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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528143/intergenerational-accumulation-of-impairments-in-maternal-behavior-following-postnatal-social-stress
#1
B C Nephew, L M Carini, S Sallah, C Cotino, R A S Alyamani, F Pittet, S Bradburn, C Murgatroyd
Early adversity such as depressed maternal care can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on offspring and future generations. Exposure to chronic social stress (CSS), an ethologically model of postpartum depression and anxiety, during lactation impairs maternal care and exerts similar effects on the F1 dam offspring of the stressed F0 dams. These changes associate with increased corticosterone and neuroendocrine alterations. CSS F2 offspring further display decreased social behavior as juveniles and adults and decreased basal levels of corticosterone...
May 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526030/prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-dysregulation-of-infant-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-findings-from-the-apron-cohort-study
#2
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Maede Ejaredar, Jiaying Liu, Jenna Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin, Deborah Dewey
BACKGROUND: Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine system, but human data are lacking. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific behavioural problems in children, and HPA axis dysregulation may be a biological mechanism. The objective of the current study was to examine sex differences in associations between prenatal maternal urinary BPA concentration and HPA axis function in 3 month old infants...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506881/altered-circadian-patterns-of-salivary-cortisol-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-a-critical-literature-review
#3
Nathalie Coulon, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Michel Walter, Sylvie Tordjman
This article focuses on stress vulnerability in schizophrenia through an integrated clinical and biological approach. The objective of this article is to better understand the relationships between vulnerability, stress and schizophrenia. First, the concept of vulnerability is defined and several models of vulnerability in schizophrenia are reviewed. Second, a section is developed on the biology of stress, and more specifically on the stress responses of the hypothalamo-pitutary adrenal (HPA) axis. Then, studies of cortisol circadian rhythms are summarized, suggesting hyper-reactivity of the HPA axis in patients with schizophrenia and high risk individuals for schizophrenia...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499147/fructose-increases-corticosterone-production-in-association-with-nadph-metabolism-alterations-in-rat-epididymal-white-adipose-tissue
#4
Paula D Prince, Yanina A Santander, Estefania M Gerez, Christian Höcht, Ariel H Polizio, Marcos A Mayer, Carlos A Taira, Cesar G Fraga, Monica Galleano, Andrea Carranza
Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487631/activation-of-brain-somatostatin-signaling-suppresses-crf-receptor-mediated-stress-response
#5
REVIEW
Andreas Stengel, Yvette F Taché
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates-in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake) and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479067/enhanced-metabolite-annotation-via-dynamic-retention-time-prediction-steroidogenesis-alterations-as-a-case-study
#6
Giuseppe Marco Randazzo, David Tonoli, Petra Strajhar, Ioannis Xenarios, Alex Odermatt, Julien Boccard, Serge Rudaz
The development of metabolomics based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) now allows hundreds to thousands of metabolites to be simultaneously monitored in biological matrices. In that context, bioinformatics and multivariate data analysis (MVA) play a crucial role in the detection of relevant alteration patterns. However, sound biological interpretations must necessarily be supported by metabolite identifications to be definitive or at least have a high degree of confidence...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469557/modulation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-by-early-life-stress-exposure
#7
REVIEW
Miranda van Bodegom, Judith R Homberg, Marloes J A G Henckens
Exposure to stress during critical periods in development can have severe long-term consequences, increasing overall risk on psychopathology. One of the key stress response systems mediating these long-term effects of stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; a cascade of central and peripheral events resulting in the release of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands. Activation of the HPA-axis affects brain functioning to ensure a proper behavioral response to the stressor, but stress-induced (mal)adaptation of the HPA-axis' functional maturation may provide a mechanistic basis for the altered stress susceptibility later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458898/efficacy-of-pasireotide-in-controlling-severe-hypercortisolism-until-cardiac-transplantation
#8
Roberto Attanasio, Liana Cortesi, Daniela Gianola, Claudia Vettori, Fulvio Sileo, Roberto Trevisan
SUMMARY: Cushing's syndrome is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although surgery is the first-line treatment, drugs can still play a role as an ancillary treatment to be employed while waiting for surgery, after unsuccessful operation or in patients unsuitable for surgery. We were asked to evaluate a 32-year-old male waiting for cardiac transplantation. Idiopathic hypokinetic cardiomyopathy had been diagnosed since 6 years. He was on treatment with multiple drugs, had a pacemaker, an implantable cardioverter and an external device for the support of systolic function...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447709/-atypical-cushing-s-syndrome-in-a-dog-a-case-report
#9
Stefanie Hoffrogge, Lena Fels, Marion Schmicke, Reinhard Mischke
In a 12-year-old male Labrador Retriever, presented due to other disease symptoms, clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism (polyuria, polydipsia, abdominal distention, muscle atrophy) were an incidental finding. Abnormal laboratory results and sonographic findings of the adrenal glands, but negative low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests with low basal cortisol concentrations, a negative andrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulation test and exclusion of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism, suggested an atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC)...
