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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670576/neural-androgen-synthesis-and-aggression-insights-from-a-seasonally-breeding-rodent
#1
REVIEW
Kathleen M Munley, Nikki M Rendon, Gregory E Demas
Aggression is an essential social behavior that promotes survival and reproductive fitness across animal systems. While research on the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this complex behavior has traditionally focused on the classic neuroendocrine model, in which circulating gonadal steroids are transported to the brain and directly mediate neural circuits relevant to aggression, recent studies have suggested that this paradigm is oversimplified. Work on seasonal mammals that exhibit territorial aggression outside of the breeding season, such as Siberian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus ), has been particularly useful in elucidating alternate mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661472/news-about-the-genetics-of-congenital-primary-adrenal-insufficiency
#2
Florence Roucher-Boulez, Delphine Mallet-Motak, Véronique Tardy-Guidollet, Rita Menassa, Claire Goursaud, Ingrid Plotton, Yves Morel
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is characterized by impaired production of steroid hormones due to an adrenal cortex defect. This condition incurs a risk of acute insufficiency which may be life-threatening. Today, 80% of pediatric forms of PAI have a genetic origin but 5% have no clear genetic support. Recently discovered mutations in genes relating to oxidative stress have opened the way to research on genes unrelated to the adrenal gland. Identification of causal mutations in a gene responsible for PAI allows genetic counseling, guidance of follow-up and prevention of complications...
April 13, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#3
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642441/transcriptome-profile-in-unilateral-adrenalectomy-induced-compensatory-adrenal-growth-in-the-rat
#4
Karol Jopek, Marianna Tyczewska, Piotr Celichowski, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Rucinski
Compensatory adrenal growth evoked by unilateral adrenalectomy (hemiadrenalectomy) constitutes one of the most frequently studied in vivo models of adrenocortical enlargement. This type of growth has been quite well characterized for its morphological, biochemical, and morphometric parameters. However, the molecular basis of compensatory adrenal growth is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rat adrenal transcriptome profile during the time of two previously described adrenocortical proliferation waves at 24 and 72 h after unilateral adrenalectomy...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628120/immunomorphometric-variations-of-sustentacular-cells-of-the-male-viscacha-adrenal-medulla-during-the-annual-reproductive-cycle-effects-of-androgens-and-melatonin
#5
Luis Ezequiel Gallol, Fabian Heber Mohamed
The adrenal medulla is crucial for the survival of species facing significant environmental changes. The parenchyma is composed mainly of chromaffin cells, ganglion cells and sustentacular cells (SC). The male viscacha exhibits seasonal variations of gonadal activity and other metabolic functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the reproductive conditions on the morphology of SC of this rodent. In addition, the effects of testosterone and melatonin on these cells were studied. Immunoexpression of S100 protein, GFAP and vimentin were analyzed...
April 5, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626607/prevalence-clinical-characteristics-and-long-term-outcomes-of-classical-11-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-deficiency-11bohd-in-turkish-population-and-novel-mutations-in-cyp11b1-gene
#6
Firdevs Baş, Güven Toksoy, Berrin Ergun-Longmire, Zehra Oya Uyguner, Zehra Yavaş Abalı, Şükran Poyrazoğlu, Volkan Karaman, Şahin Avcı, Umut Altunoğlu, Ruveyde Bundak, Birsen Karaman, Seher Başaran, Feyza Darendeliler
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11BOHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and the second most common form of CAH. AIM: To investigate genotype-phenotype correlation and to evaluate clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients with 11BOHD. METHODS: A total of 28 patients (n = 14, 46,XX; n = 14, 46,XY) with classical 11BOHD from 25 unrelated families were included in this study. Screening of CYP11B1 is performed by Sanger sequencing...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611662/adrenal-gland-tumors-in-dairy-cattle-from-northern-italy-morphological-and-phenotypical-characterization-in-comparison-with-human-pathology
#7
E Biasibetti, J Giorcelli, F Deideri, P Bianco, M T Capucchio, M Volante
Bovine adrenal gland tumours are considered relatively common, although scarce data are available about their real incidence, pathological characterization, classification criteria and immunohistochemical profile. This study describes the morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of 35 dairy cattle adrenal gland tumors from Northern Italy and compare them with human pathology. Macroscopical, histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations were performed. Microscopically proliferative lesions were classified as focal hyperplasia (8/35), primary cortical tumors (15/35) , primary medullary tumors (12/35)...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606171/enduring-effect-of-childhood-maltreatment-on-cortisol-and-heart-rate-responses-to-stress-the-moderating-role-of-severity-of-experiences
#8
Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Marie-Pier Robitaille, Stéphanie Langevin, Christina Cantave, Mara Brendgen, Sonia J Lupien
There is a relative consensus about the detrimental impact of childhood maltreatment on later mental health problems and behavioral difficulties. Prior research suggests that neurophysiological stress mechanisms may partly mediate this association. However, inconsistent findings regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic responses to stress complicate this investigation. Furthermore, the concordance in these two stress systems is not well understood. We tested whether the severity of maltreatment affected the association between maltreatment and cortisol and heart rate (HR) stress responses and the symmetry of these responses...
