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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096435/regulation-of-aldosterone-secretion-by-mineralocorticoid-receptor-mediated-signaling
#1
Cherish Chong, Anis Hamid, Tham Yao, Amanda Garza, Luminita Pojoga, Gail K Adler, Jose R Romero, Gordon H Williams
We posit the existence of a paracrine/autocrine negative feedback loop, mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), regulating aldosterone secretion. To assess this hypothesis we asked whether altering MR activity in zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells affects aldosterone production. To this end, we studied ex vivo ZG cells isolated from male Wistar rats fed chow containing either high (1.6% Na+ [HS]) or low (0.03% Na+ [LS]) amount of sodium. Western blot analyses demonstrated that MR was present in both the ZG and zona fasciculata/zona reticularis (ZF/ZR/ZR)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095810/neonatal-screening-for-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-in-southern-brazil-a-population-based-study-with-108-409-infants
#2
Cristiane Kopacek, Simone Martins de Castro, Mayara Jorgens Prado, Claudia Maria Dornelles da Silva, Luciana Amorim Beltrão, Poli Mara Spritzer
BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with inborn errors of steroid metabolism. 21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency occurs in 90 to 95% of all cases of CAH, with accumulation of 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). Early diagnosis of CAH based on newborn screening is possible before the development of symptoms and allows proper treatment, correct sex assignment, and reduced mortality rates. This study describes the results obtained in the first year of a public CAH screening program in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095318/interoceptive-modulation-of-neuroendocrine-emotional-and-hypophagic-responses-to-stress
#3
REVIEW
James W Maniscalco, Linda Rinaman
Periods of caloric deficit substantially attenuate many centrally mediated responses to acute stress, including neural drive to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, anxiety-like behavior, and stress-induced suppression of food intake (i.e., stress hypophagia). It is posited that this stress response plasticity supports food foraging and promotes intake during periods of negative energy balance, even in the face of other internal or external threats, thereby increasing the likelihood that energy stores are repleted...
January 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088216/immunohistochemical-features-of-giant-cell-ependymoma-of-the-filum-terminale-with-unusual-clinical-and-radiological-presentation
#4
Fernando Candanedo-Gonzalez, Cindy Sharon Ortiz-Arce, Samuel Rosales-Perez, Ana Lilia Remirez-Castellanos, Candelaria Cordova-Uscanga, Armando Gamboa-Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Giant cell ependymoma of the filum terminale is a rare variant, generally manifested as a well-circunscribed intradural mass with an indolent biological behavior. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 48-year-old Mexican female who non-relevant past medical history, that developed a GCE of the filum terminale. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed the presence of an intra-axial tumor extending from L3 to L5 with extra-medullary invasion...
January 14, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058099/adenomatoid-tumor-of-the-adrenal-gland-in-young-woman-from-clinical-and-radiological-to-pathological-study
#5
Brankica Krstevska, Sasha Jovanovska Mishevska, Rubens Jovanovic
Adenomatoid tumors are neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts. Extragenital localization sites such as adrenal glands are rare but have been reported. When found in the adrenals, they represent great clinical, radiological and pathological diagnostic challenge, with wide range of differential diagnoses to be considered. We present a case of a 30 years old female, with incidental ultrasound finding of unilateral tumor in the right adrenal gland. Multi slices CT scan was of value in localizing this tumor, but not in the precise diagnosis...
November 17, 2016: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057963/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-of-normal-adrenal-glands
#6
Sara Reis Teixeira, Paula Condé Lamparelli Elias, Andrea Farias de Melo Leite, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves de Oliveira, Valdair Francisco Muglia, Jorge Elias Junior
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1...
