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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107502/rnai-based-functional-genomics-identifies-new-virulence-determinants-in-mucormycosis
#1
Trung Anh Trieu, María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Patricia Navarro-Rodriguez, Loida Lopez-Fernandez, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Victoriano Garre, Rosa María Ruiz-Vázquez, Francisco E Nicolás
Mucorales are an emerging group of human pathogens that are responsible for the lethal disease mucormycosis. Unfortunately, functional studies on the genetic factors behind the virulence of these organisms are hampered by their limited genetic tractability, since they are reluctant to classical genetic tools like transposable elements or gene mapping. Here, we describe an RNAi-based functional genomic platform that allows the identification of new virulence factors through a forward genetic approach firstly described in Mucorales...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107390/melanoma-cell-adhesion-and-migration-is-modulated-by-the-uronyl-2-o-sulfotransferase
#2
Katerina Nikolovska, Dorothe Spillmann, Jörg Haier, Andrea Ladányi, Christian Stock, Daniela G Seidler
Although the vast majority of melanomas are characterized by a high metastatic potential, if detected early, melanoma can have a good prognostic outcome. However, once metastasised, the prognosis is bleak. We showed previously that uronyl-2-O sulfotransferase (Ust) and 2-O sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) are involved in cell migration. To demonstrate an impact of 2-O sulfation in metastasis we knocked-down Ust in mouse melanoma cells. This significantly reduced the amount of Ust protein and enzyme activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106949/atherectomy-using-a-solid-state-laser-at-355-nm-wavelength
#3
Amir Herzog, Grzegorz Oszkinis, David Planer, Krzysztof Ziaja, Łukasz Kruszyna, Michał Goran Stanisić, Damian Ziaja, Amiel A Ishaaya, Wacław Kuczmik
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), caused by atherosclerotic processes, is allied with an increased risk of ischemic events, limb loss, and death. Recently, the use of a solid-state laser at 355 nm within a hybrid catheter was suggested for that purpose. In this work, short nanosecond pulses of a solid-state laser at 355 nm delivered through a hybrid catheter, composed of optical fibers and a blunt mechanical blade, are used to conduct a pre-clinical study and two clinical cases. The pre-clinical study consisted of an atherosclerotic calcified cadaveric leg and a porcine in vivo trial within the iliac artery, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106616/lymphocyte-phospho-ser-9-gsk-3%C3%AE-total-gsk-3%C3%AE-protein-levels-ratio-is-not-affected-by-chronic-lithium-or-valproate-treatment-in-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#4
Abed N Azab, Ella Vainer, Galila Agam, Yuly Bersudsky
BACKGROUND: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibition by lithium has been well established in vitro, but proof that this biochemical effect mediates lithium's beneficial action in patients with bipolar disorder is lacking. We studied whether lymphocyte GSK-3β activity measured indirectly in lithium- or valproate (VPA)-treated euthymic patients with bipolar disorder is different from controls. METHODS: Lymphocyte total and Ser-9-phospho-GSK-3β (inactive) levels were measured by Western blotting...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106368/programmable-shape-recovery-process-of-water-responsive-shape-memory-polyvinyl-alcohol-by-wettability-contrast-strategy
#5
Zhiqiang Fang, Yudi Kuang, Panpan Zhou, Siyi Ming, Penghui Zhu, Yu Liu, Honglong Ning, Gang Chen
Water-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) are desirable for biomedical applications, but their limited shape recovery process is problematic. Herein, we demonstrate a shape-memory polyvinyl alcohol (SM-PVA) with programmable multi-step shape recovery processes in water via a wettability contrast strategy. A hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)-treated SiO2 nanoparticle layer with varying loading weights was rationally deposited onto the surface of SM-PVA, aiming to create surface-wettability contrast. The varying wettability led to different water adsorption behaviors of SM-PVA that could be well described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106132/m-otdr-sensing-system-based-on-3d-encoded-microstructures
#6
Qizhen Sun, Fan Ai, Deming Liu, Jianwei Cheng, Hongbo Luo, Kuan Peng, Yiyang Luo, Zhijun Yan, Perry Ping Shum
In this work, a quasi-distributed sensing scheme named as microstructured OTDR (M-OTDR) by introducing ultra-weak microstructures along the fiber is proposed. Owing to its relative higher reflectivity compared with the backscattered coefficient in fiber and three dimensional (3D) i.e. wavelength/frequency/time encoded property, the M-OTDR system exhibits the superiorities of high signal to noise ratio (SNR), high spatial resolution of millimeter level and high multiplexing capacity up to several ten thousands theoretically...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105954/the-amp-foot-3-new-generation-propulsive-prosthetic-feet-with-explosive-motion-characteristics-design-and-validation
#7
Pierre Cherelle, Victor Grosu, Manuel Cestari, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
The last decades, rehabilitation has become a challenging context for mechatronical engineering. From the state-of-the-art it is seen that the field of prosthetics offers very promising perspectives to roboticist. Today's prosthetic feet tend to improve amputee walking experience by delivering the necessary push-off forces while walking. Therefore, several new types of (compliant) actuators are developed in order to fulfill the torque and power requirements of a sound ankle-foot complex with minimized power consumption...