April 27, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445897/adrenal-vein-catecholamine-levels-and-ratios-reference-intervals-derived-from-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism
#10
Candy W C Sze, Samuel Matthew O'Toole, Roger Kent Tirador, Scott A Akker, Matthew Matson, Leslie Perry, Maralyn Rose Druce, Tanja Dekkers, Jaap Deinum, Jacques W M Lenders, Graeme Eisenhofer, William Martyn Drake
Phaeochromocytoma localisation is generally reliably achieved with modern imaging techniques, particularly in sporadic cases. On occasion, however, there can be diagnostic doubt due to the presence of bilateral adrenal abnormalities, particularly in patients with mutations in genes predisposing them to the development of multiple phaeochromocytomas. In such cases, surgical intervention is ideally limited to large or functional lesions due to the long-term consequences associated with hypoadrenalism. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for catecholamines has been used in this situation to guide surgery, although there are few data available to support diagnostic thresholds...
April 26, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442544/effects-of-aircraft-noise-exposure-on-saliva-cortisol-near-airports-in-france
#11
Marie Lefèvre, Marie-Christine Carlier, Patricia Champelovier, Jacques Lambert, Bernard Laumon, Anne-Sophie Evrard
BACKGROUND: Saliva cortisol is a possible marker of noise-induced stress and could then mediate the relation observed between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases. However, the association between transportation noise and cortisol levels is still unclear. The objective of the study was to investigate the variability of saliva cortisol concentration as an indicator of disturbed hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation in relation to long-term aircraft noise exposure...
April 25, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442223/diurnal-cortisol-after-early-institutional-care-age-matters
#12
Jessica E Flannery, Laurel J Gabard-Durnam, Mor Shapiro, Bonnie Goff, Christina Caldera, Jennifer Louie, Dylan G Gee, Eva H Telzer, Kathryn L Humphreys, Daniel S Lumian, Nim Tottenham
Several studies have shown that young children who have experienced early caregiving adversity (e.g. previously institutionalization (PI)) exhibit flattened diurnal cortisol slopes; however, less is known about how these patterns might differ between children and adolescents, since the transition between childhood and adolescence is a time of purported plasticity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PI youth experience a massive improvement in caregiving environment once adopted into families; therefore we anticipated that a developmental increase in HPA axis plasticity during adolescence might additionally allow for an enhanced enrichment effect by the adoptive family...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438110/temporal-progression-of-lesions-in-guinea-pigs-infected-with-lassa-virus
#13
T M Bell, C I Shaia, J J Bearss, M E Mattix, K A Koistinen, S P Honnold, X Zeng, C D Blancett, G C Donnelly, J D Shamblin, E R Wilkinson, K A Cashman
Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431449/peripheral-and-central-glucocorticoid-signaling-contributes-to-positive-energy-balance-in-rats
#14
Tássia Karin Borba, Lígia Cristina Monteiro Galindo, Kelli Nogueira Ferraz-Pereira, Raquel da Silva Aragão, Ana Elisa Toscano, Omar Guzmán-Quevedo, Raul Manhães-de-Castro
The obesity epidemic has been the target of several studies to understand its etiology. The pathophysiological processes that take to obesity generally relate to the rupture of energy balance. This imbalance can result from environmental and/or endogenous events. Among the endogenous events, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which promotes stress response via glucocorticoid activity, is considered a modulator of energy balance. However, it remains controversial whether the increase in plasma levels of glucocorticoids results in a positive or negative energy balance...
