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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454165/pituitary-gland-shrinkage-in-bipolar-disorder-the-role-of-gender
#1
Giuseppe Delvecchio, Gian Mario Mandolini, Cinzia Perlini, Marco Barillari, Veronica Marinelli, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Marcella Bellani, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPAA) has been consistently reported in mood disorders. However, only few studies investigated the Pituitary gland (PG) in Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the results are so far contrasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the integrity of the PG as well as the role of gender and the impact of clinical measurements on this structure in a sample of BD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 34 BD patients and 41 HC underwent a 1...
February 14, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442478/a-clinical-audit-diagnostic-and-epidemiological-evaluation-of-the-adrenal-incidentaloma-ai
#2
Vincenzo Nuzzo, Tiziana Attardo, Giuseppe Augello, Davide Brancato, Salvatore Camerlingo, Clelia Canale, Federica Coretti, Alessandro Franco, Francesco Giacometti, Maurizio Gambacorta, Massimo Loreno, Ada Maffettone, Vincenzo Provenzano, Alfonso Zuccoli
Audit is a clinical instrument of government characterized by a whole process of evaluation inter pares to improve medical behaviors in the clinical practice. Different endocrinopathies are underestimated in the clinical and diagnostics practice but they can be a real problem in patients admitted in the departments of Internal Medicine. The Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI) is an accidental discovery with an incidence equal to 4% in radiologic studies but it's rarely considereted in the internal disorders. In the departments of Internal Medicine are hospitalized each year approximately 1...
February 13, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440941/sleep-disturbances-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-prevalence-pathophysiology-impact-and-management-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Renae C Fernandez, Vivienne M Moore, Emer M Van Ryswyk, Tamara J Varcoe, Raymond J Rodgers, Wendy A March, Lisa J Moran, Jodie C Avery, R Doug McEvoy, Michael J Davies
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting the reproductive, metabolic and psychological health of women. Clinic-based studies indicate that sleep disturbances and disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness occur more frequently among women with PCOS compared to comparison groups without the syndrome. Evidence from the few available population-based studies is supportive. Women with PCOS tend to be overweight/obese, but this only partly accounts for their sleep problems as associations are generally upheld after adjustment for body mass index; sleep problems also occur in women with PCOS of normal weight...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436482/the-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-in-%C3%A2-human-adrenocortical-zona-glomerulosa-and-in-aldosterone-producing-adenoma-low-expression-and-no-functional-role
#4
Paul Emmanuel Vanderriele, Brasilina Caroccia, Teresa Maria Seccia, Maria Piazza, Livia Lenzini, Francesca Torresan, Maurizio Iacobone, Thomas Unger, Gian Paolo Rossi
The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor (MasR) play a cardiovascular protective role by counter-regulating angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects, but whether this involves blunting of adrenocortical hormone secretion is unknown. We investigated the presence of AT1R, AT2R and MasR in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), a condition featuring hyperaldosteronism, and in APA-adjacent tissue. The effect of C21, an AT2R agonist, on CYP11B1 (cortisol synthase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) gene expression in NCI-H295R and HAC15 cell lines, and in APA and APA-adjacent tissue was also assessed using the AT1R antagonist irbesartan to ascertain the specificity of C21 effect...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432350/an-exploratory-reanalysis-of-the-randomized-trial-on-efficacy-of-corticosteroids-as-rescue-therapy-for-the-late-phase-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
G Umberto Meduri, Lisa Bridges, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Mehmet Kocak
OBJECTIVES: In the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network randomized controlled trial, methylprednisolone treatment was associated with increased return to mechanical ventilation with partial loss of early improvements. We hypothesize a causal relationship between protocol-driven rapid discontinuation of methylprednisolone post extubation and return to mechanical ventilation. To explore this possibility, we investigated the timing that events occurred in each treatment arm during active treatment intervention (efficacy) and after stopping therapy...
February 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417976/serum-cortisol-levels-and-neuropsychological-impairments-in-patients-diagnosed-with-fibromyalgia
#6
Ernesto Barceló-Martinez, Melissa Gelves-Ospina, Edgar Navarro Lechuga, Ricardo F Allegri, Erick Orozco-Acosta, Juan C Benítez-Agudelo, Alexandra León-Jacobus, Néstor F Román
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between neuropsychological variables and serum cortisol levels as a measure of physiological stress in patients with fibromyalgia. METHODOLOGY: A sample of 60 women was intentionally selected: 30 with Fibromyalgia diagnosis and 30 with normal controls. Cortisol levels were determined using two blood samples (AM and PM) and a neuropsychological and emotional battery was applied with a standardized protocol in Colombian population to evaluate different cognitive domains...
