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Images in Clinical Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656532/of-lamp-posts-keys-and-fabled-drunkards-a-perspectival-tale-of-4-guidelines
#1
Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine is the application of research findings to inform individual clinical decisions. There is a tension-both philosophical and practical-between the average result from a population study and the circumstances and needs of an individual patient. This personal account of "evidence-based" trauma care illustrates and explores this tension. THE CASE: The author, a keen athlete, describes her experience of a high-impact cycle accident that led to limb fractures (which were diagnosed and treated according to evidence-based guidelines) and also an occult injury to the cervical spine (which was not diagnosed at the time)...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655580/canadian-association-of-radiologists-white-paper-on-artificial-intelligence-in-radiology
#2
REVIEW
An Tang, Roger Tam, Alexandre Cadrin-Chênevert, Will Guest, Jaron Chong, Joseph Barfett, Leonid Chepelev, Robyn Cairns, J Ross Mitchell, Mark D Cicero, Manuel Gaudreau Poudrette, Jacob L Jaremko, Caroline Reinhold, Benoit Gallix, Bruce Gray, Raym Geis
Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly moving from an experimental phase to an implementation phase in many fields, including medicine. The combination of improved availability of large datasets, increasing computing power, and advances in learning algorithms has created major performance breakthroughs in the development of AI applications. In the last 5 years, AI techniques known as deep learning have delivered rapidly improving performance in image recognition, caption generation, and speech recognition...
April 11, 2018: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649981/in-silico-cancer-research-towards-3r
#3
Claire Jean-Quartier, Fleur Jeanquartier, Igor Jurisica, Andreas Holzinger
BACKGROUND: Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments...
April 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644499/evaluation-of-prognostic-models-developed-using-standardised-image-features-from-different-pet-automated-segmentation-methods
#4
Craig Parkinson, Kieran Foley, Philip Whybra, Robert Hills, Ashley Roberts, Chris Marshall, John Staffurth, Emiliano Spezi
BACKGROUND: Prognosis in oesophageal cancer (OC) is poor. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate is approximately 15%. Personalised medicine is hoped to increase the 5- and 10-year OS rates. Quantitative analysis of PET is gaining substantial interest in prognostic research but requires the accurate definition of the metabolic tumour volume. This study compares prognostic models developed in the same patient cohort using individual PET segmentation algorithms and assesses the impact on patient risk stratification...
April 11, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629716/radiosynthesis-of-the-anticancer-nucleoside-analogue-trifluridine-using-an-automated-18-f-trifluoromethylation-procedure
#5
Alice King, Andreas Doepner, David Turton, Daniela M Ciobota, Chiara Da Pieve, Anne-Christine Wong Te Fong, Gabriela Kramer-Marek, Yuen-Li Chung, Graham Smith
Trifluoromethyl groups are widespread in medicinal chemistry, yet there are limited 18F-radiochemistry techniques available for the production of the complementary PET agents. Herein, we report the first radiosynthesis of the anticancer nucleoside analogue trifluridine, using a fully automated, clinically-applicable 18F-trifluoromethylation procedure. [18F]Trifluridine was obtained after two synthetic steps in <2 hours. The isolated radiochemical yield was 3% ± 0.44 (n = 5), with a radiochemical purity >99%, and a molar activity of 0...
April 9, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628404/when-the-reading-room-meets-the-team-room-resident-perspectives-from-radiology-and-internal-medicine-on-the-effect-of-personal-communication-after-implementing-a-resident-led-radiology-rounds
#6
Andrew J Klobuka, John Lee, Raquel Buranosky, Matthew Heller
OBJECTIVE: Current radiology and internal medicine (IM) residents have trained to varying degrees depending on program in the post picture archiving and communication systems implementation era and thus have largely missed out on the benefits of in-person, 2-way communication between radiologists and consulting clinicians. The purpose of this study is to broadly explore resident perspectives from these groups on the desire for personal contact between radiologists and referring physicians and the effect of improved contact on clinical practice...