April 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421812/the-frequency-of-incidental-findings-and-subsequent-evaluation-in-low-dose-ct-scans-for-lung-cancer-screening
#15
Lillie Morgan, Humberto Choi, Michal Reid, Ali Khawaja, Peter J Mazzone
RATIONALE: The USPSTF recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose chest CT scans (LDCT) for a well-defined high-risk population. Data on the frequency and impact of incidental findings on LDCT scans performed within a centralized lung cancer screening program has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported IFs in the setting of clinical trials. We present our findings in a real clinical setting where the decision to manage these findings may depend on factors that are not captured in a research trial such as disclosing IFs, patient preferences, severity of comorbidities, and physician expertise...
April 19, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421200/detection-of-urine-metabolites-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-before-and-after-exercise
#16
Changzhuan Shao, Yiming Ren, Zinan Wang, Chenzhe Kang, Hongke Jiang, Aiping Chi
Purpose. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) via an analysis of urine metabolites prior to and following exercise in a rat model. Methods. A rat model of CFS was established using restraint-stress, forced exercise, and crowded and noisy environments over a period of 4 weeks. Behavioral experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the model. Urine metabolites were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis before and after exercise...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419914/longitudinal-changes-in-pubertal-maturation-and-white-matter-microstructure
#17
Megan M Herting, Robert Kim, Kristina A Uban, Eric Kan, Andrea Binley, Elizabeth R Sowell
Emerging evidence in the field of adolescent neurodevelopment suggests that pubertal processes may contribute to known trajectories of brain maturation, and may contribute, in part, to sex differences in related cognitive, behavioral and mental health outcomes. The current longitudinal study examined how changes in physical pubertal maturation (measured by the Peterson Developmental Scale) predict changes in white matter microstructure in 18 boys and 15 girls over an approximate 2-year follow-up period, while accounting for age...
March 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416079/management-of-childhood-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#18
Louise Fleming, Marcia Van Riper, Kathleen Knafl
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an endocrine condition that requires parents to administer steroids up to three times daily, supplementing maintenance doses with oral or injectable doses during times of illness. The purpose of this integrative review was to explore the management, care, and associated health issues for children with CAH and the family response to the condition. Four literature indexes were searched, with 39 articles included. Four themes emerged: (a) Health- and Development-Related Issues, (a) Effects of Excess Androgens, (c) Life Experience of CAH, and (d) Managing and Averting Adrenal Crisis...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408299/ovarian-hormones-modify-anxiety-behavior-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-after-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#19
Dinah L Ramos-Ortolaza, Raura J Doreste-Mendez, John K Alvarado-Torres, Annelyn Torres-Reveron
Chronic social isolation could lead to a disruption in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in anxiety and depressive-like behaviors but cycling estrogens could modify these behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in ovarian hormones during the normal cycle could interact with social isolation to alter anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. In parallel, we examined the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of Sprague Dawley normal cycling female rats...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390450/a-complex-interplay-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-severe-health-anxiety-in-addison-s-disease-to-reduce-emergency-department-admissions
#20
Jo Daniels, Elizabeth Sheils
BACKGROUND: Addison's disease (AD) is a rare chronic illness caused by adrenocortical insufficiency. Due to the pivotal role of the regulating hormone cortisol in AD, there is a common symptom overlap between the presentation of anxiety and adrenal crisis. Previous literature has identified the prevalence of anxiety in endocrinological disorders, however there is a paucity of research examining the complex interplay between AD and anxiety. AIMS: This paper describes a single case study of a patient with severe health anxiety and co-morbid AD...
April 9, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
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