December 19, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105837/hrp-mimicking-dnazyme-catalyzed-in-situ-generation-of-polyaniline-to-assist-signal-amplification-for-ultrasensitive-surface-plasmon-resonance-biosensing
#8
Haiyin Li, Jiafu Chang, Ting Hou, Feng Li
It is well-known that the horseradish peroxidase- (HRP-) mimicking DNAzyme, namely, hemin/G-quadruplex, can effectively catalyze the polymerization of aniline to form DNA-guided polyaniline. Meanwhile, polyaniline exhibits extraordinary electrical, electrochemical, and redox properties, as well as excellent SPR signal-enhancing ability. Herein, we report a novel ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on HRP-mimicking DNAzyme-catalyzed in situ formation of polyaniline for signal amplification, using bleomycin (BLM) as the proof-of-concept analyte...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105550/stable-isotope-labeling-for-improved-comparative-analysis-of-rna-digests-by-mass-spectrometry
#9
Mellie June Paulines, Patrick A Limbach
Even with the advent of high throughput methods to detect modified ribonucleic acids (RNAs), mass spectrometry remains a reliable method to detect, characterize, and place post-transcriptional modifications within an RNA sequence. Here we have developed a stable isotope labeling comparative analysis of RNA digests (SIL-CARD) approach, which improves upon the original (18)O/(16)O labeling CARD method. Like the original, SIL-CARD allows sequence or modification information from a previously uncharacterized in vivo RNA sample to be obtained by direct comparison with a reference RNA, the sequence of which is known...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105474/a-dual-scale-metal-nanowire-network-transparent-conductor-for-highly-efficient-and-flexible-organic-light-emitting-diodes
#10
Jinhwan Lee, Kunsik An, Phillip Won, Yoonseok Ka, Hyejin Hwang, Hyunjin Moon, Yongwon Kwon, Sukjoon Hong, Changsoon Kim, Changhee Lee, Seung Hwan Ko
Although solution processed metal nanowire (NW) percolation networks are a strong candidate to replace commercial indium tin oxide, their performance is limited in thin film device applications due to reduced effective electrical areas arising from the dimple structure and percolative voids that single size metal NW percolation networks inevitably possess. Here, we present a transparent electrode based on a dual-scale silver nanowire (AgNW) percolation network embedded in a flexible substrate to demonstrate a significant enhancement in the effective electrical area by filling the large percolative voids present in a long/thick AgNW network with short/thin AgNWs...
January 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104455/a-novel-role-for-endothelial-tetrahydrobiopterin-in-mitochondrial-redox-balance
#11
Jade Bailey, Andrew Shaw, Roman Fischer, Brent J Ryan, Benedikt M Kessler, James McCullagh, Richard Wade-Martins, Keith M Channon, Mark J Crabtree
The redox co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by endothelial NOS (eNOS) and is an important redox-dependent signalling molecule in the endothelium. Loss of endothelial BH4 is observed in cardiovascular disease (CVD) states and results in decreased NO and increased superoxide (O2(-)) generation via eNOS uncoupling. Genetic mouse models of augmented endothelial BH4 synthesis have shown proof of concept that endothelial BH4 can alter CVD pathogenesis...
January 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103802/proteomics-informed-by-transcriptomics-for-characterising-active-transposable-elements-and-genome-annotation-in-aedes-aegypti
#12
Kevin Maringer, Amjad Yousuf, Kate J Heesom, Jun Fan, David Lee, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Conrad Bessant, David A Matthews, Andrew D Davidson
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a vector for the (re-)emerging human pathogens dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses. Almost half of the Ae. aegypti genome is comprised of transposable elements (TEs). Transposons have been linked to diverse cellular processes, including the establishment of viral persistence in insects, an essential step in the transmission of vector-borne viruses. However, up until now it has not been possible to study the overall proteome derived from an organism's mobile genetic elements, partly due to the highly divergent nature of TEs...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103545/a-multimodal-speech-capture-system-for-speech-rehabilitation-and-learning
#13
Nordine Sebkhi, Dhyey Desai, Mohammad Islam, Jun Lu, Kimberly Wilson, Maysam Ghovanloo
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are trained to correct articulation of people diagnosed with motor speech disorders by analyzing articulators' motion and assessing speech outcome while patients speak. To assist SLPs in this task, we are presenting the Multimodal Speech Capture System (MSCS) that records and displays kinematics of key speech articulators, the tongue and lips, along with voice, using unobtrusive methods. Collected speech modalities, tongue motion, lips gestures, and voice, are visualized not only in real-time to provide patients with instant feedback but also offline to allow SLPs to perform post-analysis of articulators' motion, particularly the tongue, with its prominent but hardly visible role in articulation...