February 13, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626946/implementation-of-quality-systems-in-nuclear-medicine-why-it-matters-an-outcome-analysis-quality-management-audits-in-nuclear-medicine-part-iii
#7
REVIEW
Maurizio Dondi, Diana Paez, Leonel Torres, Mario Marengo, Angelika Bischof Delaloye, Kishor Solanki, Annare Van Zyl Ellmann, Enrique Estrada Lobato, Rodolfo Nunez Miller, Francesco Giammarile, Thomas Pascual
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) developed a comprehensive program-Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine (QUANUM). This program covers all aspects of nuclear medicine practices including, but not limited to, clinical practice, management, operations, and services. The QUANUM program, which includes quality standards detailed in relevant checklists, aims at introducing a culture of comprehensive quality audit processes that are patient oriented, systematic, and outcome based. This paper will focus on the impact of the implementation of QUANUM on daily routine practices in audited centers...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626944/molecular-imaging-of-inflammatory-arthritis-and-related-disorders
#8
REVIEW
François Jamar, Annibale Versari, Filippo Galli, Frédéric Lecouvet, Alberto Signore
Rheumatic disorders comprise a number of diseases that range from benign, mildly symptomatic degenerative disease to severe systemic disorders such as giant-cell vasculitis with dramatic consequences such as acute blindness. The former is relatively common, whereas the latter is rare. In between, commonly encountered disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and the various spondyloarthritides, with or without peripheral enthesitis, are daily challenges for the caring physician. Clinical evaluation is of utmost importance and is constantly described under the form of specialist guidelines in all parts of the world...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626943/new-spect-and-pet-radiopharmaceuticals-for-imaging-inflammatory-diseases-a-meta-analysis-of-the-last-10-years
#9
REVIEW
Marta Pacilio, Chiara Lauri, Daniela Prosperi, Agnese Petitti, Alberto Signore
Modern molecular nuclear medicine is rapidly developing in the field of imaging of chronic inflammatory diseases, and many new radiopharmaceuticals have been recently described and tested in animals and man. These can detect early pathophysiological changes before the development of anatomical changes and, often, before clinical onset of symptoms. This field includes new radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT and PET use to define new strategies for imaging immune cells as well as tissue modifications induced by the inflammatory process...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625732/healthcare-use-patterns-and-economic-burden-of-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-in-children-before-diagnosis
#10
Frances Tian, Patsy Guittar, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Gloria Higgins, Stacy P Ardoin, Charles H Spencer, Karla Jones, Bethanne Thomas, Shoghik Akoghlanian, Sharon Bout-Tabaku
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the healthcare use and costs of amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome (AMPS) in children before diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study in children with AMPS at a pediatric rheumatology clinic between 2010 and 2014. Data were abstracted on 80 patients after primary rheumatic diseases were excluded. Healthcare visits, medications and diagnostic testing that occurred in the years before diagnosis were collected. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was used to estimate visit costs...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625584/temporomandibular-joint-regeneration-proposal-of-a-novel-treatment-for-condylar-resorption-after-orthognathic-surgery-using-transplantation-of-autologous-nasal-septum-chondrocytes-and-the-first-human-case-report
#11
Ricardo de Souza Tesch, Esther Rieko Takamori, Karla Menezes, Rosana Bizon Vieira Carias, Cláudio Leonardo Milione Dutra, Marcelo de Freitas Aguiar, Tânia Salgado de Sousa Torraca, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Cármen Lúcia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto, Debora Regina Daga, Paulo Roberto Slud Brofman, Radovan Borojevic
BACKGROUND: Upon orthognathic mandibular advancement surgery the adjacent soft tissues can displace the distal bone segment and increase the load on the temporomandibular joint causing loss of its integrity. Remodeling of the condyle and temporal fossa with destruction of condylar cartilage and subchondral bone leads to postsurgical condylar resorption, with arthralgia and functional limitations. Patients with severe lesions are refractory to conservative treatments, leading to more invasive therapies that range from simple arthrocentesis to open surgery and prosthesis...
April 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622699/comprehensive-computed-tomography-radiomics-analysis-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-for-prognostication
#12
Geewon Lee, Hyunjin Park, Insuk Sohn, Seung-Hak Lee, So Hee Song, Hyeseung Kim, Kyung Soo Lee, Young Mog Shim, Ho Yun Lee
BACKGROUND: In this era of personalized medicine, there is an expanded demand for advanced imaging biomarkers that reflect the biology of the whole tumor. Therefore, we investigated a large number of computed tomography-derived radiomics features along with demographics and pathology-related variables in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, correlating them with overall survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred thirty-nine patients who underwent operation for lung adenocarcinoma were included...
April 5, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622132/comparison-of-breast-mr-imaging-with-molecular-breast-imaging-in-breast-cancer-screening-diagnosis-staging-and-treatment-response-evaluation
#13
REVIEW
Gaiane M Rauch, Beatriz E Adrada
Breast MR imaging and molecular breast imaging (MBI) are functional imaging modalities that can be used to noninvasively evaluate the pathophysiology and biology of breast cancer. In the era of personalized medicine, these imaging techniques give clinicians insight into cancer pathobiology and allows them to individualize treatment regimens. Breast MR imaging has gained acceptance for breast cancer evaluation; work is ongoing on validation of MBI for breast cancer evaluation. This article discusses clinical applications of breast MR imaging and MBI, and compares the performance of these techniques in breast cancer screening, diagnosis, staging, and treatment response evaluation...
May 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621404/inorganic-nanomaterials-for-soft-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#14
Russell Urie, Deepanjan Ghosh, Inam Ridha, Kaushal Rege
Inorganic nanomaterials have witnessed significant advances in areas of medicine including cancer therapy, imaging, and drug delivery, but their use in soft tissue repair and regeneration is in its infancy. Metallic, ceramic, and carbon allotrope nanoparticles have shown promise in facilitating tissue repair and regeneration. Inorganic nanomaterials have been employed to improve stem cell engraftment in cellular therapy, material mechanical stability in tissue repair, electrical conductivity in nerve and cardiac regeneration, adhesion strength in tissue approximation, and antibacterial capacity in wound dressings...
