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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107772/a-preliminary-randomized-controlled-trial-of-contingency-management-for-alcohol-use-reduction-using-a-transdermal-alcohol-sensor
#1
Nancy P Barnett, Mark A Celio, Jennifer W Tidey, James G Murphy, Suzanne M Colby, Robert M Swift
AIMS: We tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) noncontingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled design with one baseline week, three intervention weeks, and one-month follow up. SETTING: New England, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Heavy drinking adults (47% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to 1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n =15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or 2) yoked NR (n =15)...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107765/lower-adenoma-miss-rate-with-fuse-vs-conventional-colonoscopy-with-proximal-retroflexion-a-randomized-back-to-back-trial
#2
Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Periklis Apostolopoulos, Georgios Tziatzios, Erasmia Vlachou, Athanasios D Sioulas, Dimitrios Polymeros, Andreas Karameris, Ioannis Panayiotides, Georgios Alexandrakis, George D Dimitriadis, Konstantinos Triantafyllou
Background and study aims Full-spectrum colonoscopy (FSC) promises to increase adenoma detection by providing a wider field of view. The aim of this study was to compare adenoma miss rates of FSC with those of conventional colonoscopy complemented by right-colon re-examination using scope retroflexion (CC/R). Patients and methods At two tertiary endoscopy facilities, patients who were scheduled for colonoscopy for the assessment of symptoms or for colorectal cancer screening/surveillance were randomized (1:1) to undergo same-day, back-to-back colonoscopies (FSC or CC/R first), performed by one of five endoscopists who had documented adenoma detection rates > 35 %...
January 20, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107743/high-sensitivity-four-layer-polymer-fiber-optic-evanescent-wave-sensor
#3
Xin Xin, Nianbing Zhong, Qiang Liao, Yanyan Cen, Ruohua Wu, Zhengkun Wang
We present a novel four-layer structure consisting of bottom, second, third, and surface layers in the sensing region, for a D-shaped step-index fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor. To reduce the background noise, the surface of the longitudinal section in the D-shaped region is coated with a light-absorbing film. We check the morphologies of the second and surface layers, examine the refractive indices (RIs) of the third and surface layers, and analyze the composition of the surface layer. We also investigate the effects of the thicknesses and RIs of the third and surface layers and the LA film on the light transmission and sensitivity of the FOEW sensors...
January 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107714/lactational-exposure-to-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-china-korea-and-japan
#4
Yang Cao, Kouji H Harada, Toshiaki Hitomi, Tamon Niisoe, Peiyu Wang, Yuhui Shi, Hye-Ran Yang, Takumi Takasuga, Akio Koizumi
To investigate short-chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCP) levels in human breast milk, pooled breast milk samples (BMSs) collected between 2007 and 2010 from Chinese (Beijing, n = 17), Korean (Seoul, Busan, n = 16), and Japanese (Kyoto, Sendai, n = 44) women were analyzed. SCCPs found in air samples in Beijing (n = 4, in 2008) were also analyzed and compared with BMSs to estimate the possible source of contamination in Beijing. The electron-capture negative ionization method demonstrated the different sensitivities for SCCPs, and pentachlorinated alkanes had the highest method detection limit (MDL) among congeners...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107712/innovative-solidification-stabilization-of-lead-contaminated-soil-using-incineration-sewage-sludge-ash
#5
Jiangshan Li, Chi Sun Poon
The proper treatment of lead (Pb) contaminated soils and incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) has become an environmental concern. In this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blended OPC containing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) were used to solidify/stabilize (S/S) soils contaminated with different concentrations of Pb. After curing for 7 and 28 d, the S/S soils were subjected to a series of strength, leaching and microscopic tests. The results showed that replacement of OPC by ISSA significantly reduced the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of S/S soils and leached Pb...