April 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605310/responses-of-dairy-cows-with-divergent-residual-feed-intake-as-calves-to-metabolic-challenges-during-midlactation-and-the-nonlactating-period
#9
K DiGiacomo, E Norris, F R Dunshea, B J Hayes, L C Marett, W J Wales, B J Leury
Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the actual and expected feed intake required to support animal maintenance and growth. Thus, a cow with a low RFI can obtain nutrients for maintenance and growth from a reduced amount of feed compared with a cow with a high RFI. Variation in RFI is underpinned by a combination of factors, including genetics, metabolism, thermoregulation and body composition; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness is also a possible contributor...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595516/a-rare-cause-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-clinical-and-genetic-findings-and-follow-up-characteristics-of-six-patients-with-17-hydroxylase-deficiency-and-two-novel-mutations
#10
Aslı Derya Kardelen, Güven Toksoy, Firdevs Baş, Zehra Yavaş Abalı, Genco Gençay, Şükran Poyrazoğlu, Rüveyde Bundak, Umut Altunoğlu, Şahin Avcı, Adam Najaflı, Oya Uyguner, Birsen Karaman, Seher Başaran, Feyza Darendeliler
BACKGROUND: 17-α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), characterized by hypertension and varying degrees of ambiguous genitalia and delayed pu-berty. The disease is associated with bi-allelic mutations in the CYP17A1 gene located on chromosome 10q24.3. We aimed to present clinical and genetic findings and follow-up and treatment of 17-OHD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated six patients with 17OHD from five families at presentation and at follow up...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534610/annals-express-development-of-a-rapid-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantitation-of-serum-dexamethasone-and-its-clinical-verification
#11
James M Hawley, Laura J Owen, Miguel De Bono, John Newell-Price, Brian G Keevil
BACKGROUND: Measurement of serum dexamethasone during the overnight dexamethasone-suppression test (ONDST) has been recommended to reduce false positive results when investigating Cushing's syndrome or increasingly commonly found adrenal incidentalomas. Despite this, there remains a paucity of well-validated dexamethasone methods currently available. Here, we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS serum dexamethasone assay and validate its utility in a cohort of postmenopausal females...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528085/soy-isoflavone-effects-on-the-adrenal-glands-of-orchidectomized-adult-male-rats-a-comprehensive-histological-and-hormonal-study
#12
Verica Lj Milošević, Walter B Severs, Nataša M Ristić, Milica N Manojlović-Stojanoski, Florina V Popovska-Perčinić, Branka T Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo B Pendovski, Svetlana L Trifunović, Marko Š Miler, Vladimir Z Ajdžanović
Genistein (G) and related soy phytoestrogens have been studied for potential usefulness in different chronic diseases, and may ameliorate signs of aging. They have a profound influence on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study utilized the rat model of mild andropause to thoroughly evaluate the effects of G and soy extract on the adrenal gland and related blood hormones. Adult male rats were orchidectomized (Orx) or sham operated (SO). Orx rats received daily subcutaneous injections for 3 weeks of solvent, or G (Orx+G, 30 mg/kg), or commercial soy extract (Orx+Soy, 30 mg/kg)...
March 12, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504346/myxedema-coma
#13
Atif Munir
Myxedema may be the first presentation of patients with undiagnosed hypothyroidism. Definitive management is with thyroid hormone but supportive measures, identification and treatment of precipitating factors in an appropriately safe environment are vital. There is no consensus about preferred thyroid hormone regimen. Corticosteroid therapy is given until adrenal insufficiency has been excluded. We present here a case of seventy-four years old woman of myxodema coma.
