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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214558/small-heterodimer-partner-shp-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-cardiomyocytes
#1
Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Dipanjan Chanda, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Marie Miglianico, Will A Coumans, Emma Barroso, Marta Tajes, Joost Jfp Luiken, Jan Fc Glatz, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera, Dietbert Neumann
Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an atypical nuclear receptor expressed in heart that has been shown to inhibit the hypertrophic response. Here, we assessed the role of SHP in cardiac metabolism and inflammation. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) displayed glucose intolerance accompanied by increased cardiac mRNA levels of Shp. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, SHP overexpression inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired the insulin signalling pathway (evidenced by reduced AKT and AS160 phosphorylation), similar to insulin resistant cells generated by high palmitate/high insulin treatment (HP/HI; 500μM/100nM)...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213613/an-atf4-atg5-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-regulates-fat-mass-via-affecting-energy-expenditure
#2
Yuzhong Xiao, Yalan Deng, Feixiang Yuan, Tingting Xia, Hao Liu, Zhigang Li, Zhixue Liu, Hao Ying, Yi Liu, Qiwei Zhai, Shanghai Chen, Feifan Guo
Although many biological functions of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) have been identified, a role of hypothalamic ATF4 in the regulation of energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Here, we showed that hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons specific ATF4 knockout (PAKO) mice are lean and have higher energy expenditure. Furthermore, PAKO mice were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and leptin resistance. Moreover, the expression of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) was increased or decreased by ATF4 knockdown or over-expression, respectively, and ATF4 inhibited the transcription of ATG5 by binding to the basic zipper-containing protein (bZIP) sites on its promoter...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213130/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-impairs-insulin-signalling-and-promotes-lipid-accumulation-in-hepatocytes
#3
Kerstin Rufinatscha, Bernhard Radlinger, Jochen Dobner, Sabrina Folie, Claudia Bon, Elisabeth Profanter, Claudia Ress, Karin Salzmann, Gabriele Staudacher, Herbert Tilg, Susanne Kaser
Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 [DPP-4) has evolved into an important target in diabetes therapy due to its role in incretin hormone metabolism. In contrast to its systemic effects, cellular functions of membranous DPP-4 are less clear. Here we studied the role of DPP-4 in hepatic energy metabolism. In order to distinguish systemic from cellular effects we established a cell culture model of DPP-4 knockdown in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. DPP-4 suppression was associated with increased basal glycogen content due to enhanced insulin signalling as shown by increased phosphorylation of insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK, respectively...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#4
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210529/awareness-of-gestational-diabetes-and-its-risk-factors-among-pregnant-women-in-samoa
#5
Lucy Anne Price, Lauren Jade Lock, Lucy Elizabeth Archer, Zubair Ahmed
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a subtype of diabetes mellitus defined as the development, or first recognition, of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is greater in mothers with GDM compared to the general population. Preventing the development of GDM could help lower the prevalence of T2DM and long-term morbidity in children of affected mothers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness of GDM and its risk factors among pregnant women in Samoa, exploring where participants obtained information, and understanding their attitudes towards diet and physical activity...
February 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208792/an%C3%A2-exercise-only%C3%A2-intervention%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-fathers%C3%A2-restores%C3%A2-glucose%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-insulin%C3%A2-regulation%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-conjunction%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-rescue%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-islet%C3%A2-cell%C3%A2-morphology%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-microrna%C3%A2-expression%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-male%C3%A2-offspring
#6
Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Lauren Sandeman, Julie A Owens, Tod Fullston
Paternal obesity programs metabolic syndrome in offspring. Low-impact exercise in obese  males improves the metabolic health of female offspring, however whether this occurred in male  offspring remained unknown. C57BL/6NHsd (Harlan) mice were fed a control diet (CD; 6% fat, n =  7) or a high-fat diet (HFD; 21% fat, n = 16) for 18 weeks. After 9 weeks, HFD-fed mice either remained  sedentary (HH, n = 8) or undertook low-moderate exercise (HE, n = 8) for another 9 weeks...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199417/physical-activity-prevents-alterations-in-mitochondrial-ultrastructure-and-glucometabolic-parameters-in-a-high-sugar-diet-model
#7
Karina Barbosa de Queiroz, Kinulpe Honorato-Sampaio, Joamyr Victor Rossoni Júnior, Diego Andrade Leal, Angélica Barbosa G Pinto, Lenice Kappes-Becker, Elisio Alberto Evangelista, Renata Guerra-Sá