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053040/disruption-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-signaling-in-sim1-neurons-reduces-physiological-and-behavioral-reactivity-to-acute-and-chronic-stress
#7
Sriparna Ghosal, Amy E B Packard, Parinaz Mahbod, Jessica M McKlveen, Randy J Seeley, Brent Myers, Yvonne Ulrich-Lai, Eric P Smith, David A D'Alessio, James P Herman
: Organismal stress initiates a tightly orchestrated set of responses involving complex physiological and neurocognitive systems. Here, we present evidence for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-mediated paraventricular hypothalamic circuit coordinating the global stress response. The GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r) in mice was knocked down in neurons expressing single-minded 1, a transcription factor abundantly expressed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Mice with single-minded 1-mediated Glp1r knockdown had reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to both acute and chronic stress and were protected against weight loss associated with chronic stress...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035535/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-visceral-pain
#8
Kieran Rea, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
A growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health status. Under normal homeostatic conditions this microbial population helps maintain intestinal peristalsis, mucosal integrity, pH balance, immune priming and protection against invading pathogens. Furthermore, these microbes can influence centrally regulated emotional behaviour through mechanisms including microbially derived bioactive molecules (amino acid metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters), mucosal immune and enteroendocrine cell activation, as well as vagal nerve stimulation...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026881/intrinsic-factors-adrenal-gland-morphology-and-disease-burden-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-south-africa
#9
Nina Gillis-Germitsch, Pamela-Rose Vybiral, Daryl Codron, Marcus Clauss, Antoinette Kotze, Emily P Mitchell
Adrenal gland weight (AW) and corticomedullary ratio (ACMR) are used as indicators of stress in animals. Captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have higher ACMRs than free-ranging ones and stress has been linked to gastritis, amyloidosis, glomerulosclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis. We reviewed age, sex, body weight (BW), kidney weight (KW), and left AW and ACMR with necropsy findings in 51 South African captive cheetahs. Eleven common histopathologic lesions were counted for each animal as measure of its disease burden...
December 27, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024268/validation-of-autonomic-and-endocrine-reactivity-to-a-laboratory-stressor-in-young-children
#10
Leslie E Roos, Ryan J Giuliano, Kathryn G Beauchamp, Megan Gunnar, Brigette Amidon, Philip A Fisher
The validation of laboratory paradigms that reliably induce a stress response [including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation], is critical for understanding how children's stress-response systems support emotional and cognitive function. Early childhood research to date is markedly limited, given the difficulty in establishing paradigms that reliably induce a cortisol response. Furthermore, research to date has not included a control condition or examined concurrent ANS reactivity...
November 29, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012996/life-events-salivary-cortisol-and-cognitive-performance-in-nondemented-subjects-a-population-based-study
#11
Sami Ouanes, Enrique Castelao, Sirak Gebreab, Armin von Gunten, Martin Preisig, Julius Popp
Older people are particularly exposed to stressful events, known to activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in increased cortisol levels. High cortisol has been associated with deleterious effects on cognition. We hypothesized that stressful life events could increase cortisol secretion leading to cognitive impairment. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from Colaus/PsyColaus, a longitudinal population-based study among Lausanne residents. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained from 796 nondemented subjects aged at least 65...
December 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012830/individual-differences-in-stress-vulnerability-the-role-of-gut-pathobionts-in-stress-induced-colitis
#12
Dominik Langgartner, Daniel Peterlik, Sandra Foertsch, Andrea M Füchsl, Petra Brokmann, Peter J Flor, Zeli Shen, James G Fox, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Christopher A Lowry, Stefan O Reber
Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), an established mouse model for chronic psychosocial stress, promotes a microbial signature of gut inflammation, characterized by expansion of Proteobacteria, specifically Helicobacter spp., in association with colitis development. However, whether the presence of Helicobacter spp. during CSC is critically required for colitis development is unknown. Notably, during previous CSC studies performed at Regensburg University (University 1), male specific-pathogen-free (SPF) CSC mice lived in continuous subordination to a physically present and Helicobacter spp...
December 21, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007534/fkbp5-polymorphism-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#13
Marta Fichna, Izabela Krzyśko-Pieczka, Magdalena Żurawek, Bogda Skowrońska, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Piotr Fichna
OBJECTIVE: Since metabolic syndrome shares several clinical features with hypercortisolism, it was hypothesised that genes altering individual glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity might be implicated in pathogenesis of obesity and its adverse outcomes. FKBP5 gene encodes a chaperon protein in the GC receptor (GR) complex, which modulates steroid action upon target genes. Its functional variant, rs1360780, may enhance FKBP5 gene transcription, affect GR signalling and thereby influence the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis...