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502560/over-the-counter-adrenal-support-supplements-contain-thyroid-and-steroid-based-adrenal-hormones
#14
Halis Kaan Akturk, Ana Maria Chindris, Jolaine M Hines, Ravinder J Singh, Victor J Bernet
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether dietary supplements that are herbal and/or animal-derived products, marketed for enhancing metabolism or promoting energy, "adrenal fatigue," or "adrenal support," contain thyroid or steroid hormones. METHODS: Twelve dietary adrenal support supplements were purchased. Pregnenolone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, synthetic glucocorticoids (betamethasone, dexamethasone, fludrocortisone, megestrol acetate, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, prednisone, budesonide, and triamcinolone acetonide) levels were measured twice in samples in a blinded fashion...
March 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501754/involvement-of-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-kinase-in-interleukin-6-regulation-of-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-and-cholesterol-side-chain-cleavage-enzyme-in-the-bovine-zona-fasciculata-and-zona-reticularis
#15
Matharage S I De Silva, Adam W Dayton, Lance R Rhoten, John W Mallett, Jared C Reese, Mathieu D Squires, Andrew P Dalley, James P Porter, Allan M Judd
In bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (ZF) and NCI-H295R cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6) increases cortisol release, increases expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) (increases steroidogenic proteins), and decreases the expression of adrenal hypoplasia congenita-like protein (DAX-1) (inhibits steroidogenic proteins). In contrast, IL-6 decreases bovine adrenal zona reticularis (ZR) androgen release, StAR, P450scc, and SF-1 expression, and increases DAX-1 expression...
March 1, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498108/evaluation-of-individual-low-dose-dexamethasone-suppression-test-patterns-in-naturally-occurring-hyperadrenocorticism-in-dogs
#16
Michael Bennaim, Robert E Shiel, Christopher Forde, Carmel T Mooney
BACKGROUND: Dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) may be more mildly affected at the time of diagnosis today, which could influence the prevalence of associated clinical and clinicopathological abnormalities and diagnostic test performance. Different low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) result patterns have not been evaluated individually. OBJECTIVES: To assess the current features of HAC and evaluate if the diagnostic test performance of individual LDDST result patterns differ...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497068/functionally-distinct-smiles-elicit-different-physiological-responses-in-an-evaluative-context
#17
Jared D Martin, Heather C Abercrombie, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, Paula M Niedenthal
When people are being evaluated, their whole body responds. Verbal feedback causes robust activation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. What about nonverbal evaluative feedback? Recent discoveries about the social functions of facial expression have documented three morphologically distinct smiles, which serve the functions of reinforcement, social smoothing, and social challenge. In the present study, participants saw instances of one of three smile types from an evaluator during a modified social stress test...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490472/comparison-of-hair-cortisol-levels-and-perceived-stress-in-mothers-who-deliver-at-preterm-and-term
#18
Allyson R Duffy, Donna L Schminkey, Maureen W Groer, Melissa Shelton, Samia Dutra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships between hair cortisol levels and perceived stress in mothers who deliver preterm and term. We hypothesized that the rate of change in cortisol levels would be greater in the preterm delivery group. METHODS: This preliminary study compared hair cortisol levels and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores in predominately Caucasian mothers who delivered preterm ( n = 22) and term ( n = 30). We collected PSS and hair samples of ≥10 cm in length from mothers after delivery...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480386/hypertrophic-osteoarthropathy-estrogens-prostaglandine-2-prostaglandin-a-2-and-the-inflammatory-reflex
#19
Ad Brouwers, Pieter G Dingjan, Ben Dujardin, Everardus J van Zoelen, Paul Lips, Louis J Gooren
It has been claimed that hyperestrogenism occurs in hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), but not in simple clubbing. However, one of our patients had simple clubbing and hyperestrogenism. We therefore measured estrogens, androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and gonadotropins in five patients with HOA and in 18 patients with simple clubbing. Of the patients with HOA, 80% had a high urinary estriol concentration. In their serum, 80% had high estrone, 0% high estradiol, and 40% high SHBG. Of the patients with simple clubbing, 89% had a high urinary estriol concentration...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477953/age-moderates-the-association-between-social-integration-and-diurnal-cortisol-measures
#20
Brian Chin, Michael L M Murphy, Sheldon Cohen
Social integration is defined as the degree to which an individual participates in a broad range of social relationships. Although measures of social integration vary across studies, it is often assessed as the number of social roles (e.g., parent, friend, student, volunteer) that an individual reports actively participating in. More socially integrated individuals tend to be healthier than those less socially integrated, but the biological mechanisms through which this occurs remain unclear. One possibility is that social integration might alter the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, of which cortisol is a key product, and in turn influence a broad range of health outcomes...
February 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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