January 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102898/a-composite-autonomic-index-as-unitary-metric-for-heart-rate-variability-a-proof-of-concept
#14
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Nadia Solaro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: This study addresses whether a unitary cardiac autonomic nervous system index (ANSI), obtained combining multiple metrics from Heart Rate Variability (HRV) into a radar plot could provide an easy appreciation of autonomic performance in a clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are standardized using percentile ranking of autonomic proxies from a relatively large reference population (n= 1593, age 39±13 years). Autonomic indices are obtained from autoregressive spectral analysis of (ECG derived) HRV at rest and during standing up...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102419/towards-encoded-particles-for-highly-multiplexed-colorimetric-point-of-care-autoantibody-detection
#15
Gustav Svedberg, Yunjin Jeong, Hunjong Na, Jisung Jang, Peter Nilsson, Sunghoon Kwon, Jesper Gantelius, Helene Andersson Svahn
Highly multiplexed point of care tests could improve diagnostic accuracy and differential diagnostic capacity in for instance emergency medicine and low resource environments. Available technology platforms for POC biomarker detection are typically simplex or low-plexed, whereas common lab-based microarray systems allow for the simultaneous detection of thousands of DNA or protein biomarkers. In this study, we demonstrate a novel suspension particle array platform that utilizes 900 μm bricks for POC amenable colorimetric biomarker detection with an encoding capacity of over two million...
January 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101620/-home-based-telerehabilitation-after-stroke
#16
M Keidel, F Vauth, J Richter, B Hoffmann, H Soda, B Griewing, M Scibor
The use of modern information and telecommunication technologies enables telerehabilitation of neurological deficits in the domestic environment. The current state of studies on rehabilitative teletherapy for improvement of motor function and mobility deficits due to stroke is reviewed. Two neurolinguistic proof of concept studies investigating the efficacy of online interactive telespeech therapy are reported, which compared virtual screen to screen interactive telerehabilitation of aphasia after stroke and dysarthrophonia in Parkinson's disease to conventional face to face rehabilitation...
January 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101126/characterisation-of-microbial-communities-within-aggressive-prostate-cancer-tissues
#17
Melissa A Yow, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gianluca Severi, Damien M Bolton, John Pedersen, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: An infectious aetiology for prostate cancer has been conjectured for decades but the evidence gained from questionnaire-based and sero-epidemiological studies is weak and inconsistent, and a causal association with any infectious agent is not established. We describe and evaluate the application of new technology to detect bacterial and viral agents in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. The potential of targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and total RNA sequencing was evaluated in terms of its utility to characterise microbial communities within high-grade prostate tumours...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100092/sample-size-requirements-for-one-year-treatment-effects-using-deep-gray-matter-volume-from-3t-mri-in-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Gloria Kim, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Shahamat Tauhid, Lynn Stazzone, Maria K Houtchens, James M Stankiewicz, Christopher Severson, Dorlan Kimbrough, Francisco Quintana, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L Weiner, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
OBJECTIVE: The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically-relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. DESIGN/METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099995/technical-note-fast-respiratory-motion-estimation-using-sorted-singles-without-unlist-processing-a-feasibility-study
#19
Jaewon Yang, Mehdi Khalighi, Thomas A Hope, Karen Ordovas, Youngho Seo
PURPOSE: The study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of fast respiratory motion estimation using singles data available as a sorted format in list-mode files acquired in an integrated PET/MRI system for a proof-of-concept. METHODS: The derivation of SDRM is enabled by singles recorded and binned by second for each detector crystal in PET list-mode data acquired in a SIGNA PET/MR. The proposed method is to derive a SDRM trace by summing up all singles from all detectors through the PET data acquisition...
January 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099801/highly-specific-and-sensitive-fluorescent-nanoprobes-for-image-guided-resection-of-sub-millimeter-peritoneal-tumors
#20
Aaron H Colby, Samantha Berry, Ann M Moran, Kristine Amber Pasion, Rong Liu, Yolonda L Colson, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Mark W Grinstaff, Victoria L M Herrera
A current challenge in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis is the inability to detect, visualize, and resect small or microscopic tumors of pancreatic, ovarian or mesothelial origin. In these diseases, the completeness of primary tumor resection is directly correlated with patient survival, and, hence, identifying small sub-mm tumors (i.e., disseminated disease) is critical. Thus, new imaging techniques and probes are needed to improve cytoreductive surgery and patient outcomes. Highly-fluorescent rhodamine-labeled expansile nanoparticles (HFR-eNPs) are described for use as a visual aid during cytoreductive surgery of pancreatic carcinomatosis...
January 18, 2017: ACS Nano
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