Endurance exercise is a remarkable intervention for the treatment of many diseases. Mitochondrial changes on skeletal muscle are likely important for many of the benefits provided by exercise. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects that a regular physical activity (swimming without workload) has on mitochondrial morphological alterations and glucometabolic parameters induced by a high-sugar diet (HSD). Weaned male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet or a HSD (68% carbohydrate) were subjected to 60 minutes of regular physical activity by swimming (without workload) for four- (20 sessions) or eight-week (40 sessions) periods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192103/endoscopic-bariatric-and-metabolic-therapies-new-and-emerging-technologies
#8
Shelby Sullivan, Steven A Edmundowicz, Christopher C Thompson
Endoscopic Bariatric and Metabolic Therapies (EBMT) are a new addition to the treatment arsenal for obesity. These include devices which are placed or removed via flexible endoscopy, and procedures which utilize instruments that require flexible endoscopy for the indications of weight loss or treatment of glucose intolerance (from pre-diabetes to diabetes). The EBMTs are generally divided into gastric and small bowel categories, and although individual EBMTs may have unique mechanisms of action, similar themes in proposed mechanism of action are seen in the gastric and small bowel EBMTs respectively...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183820/sarcolipin-expression-is-not-required-for-the-mitochondrial-enzymatic-response-to-physical-activity-or-diet
#9
Daniel Gamu, Anton Trinh, Val A Farjado, Eric Bombardier, A Russell Tupling
In mice, transgenic manipulation of Ca(2+)-handling proteins is sufficient to alter the metabolic phenotype of muscle. We have previously shown that ablation of sarcolipin (SLN), a regulatory protein and uncoupler of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, leads to excessive diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unclear how loss of SLN per se affects muscle oxidative capacity and the ability of mitochondria to adapt to physiological stimuli such as exercise training or calorie overload...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183456/regulation-of-the-novel-adipokines-hepatokines-fetuin-a-and-fetuin-b-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Susan Kralisch, Annett Hoffmann, Ulrike Lössner, Jürgen Kratzsch, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Mathias Fasshauer, Thomas Ebert
OBJECTIVE: Fetuin B has recently been introduced as a novel adipokine/hepatokine which is significantly increased in hepatic steatosis and mediates impaired insulin action, as well as glucose intolerance. However, regulation of fetuin B in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as well as its longitudinal changes in the peripartum period, have not been elucidated, so far. DESIGN AND METHODS: Circulating fetuin A and fetuin B were quantified in 74 women with GDM and 74 healthy and gestational age-matched controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during pregnancy (median gestational age: 201days)...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183446/genetic-ablation-of-phosphatidylcholine-transfer-protein-stard2-in-ob-ob-mice-improves-glucose-tolerance-without-increasing-energy-expenditure
#11
Tibor I Krisko, Katherine B LeClair, David E Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP; synonym StarD2) is highly expressed in liver and oxidative tissues. PC-TP promotes hepatic glucose production during fasting and aggravates glucose intolerance in high fat fed mice. However, because PC-TP also suppresses thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), its direct contribution to obesity-associated diabetes in mice remains unclear. Here we examined the effects of genetic PC-TP ablation on glucose homeostasis in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which exhibit both diabetes and altered thermoregulation...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180948/tributyltin-exposure-at-noncytotoxic-doses-dysregulates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Ya-Wen Chen, Kuo-Cheng Lan, Jing-Ren Tsai, Te-I Weng, Ching-Yao Yang, Shing-Hwa Liu
Tributyltin (TBT) is an endocrine disruptor. TBT can be found in food and in human tissues and blood. Several animal studies revealed that organotins induced diabetes with decreased insulin secretion. The detailed effect and mechanism of TBT on pancreatic β-cell function still remain unclear. We investigated the effect and mechanism of TBT exposure at noncytotoxic doses relevant to human exposure on β-cell function in vitro and in vivo. The β-cell-derived RIN-m5F cells and pancreatic islets from mouse and human were treated with TBT (0...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180061/kinase-suppressor-of-ras-2-ksr2-expression-in-the-brain-regulates-energy-balance-and-glucose-homeostasis
#13
Lili Guo, Diane L Costanzo-Garvey, Deandra R Smith, Beth K Neilsen, Richard G MacDonald, Robert E Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) is a molecular scaffold coordinating Raf/MEK/ERK signaling that is expressed at high levels in the brain. KSR2 disruption in humans and mice causes obesity and insulin resistance. Understanding the anatomical location and mechanism of KSR2 function should lead to a better understanding of physiological regulation over energy balance. METHODS: Mice bearing floxed alleles of KSR2 (KSR2(fl/fl)) were crossed with mice expressing the Cre recombinase expressed by the Nestin promoter (Nes-Cre) to produce Nes-CreKSR2(fl/fl) mice...
February 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179267/obesity-and-pregnancy-mechanisms-of-short-term-and-long-term-adverse-consequences-for-mother-and-child
#14
REVIEW
Patrick M Catalano, Kartik Shankar
Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies. Metabolically, obese women have increased insulin resistance in early pregnancy, which becomes manifest clinically in late gestation as glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth. At term, the risk of cesarean delivery and wound complications is increased...