January 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107694/evaluation-in-the-field-of-social-services-for-minors-measuring-the-efficacy-of-interventions-in-the-italian-service-for-health-protection-and-promotion
#6
Antonio Iudici, Agnese Gagliardo Corsi
This article presents the availment of a new Methodology for the efficacy evaluation of interventions in the field of social science: the Method of Computerized Textual Data Analysis (M.A.D.I.T.). In the beginning, we present some elements of the international and Italian legislation referred to the efficacy evaluation and about the child protection. Subsequently this work describes the process of efficacy evaluation of an intervention of minor protection delivered by a public Italian Service, the Minor and Family Service, MiFa...
November 30, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107671/recent-sequence-variation-in-probe-binding-site-affected-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-group-b-by-real-time-rt-pcr
#7
Everlyn Kamau, Charles N Agoti, Clement S Lewa, John Oketch, Betty E Owor, Grieven P Otieno, Anne Bett, Patricia A Cane, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Direct immuno-fluorescence test (IFAT) and multiplex real-time RT-PCR have been central to RSV diagnosis in Kilifi, Kenya. Recently, these two methods showed discrepancies with an increasing number of PCR undetectable RSV-B viruses. OBJECTIVES: Establish if mismatches in the primer and probe binding sites could have reduced real-time RT-PCR sensitivity. STUDY DESIGN: Nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes were sequenced for real-time RT-PCR positive and negative samples...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107669/medical-comorbidity-in-bipolar-disorder-the-link-with-metabolic-inflammatory-systems
#8
REVIEW
Ana SayuriYamagata, Elisa Brietzke, Joshua D Rosenblat, Ron Kakar, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, several medical comorbidities and a decreased life expectancy. Metabolic-inflammatory changes have been postulated as one of the main links between BD and medical comorbidity, although there are few studies exploring possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. Therefore, the aims of the current narrative review were 1) synthesize the evidence for metabolic-inflammatory changes that may facilitate the link between medical comorbidity and BD and 2) discuss therapeutic and preventive implications of these pathways...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107666/development-of-a-microwave-energy-delivery-system-for-reversible-stunning-of-cattle
#9
D McLean, L Meers, J Ralph, J S Owen, A Small
Stunning prior to slaughter is commonly used to render the animal insensible to pain. However, for certain markets, stunning is disallowed, unless the animal can fully recover if not slaughtered. There are very few available methods of inducing a fully recoverable stun. This paper describes the development of a microwave energy application system for stunning cattle. Cadaver heads were used to demonstrate that brain temperature could be raised to a point at which insensibility would be expected to occur (44°C), and to calculate the power and time combinations required to achieve this in a range of cattle weights...
January 7, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107656/synthesis-of-an-allergy-inducing-tetrasaccharide-4p-x
#10
Takashi Moriya, Naoki Nagahata, Rei Odaka, Hirohide Nakamura, Jun Yoshikawa, Katsumi Kurashima, Tadao Saito
4P-X (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-glucopyranose) is included in galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) produced by β-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans. 4P-X has been known to induce particularly strong allergies. High purity 4P-X is essential for use as a standard to quantify the amount of 4P-X in GOSs; however, the isolation of high purity 4P-X has never been reported. In this study, we achieved the synthesis of 4P-X by a combination of organic and enzymatic chemical syntheses in a short time...
November 27, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107653/re-assessing-acalculia-distinguishing-spatial-and-purely-arithmetical-deficits-in-right-hemisphere-damaged-patients
#11
S Benavides-Varela, D Piva, F Burgio, L Passarini, G Rolma, F Meneghello, C Semenza
Arithmetical deficits in right-hemisphere damaged patients have been traditionally considered secondary to visuo-spatial impairments, although the exact relationship between the two deficits has rarely been assessed. The present study implemented a voxelwise lesion analysis among 30 right-hemisphere damaged patients and a controlled, matched-sample, cross-sectional analysis with 35 cognitively normal controls regressing three composite cognitive measures on standardized numerical measures. The results showed that patients and controls significantly differ in Number comprehension, Transcoding, and Written operations, particularly subtractions and multiplications...