December 19, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982510/stress-system-dysregulation-in-pediatric-generalized-anxiety-disorder-associated-with-comorbid-depression
#14
R Funke, A Eichler, J Distler, Y Golub, O Kratz, G H Moll
Because chronic stress is an important risk factor for anxiety states and depressive disorders, we studied hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic system activity via changes in cortisol and alpha amylase activity levels in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients (n = 26) with comorbid depression and a healthy comparison group (n = 26). Morning plasma cortisol and diurnal profiles of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity were assessed, also reactivity of HPA-axis, sAA activity, and heart rate following a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test for children)...
December 16, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979632/cortisol-and-dhea-in-development-and-psychopathology
#15
REVIEW
Hayley S Kamin, Darlene A Kertes
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol...
December 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959297/sepsis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#16
Diane McLaughlin, Lori Shellenback
Patients with cirrhosis are at high risk for sepsis and sepsis-related mortality. Aggressive treatment aimed at avoidance of hypoperfusion and prompt identification and treatment of the causative organism can improve patients' survival. Fluid administration is the first-line treatment to improve perfusion to vital organs; however, care should be taken to assess true intravascular volume status. In patients with adequate intravascular volume, vasopressors are then added to support blood pressure. Complications of cirrhosis often worsen in the setting of sepsis...
October 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941579/early-life-stress-fkbp5-polymorphisms-and-quantitative-glycemic-traits
#17
Anna Suarez, Jari Lahti, Eero Kajantie, Johan G Eriksson, Katri Räikkönen
OBJECTIVE: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to influence health later in life. Functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, regulated partly by FKBP5 gene, may moderate these effects. We examined whether FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interact with ELS on type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and quantitative glycemic traits. METHODS: 1,728 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants born 1934-44 were genotyped for FKBP5 SNPs (rs1360780, rs9394309, rs9470080), administered a 2-h (75 g) oral glucose tolerance test and a questionnaire on physician-diagnosed and medication use for chronic diseases at a mean age of 61...
December 9, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932067/nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab-as-first-line-treatment-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-checkmate-012-results-of-an-open-label-phase-1-multicohort-study
#18
Matthew D Hellmann, Naiyer A Rizvi, Jonathan W Goldman, Scott N Gettinger, Hossein Borghaei, Julie R Brahmer, Neal E Ready, David E Gerber, Laura Q Chow, Rosalyn A Juergens, Frances A Shepherd, Scott A Laurie, William J Geese, Shruti Agrawal, Tina C Young, Xuemei Li, Scott J Antonia
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab has shown improved survival in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with chemotherapy. We assessed the safety and activity of combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab as first-line therapy for NSCLC. METHODS: The open-label, phase 1, multicohort study (CheckMate 012) cohorts reported here were enrolled at eight US academic centres. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed recurrent stage IIIb or stage IV, chemotherapy-naive NSCLC...
January 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931321/evaluation-of-mice-undergoing-serial-oral-gavage-while-awake-or-anesthetized
#19
Carissa P Jones, Kelli L Boyd, Jeanne M Wallace
Although oral gavage is the most straightforward approach to achieve precise enteric administration in rodents, it is associated with potential adverse consequences. Here we compare the effects of serial oral gavage in awake compared with anesthetized mice. Female C57BL/6J mice (n = 20 per group) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (control, awake gavage, or anesthetized gavage) and gavaged daily with 0.2 mL of saline (with no manipulation on weekends) for a total of 18 treatment days. Body weight and clinical appearance were monitored throughout the treatment period, after which mice were euthanized and necropsied...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920641/severe-de-novo-hepatitis-b-recovered-from-late-onset-liver-insufficiency-with-prolonged-ascites-and-hypoalbuminemia-due-to-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-bj-with-precore-mutation
#20
Akira Sato, Toshiya Ishii, Fumiaki Sano, Takayuki Yamada, Hideaki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Matsumoto
De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A) exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
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