April 5, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620051/manipulation-free-cultures-of-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-offer-a-novel-screening-method-for-cardiotoxicity
#15
Sheeja Rajasingh, Dona Greta Isai, Saheli Samanta, Zhi-Gang Zhou, Buddhadeb Dawn, William H Kinsey, Andras Czirok, Johnson Rajasingh
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based cardiac regenerative medicine requires the efficient generation, structural soundness and proper functioning of mature cardiomyocytes, derived from the patient's somatic cells. The most important functional property of cardiomyocytes is the ability to contract. Currently available methods routinely used to test and quantify cardiomyocyte function involve techniques that are labor-intensive, invasive, require sophisticated instruments or can adversely affect cell vitality...
April 5, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619546/clinical-application-of-photodynamic-medicine-technology-using-light-emitting-fluorescence-imaging-based-on-a-specialized-luminous-source
#16
REVIEW
Tsutomu Namikawa, Kazune Fujisawa, Eri Munekage, Jun Iwabu, Sunao Uemura, Shigehiro Tsujii, Hiromichi Maeda, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Hideo Fukuhara, Keiji Inoue, Takayuki Sato, Michiya Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
The natural amino acid 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) precursor and a new-generation photosensitive substance that accumulates specifically in cancer cells. When indocyanine green (ICG) is irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light, it shifts to a higher energy state and emits infrared light with a longer wavelength than the irradiated NIR light. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using ALA and ICG-based NIR fluorescence imaging has emerged as a new diagnostic technique. Specifically, in laparoscopic examinations for serosa-invading advanced gastric cancer, peritoneal metastases could be detected by ALA-PDD, but not by conventional visible-light imaging...
April 4, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619525/principles-of-three-dimensional-printing-and-clinical-applications-within-the-abdomen-and-pelvis
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Bastawrous, Nicole Wake, Dmitry Levin, Beth Ripley
Improvements in technology and reduction in costs have led to widespread interest in three-dimensional (3D) printing. 3D-printed anatomical models contribute to personalized medicine, surgical planning, and education across medical specialties, and these models are rapidly changing the landscape of clinical practice. A physical object that can be held in one's hands allows for significant advantages over standard two-dimensional (2D) or even 3D computer-based virtual models. Radiologists have the potential to play a significant role as consultants and educators across all specialties by providing 3D-printed models that enhance clinical care...
April 4, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619278/digital-imaging-and-communications-in-medicine-whole-slide-imaging-connectathon-at-digital-pathology-association-pathology-visions-2017
#18
EDITORIAL
David Clunie, Dan Hosseinzadeh, Mikael Wintell, David De Mena, Nieves Lajara, Marcial Garcia-Rojo, Gloria Bueno, Kiran Saligrama, Aaron Stearrett, David Toomey, Esther Abels, Frank Van Apeldoorn, Stephane Langevin, Sean Nichols, Joachim Schmid, Uwe Horchner, Bruce Beckwith, Anil Parwani, Liron Pantanowitz
As digital pathology systems for clinical diagnostic work applications become mainstream, interoperability between these systems from different vendors becomes critical. For the first time, multiple digital pathology vendors have publicly revealed the use of the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard file format and network protocol to communicate between separate whole slide acquisition, storage, and viewing components. Note the use of DICOM for clinical diagnostic applications is still to be validated in the United States...
2018: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607519/long-term-effects-of-tibial-plateau-leveling-osteotomy-and-tibial-tuberosity-advancement-on-tibial-plateau-subchondral-bone-density-in-dogs
#19
Elizabeth S Leach, Ursula Krotscheck, Kelsey J Goode, Galina M Hayes, Peter Böttcher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term loading patterns using subchondral bone density (SBD) distribution of the tibial plateau after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: Adult (> 2 years), medium to large breed dogs (>20 kg) that had been treated with TPLO or TTA at least 1 year prior to the study were recruited. A normal cohort of similar age and weight dogs with normal physical and orthopedic examinations served as control...
April 1, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606979/pd-1-and-pd-l1-inhibitors-after-platinum-based-chemotherapy-or-in-first-line-therapy-in-cisplatin-ineligible-patients-dramatic-improvement-of-prognosis-and-overall-survival-after-decades-of-hopelessness-in-patients-with-metastatic-urothelial-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Irene Resch, Shahrokh F Shariat, Kilian M Gust
Until recently, there were no true innovations in the management of locally advanced (aUC) and metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) in the last three decades. Vinflunine has been approved by the EMA (European Medicines Agency) with only limited improvement compared to best supportive care in second line treatment. In addition, gemcitabine/cisplatin has been established as an alternative to methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC). The advent of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) revolutionized the care of these patients, transforming a unanimously deadly disease into one with hope through sustained disease control...
2018: Memo
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