and-histology-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-support-mitochondria-as-reflectivity-sources
#10
Katie M Litts, Yuhua Zhang, K Bailey Freund, Christine A Curcio
PURPOSE: Widespread adoption of optical coherence tomography has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of retinal disease. If the cellular and subcellular sources of reflectivity in optical coherence tomography can be identified, the value of this technology will be advanced even further toward precision medicine, mechanistic thinking, and molecular discovery. Four hyperreflective outer retinal bands are created by the exquisite arrangement of photoreceptors, Müller cells, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch membrane...
November 23, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209003/prostate-cancer-diagnosis-and-characterization-with-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Annika Kurreck, Lindsey A Vandergrift, Taylor L Fuss, Piet Habbel, Nathalie Y R Agar, Leo L Cheng
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa), the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in American men, presents the clinical challenge of distinguishing between indolent and aggressive tumors for proper treatment. PCa presents significant alterations in metabolic pathways that can potentially be measured using techniques like mass spectrometry (MS) or MS imaging (MSI) and used to characterize PCa aggressiveness. MS quantifies metabolomic, proteomic, and lipidomic profiles of biological systems that can be further visualized for their spatial distributions through MSI...
December 5, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206658/lung-function-trajectories-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-current-understanding-and-knowledge-gaps
#12
Jamuna K Krishnan, Fernando J Martinez
PURPOSE OR REVIEW: Population-based studies have shown a significant heterogeneity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), regarding both the attainment of maximal lung function and the subsequent decline over time. This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of lung function trajectory in COPD, focusing on factors that influence peak adult lung function, markers of accelerated lung function decline and pharmacologic interventions in early phases of the disease...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194009/bias-in-radiology-the-how-and-why-of-misses-and-misinterpretations
#13
Lindsay P Busby, Jesse L Courtier, Christine M Glastonbury
Medical errors are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the medical field and are substantial contributors to medical costs. Radiologists play an integral role in the diagnosis and care of patients and, given that those in this field interpret millions of examinations annually, may therefore contribute to diagnostic errors. Errors can be categorized as a "miss" when a primary or critical finding is not observed or as a "misinterpretation" when errors in interpretation lead to an incorrect diagnosis...
December 1, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193380/optimization-and-validation-of-accelerated-golden-angle-radial-sparse-mri-reconstruction-with-self-calibrating-grappa-operator-gridding
#14
Thomas Benkert, Ye Tian, Chenchan Huang, Edward V R DiBella, Hersh Chandarana, Li Feng
PURPOSE: Golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP) MRI reconstruction requires gridding and regridding to transform data between radial and Cartesian k-space. These operations are repeatedly performed in each iteration, which makes the reconstruction computationally demanding. This work aimed to accelerate GRASP reconstruction using self-calibrating GRAPPA operator gridding (GROG) and to validate its performance in clinical imaging. METHODS: GROG is an alternative gridding approach based on parallel imaging, in which k-space data acquired on a non-Cartesian grid are shifted onto a Cartesian k-space grid using information from multicoil arrays...
November 28, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193260/racer-grasp-respiratory-weighted-aortic-contrast-enhancement-guided-and-coil-unstreaking-golden-angle-radial-sparse-mri
#15
Li Feng, Chenchan Huang, Krishna Shanbhogue, Daniel K Sodickson, Hersh Chandarana, Ricardo Otazo
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a novel dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging technique called RACER-GRASP (Respiratory-weighted, Aortic Contrast Enhancement-guided and coil-unstReaking Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel) MRI that extends GRASP to include automatic contrast bolus timing, respiratory motion compensation, and coil-weighted unstreaking for improved imaging performance in liver MRI. METHODS: In RACER-GRASP, aortic contrast enhancement (ACE) guided k-space sorting and respiratory-weighted sparse reconstruction are performed using aortic contrast enhancement and respiratory motion signals extracted directly from the acquired data...
November 28, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192364/liver-metastases-from-prostate-cancer-at-11c-choline-pet-ct-a-multicenter-retrospective-analysis
#16
Pietro Ghedini, I Bossert, L Zanoni, F Ceci, T Graziani, P Castellucci, V Ambrosini, F Massari, E Nobili, B Melotti, A Musto, S Zoboli, L Antunovic, M Kirienko, A Chiti, C Mosconi, A Ardizzoni, R Golfieri, S Fanti, C Nanni
AIM: During our daily clinical practice using 11C-Choline PET/CT for restaging patients affected by relapsing prostate cancer (rPCa) we noticed an unusual but significant occurrence of hypodense hepatic lesions with a different tracer uptake. Thus, we decided to evaluate the possible correlation between rPCa and these lesions as possible hepatic metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 542 patients diagnosed with rPCa in biochemical relapse after a radical treatment (surgery and/or radiotherapy)...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190998/radiological-and-nuclear-medicine-imaging-of-sarcoidosis
#17
Anna R Larici, Andor W Glaudemans, Annemilia Del Ciello, Riemer H Slart, Lucio Calandriello, Olivier Gheysens
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by widespread growth of non-caseating granulomas. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is based on clinical and imaging presentation, histologic confirmation and the absence of alternative diseases. Radiology and Nuclear Medicine play an essential role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with sarcoidosis to assess disease extent and activity. In addition, imaging modalities have shown their potential in managing these patients in terms of treatment response and prognostic assessment...
November 30, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189739/small-gold-nanorods-recent-advances-in-synthesis-biological-imaging-and-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Lu An, Yuanyuan Wang, Qiwei Tian, Shiping Yang
Over the past few decades, the synthetic development of ultra-small nanoparticles has become an important strategy in nano-medicine, where smaller-sized nanoparticles are known to be more easily excreted from the body, greatly reducing the risk caused by introducing nano-theranostic agents. Gold nanorods are one of the most important nano-theranostic agents because of their special optical and electronic properties. However, the large size (diameter > 6 nm) of most obtained gold nanorods limits their clinical application...
November 30, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189129/fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-diabetic-patients-a-special-emphasis-on-imaging-of-infection
#19
Zohar Keidar
Nuclear Medicine (NM) imaging plays a major role in the assessment of infection and inflammation. Tracers, including single photon emitting radionuclides for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and agents for positron emission tomography (PET), reflect primarily tissue and cellular function or metabolism. In the specific clinical setting of a patient with suspected infectious or inflammatory process, planar scintigraphy, SPECT or PET procedures are used to support a clinically suspected diagnosis. Integrating metabolic and anatomic information using a single SPECT/CT or PET/CT technique has substantially improved the diagnostic accuracy of these imaging tests and advanced the NM technology to be a significant and important tool in the field of infection and inflammation...
November 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185286/lessons-learned-from-imaging-on-enthesitis-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#20
REVIEW
Abdulla Watad, Iris Eshed, Dennis McGonagle
Enthesitis is a term that refers to inflammation at tendon, ligament, or joint capsule insertions. The entheses are increasinlgly considered to be the primary site of joint inflammation in the spondyloarthropathies including psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Great advances have occurred in the understanding of enthesopathy, which has resulted in a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of PsA. Enthesitis is difficult to assess on both clinical examination and on imaging because of the overlap in features between mechanical, degenerative, and inflammatory pathologies...
November 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
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