December 26, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107647/programmed-ribosomal-frameshifting-generates-a-copper-transporter-and-a-copper-chaperone-from-the-same-gene
#12
Sezen Meydan, Dorota Klepacki, Subbulakshmi Karthikeyan, Tõnu Margus, Paul Thomas, John E Jones, Yousuf Khan, Joseph Briggs, Jonathan D Dinman, Nora Vázquez-Laslop, Alexander S Mankin
Metal efflux pumps maintain ion homeostasis in the cell. The functions of the transporters are often supported by chaperone proteins, which scavenge the metal ions from the cytoplasm. Although the copper ion transporter CopA has been known in Escherichia coli, no gene for its chaperone had been identified. We show that the CopA chaperone is expressed in E. coli from the same gene that encodes the transporter. Some ribosomes translating copA undergo programmed frameshifting, terminate translation in the -1 frame, and generate the 70 aa-long polypeptide CopA(Z), which helps cells survive toxic copper concentrations...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107629/discovery-of-1-2-3-triazole-derivatives-for-multimodality-pet-ct-cryoimaging-of-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#13
Chunying Wu, Brendan Eck, Sheng Zhang, Junqing Zhu, Anand Dev Tiwari, Yifan Zhang, Yunjie Zhu, Jinming Zhang, Bin Wang, Xizhen Wang, Xu Wang, Jingqiang You, Jian Wang, Yihui Guan, Xingdang Liu, Xin Yu, Bruce D Trapp, Robert Miller, Jerry Silver, David Wilson, Yanming Wang
Myelin pathology is present in many neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To facilitate development of novel therapies aimed at myelin repair, we set out to develop imaging agents that permit direct quantification of myelination in vivo. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of fluorescent fluorinated myelin imaging agents that can be used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging combined with subsequent post-mortem fluorescent cryoimaging...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107627/use-of-tissue-metabolite-analysis-and-enzyme-kinetics-to-discriminate-between-alternate-pathways-for-hydrogen-sulfide-metabolism
#14
Kristie D Cox Augustyn, Michael R Jackson, Marilyn Schuman Jorns
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously synthesized signaling molecule that is enzymatically metabolized in mitochondria. The metabolism of H2S maintains optimal concentrations of the gasotransmitter and produces sulfane sulfur (S(0))-containing metabolites that may be functionally important in signaling. Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR) catalyzes the initial 2-electron oxidation of H2S to S(0) using coenzyme Q as electron acceptor in a reaction that requires a third substrate to act as the acceptor of S(0)...
January 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107615/suicide-attempts-and-their-interrelation-with-the-economic-crisis-in-chania-greece-a-time-series-analysis-of-the-period-2008-2015
#15
Emmanouil S Benioudakis, Vyronas Lykiardopoulos, Vaggelis Georgiou, Maria D Archontaki, Alexandra Tsourounaki, Georgia Botonaki, Aikaterini Batzou, Tsampikos Symiakos, Theodora Seliniotaki, Athanasios Armagos, Aikaterini Pentari, Konstantinos Moiradorakis, Eleanna Darakis, Maria Melissari-Tzanakaki
Background: Greece has been in the grip of a severe economic crisis since 2008. It is well known that suicide attempts and actual suicides increase during periods of recession and austerity. The main aim of this study was to examine the economic crisis in relation to recorded suicide attempts in Chania, Greece, from 2008 to 2015, also taking unemployment rates into consideration. Methods: During the research period from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2015, 436 suicide attempts (females: n = 305 and males: n = 131) were recorded in the archives of the General Hospital of Chania...