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177674/exercise-restores-bioavailability-of-hydrogen-sulfide-and-promotes-autophagy-influx-in-livers-of-mice-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#15
Bing Wang, Jing Zeng, Qi Gu
In the gold standard treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), exercise training has been shown to effectively improve NASH. However, limited data are available about the underlying mechanisms involved. This work was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of exercise training on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in mice. Male mice were fed with HFD and given moderate-intensity exercise for 24 weeks. Exercise training lowered weight gain, attenuated systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, mitigated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in mice fed with HFD...
January 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165156/pancreatic-impairment-and-igf2-hypermethylation-induced-by-developmental-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-can-be-counteracted-by-maternal-folate-supplementation
#16
Zhenxing Mao, Wei Xia, Wenqian Huo, Tongzhang Zheng, Bryan A Bassig, Huailong Chang, Tian Chen, Feie Li, Yunxin Pan, Yang Peng, Yuanyuan Li, Shunqing Xu
Increasing evidence indicates that bisphenol A (BPA), a widely manufactured environmental pollutant, can induce changes in DNA methylation paatterns, which is a potential mechanism linking this environmental exposure to disease development. We investigated the influence of developmental exposure to BPA on pancreatic DNA methylation patterns and whether maternal folate supplementation can modify the epigenetic status and pancreatic impairment induced by BPA. Our results showed that maternal dietary folate supplementation in rats exposed to BPA counteracted the observed BPA-induced pancreatic impairments in the offspring, which included disrupted insulin secretion and glucose intolerance, and impaired morphology and ultrastructure of β cells...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163820/apolipoprotein-ciii-overexpression-induced-hypertriglyceridemia-increases-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-association-with-inflammation-and-cell-death
#17
Adriene A Paiva, Helena F Raposo, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Tarlliza R Nardelli, Helena C F Oliveira
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the principal manifestation of liver disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. By comparing hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice expressing apolipoprotein (apo) CIII with control nontransgenic (NTg) littermates, we demonstrated that overexpression of apoCIII, independent of a high-fat diet (HFD), produces NAFLD-like features, including increased liver lipid content; decreased antioxidant power; increased expression of TNFα, TNFα receptor, cleaved caspase-1, and interleukin-1β; decreased expression of adiponectin receptor-2; and increased cell death...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163315/effects-of-topical-capsaicin-combined-with-moderate-exercise-on-insulin-resistance-body-weight-and-oxidative-stress-in-hypoestrogenic-obese-rats
#18
J M L Medina-Contreras, J Colado-Velázquez, N L Gómez-Viquez, P Mailloux-Salinas, I Perez-Torres, A Aranda-Fraustro, K Carvajal, G Bravo
BACKGROUND: Hypoestrogenic women are one of the most vulnerable groups for the development of obesity and its complications. Capsaicin and exercise have demonstrated to reduce body weight and to improve insulin sensitivity in different animal models, but it is unknown whether their combination could be useful in hypoestrogenic obese females. METHODS: We investigated whether topical capsaicin, exercise or their combination had better therapeutic effects in an obesity-hypoestrogenism model...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161724/resistant-maltodextrin-or-fructooligosaccharides-promotes-glp-1-production-in-male-rats-fed-a-high-fat-and-high-sucrose-diet-and-partially-reduces-energy-intake-and-adiposity
#19
Tohru Hira, Ryoya Suto, Yuka Kishimoto, Sumiko Kanahori, Hiroshi Hara
PURPOSE: Increasing secretion and production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by continuous ingestion of certain food components has been expected to prevent glucose intolerance and obesity. In this study, we examined whether a physiological dose (5% weight in diet) of digestion-resistant maltodextrin (RMD) has a GLP-1-promoting effect in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) diet. METHODS: Rats were fed a control diet or the HFS (30% fat, 40% sucrose wt/wt) diet supplemented with 5% RMD or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) for 8 weeks or for 8 days in separated experiments...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151011/cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-glucose-tolerance-in-midlife-and-risk-of-cognitive-disorders-in-old-age-up-to-a-49-year-follow-up-of-the-helsinki-businessmen-study
#20
Kirsi Rantanen, Arto Y Strandberg, Veikko V Salomaa, Kaisu H Pitkälä, Reijo S Tilvis, Pentti J Tienari, Timo E Strandberg
PURPOSE: To compare midlife predictors of old age dementia with or without concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). DESIGN: In the Helsinki Businessmen Study (men born in 1919-1934, n = 3309) death certificates (n = 1885) during up to 49-year follow-up (through December 31, 2013) were screened for dementia (n = 365) and ASCVD, and categorized as 1) AD without ASCVD ("pure" AD, n = 93), 2) AD+ASCVD (n = 126), 3) Vascular dementia (VD, n = 82), 4) Other or undefined etiology (n = 64)...
February 2, 2017: Annals of Medicine
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