January 19, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107609/carbon-nanodot-solar-cells-from-renewable-precursors
#16
Maria-Magdalena Titirici, Adam Marinovic, Steve Dunn, Lim Swee Kiat, Joe Briscoe
It has recently been shown that waste biomass can be converted into a wide range of functional materials, including those with desirable optical and electronic properties, offering the opportunity to find new uses for these renewable resources. Photovoltaics is one area where finding the combination of abundant, low-cost and non-toxic materials with the necessary functionality can be challenging. In this paper we compare the performance of carbon nanodots derived from a wide range of biomaterials obtained from different biomass sources as sensitizers for TiO2-based nanostructured solar cells; polysaccharides (chitosan and chitin), monosaccharide (D-glucose), amino acids (L-arginine and L-cysteine) and raw lobster shells are all used to produce carbon nanodots via hydrothermal carbonisation...
January 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107572/introduction-of-a-new-paediatric-asthma-guideline-effects-on-asthma-control-levels
#17
S C Hammer, L J H Sonneveld, K D G van de Kant, H J Hendriks, J W Heynens, R Droog, E Dompeling, Q Jöbsis
BACKGROUND: In 2008, a new national paediatric asthma management guideline based on the international Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline, was launched in the Netherlands. We studied whether asthma control and treatment regimens improved after introduction of the guideline by comparing survey data before and after the guideline introduction. METHODS: Two comparable groups of children (6-16 years) with asthma were included before (2004) and after (2013) the introduction of the guideline...
January 20, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107546/bone-marrow-stroma-protects-myeloma-cells-from-cytotoxic-damage-via-induction-of-the-oncoprotein-muc1
#18
Michal Bar-Natan, Dina Stroopinsky, Katarina Luptakova, Maxwell D Coll, Arie Apel, Hasan Rajabi, Athalia R Pyzer, Kristen Palmer, Michaela R Reagan, Myrna R Nahas, Rebecca Karp Leaf, Salvia Jain, Jon Arnason, Irene M Ghobrial, Kenneth C Anderson, Donald Kufe, Jacalyn Rosenblatt, David Avigan
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a lethal haematological malignancy that arises in the context of a tumour microenvironment that promotes resistance to apoptosis and immune escape. In the present study, we demonstrate that co-culture of MM cells with stromal cells results in increased resistance to cytotoxic and biological agents as manifested by decreased rates of cell death following exposure to alkylating agents and the proteosome inhibitor, bortezomib. To identify the mechanism of increased resistance, we examined the effect of the co-culture of MM cells with stroma cells, on expression of the MUC1 oncogene, known to confer tumour cells with resistance to apoptosis and necrosis...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107545/food-acid-content-and-erosive-potential-of-sugar-free-confections
#19
P Shen, G D Walker, Y Yuan, C Reynolds, M A Stacey, E C Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Dental erosion is an increasingly prevalent problem associated with frequent consumption of acidic foods and beverages. The aim of this study was to measure the food acid content and the erosive potential of a variety of sugar-free confections. METHODS: Thirty sugar-free confections were selected and extracts analysed to determine pH, titratable acidity, chemical composition and apparent degree of saturation with respect to apatite. The effect of the sugar-free confections in artificial saliva on human enamel was determined in an in vitro dental erosion assay using change in surface microhardness...
January 20, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107529/complement-activation-and-stat4-expression-are-associated-with-early-inflammation-in-diabetic-wounds
#20
Kenji M Cunnion, Neel K Krishna, Haree K Pallera, Angela Pineros-Fernandez, Magdielis Gregory Rivera, Pamela S Hair, Brittany P Lassiter, Ryan Huyck, Mary A Clements, Antoinette F Hood, George T Rodeheaver, Patrick S Cottler, Jerry L Nadler, Anca D Dobrian
: Diabetic non-healing wounds are a major clinical problem. The mechanisms leading to poor wound healing in diabetes are multifactorial but unresolved inflammation may be a major contributing factor. The complement system (CS) is the most potent inflammatory cascade in humans and contributes to poor wound healing in animal models. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a transcription factor expressed in immune and adipose cells and contributes to upregulation of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines...
2017: PloS One
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