January 2018: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414027/associations-of-work-stress-with-hair-cortisol-concentrations-initial-findings-from-a-prospective-study
#7
Raphael M Herr, Christian Almer, Adrian Loerbroks, Amira Barrech, Irina Elfantel, Johannes Siegrist, Harald Gündel, Peter Angerer, Jian Li
There is ample evidence supporting the link between stress at the workplace and physical and mental health. One of the pathways potentially mediating those associations may involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with cortisol as an end product. While theoretically plausible, findings on the association of self-reported work stress with hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are inconclusive, being potentially biased by omitted pertinent factors. This issue can be addressed, among others, by eliminating time-invariant factors through consideration of variation within persons over time...
January 18, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391239/ozone-modifies-the-metabolic-and-endocrine-response-to-glucose-reproduction-of-effects-with-the-stress-hormone-corticosterone
#8
Errol M Thomson, Shinjini Pilon, Josée Guénette, Andrew Williams, Alison C Holloway
Air pollution is associated with increased incidence of metabolic disease (e.g. metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Air pollutants increase the release of stress hormones (human cortisol, rodent corticosterone), which could contribute to metabolic dysregulation. We assessed acute effects of ozone, and stress axis involvement, on glucose tolerance and on the metabolic (triglyceride), endocrine/energy regulation (insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, leptin, ghrelin, corticosterone), and inflammatory/endothelial (TNF, IL-6, VEGF, PAI-1) response to exogenous glucose...
January 29, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390385/esophageal-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-initial-presentation-as-painless-forehead-and-neck-masses-a-case-report
#9
Yen-Po Chin, Wei-Fu Lai, Meng-Ting Chiang, Shih-Chieh Chang
RATIONALE: Esophageal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare type of esophageal tumor which are usually positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 in tumor immunohistochemical staining. The most common symptoms of esophageal NETs are gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia and/or abdominal discomfort. While esophageal NETs have the potential for distant metastasis, there have only been a few reports of brain metastasis originating from esophageal NET. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 60-year-old Taiwanese female who initially presented with a 1 month history of painless forehead and bilateral neck masses...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388707/is-there-brain-oab-and-how-can-we-recognize-it-international-consultation-on-incontinence-research-society-ici-rs-2017
#10
Apostolos Apostolidis, Adrian Wagg, Mohammad S Rahnam A'i, Jalesh N Panicker, Desiree Vrijens, Alexander von Gontard
AIMS: In light of mounting evidence supporting the association of brain regions with the control of urine storage and voiding, the high placebo effect in OAB studies as well as certain anecdotal observations from clinical practice with OAB patients, the role of the brain in OAB was explored. METHODS: At the ICI-RS 2017 meeting, a panel of Functional Urologists and Basic Scientists presented literature data generating a proposal to discuss whether there is "brain OAB" and how we could recognize it...
February 1, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384929/case-report-of-a-bilateral-adrenal-myelolipoma-associated-with-cushing-disease
#11
Se Yoon Park, Mi Kyung Kwak, Hye Jeong Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Kyo-Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, So Young Jin, Sumi Yun, Dong Won Byun
RATIONALE: Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors, composed of a variable mixture of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic tissue. These tumors are frequently detected incidentally and are usually asymptomatic, and hormonally inactive. PATIENT CONCERNS: During a routine health checkup, a 52-year-old man was found to have a tumor on the bilateral adrenal glands. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a well-defined, heterogeneously enhanced bilateral adrenal mass, suggesting a myelolipoma...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375882/idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-as-a-presenting-sign-of-adrenal-insufficiency
#12
Sandra Shenouda, Khaled Al-Farawi, Jenna Dolan, Susan L Flesher
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a diagnosis of exclusion defined by elevated intracranial pressure without mass lesions or hydrocephalus. Causes of idiopathic intracranial hypertension include obesity, vitamin derangements, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and autoimmune disorders. Cushing's disease and Addison's disease have been associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Secondary adrenal insufficiency following withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids has been found to be a relatively common phenomenon...
2018: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367455/pka-signaling-drives-reticularis-differentiation-and-sexually-dimorphic-adrenal-cortex-renewal
#13
Typhanie Dumontet, Isabelle Sahut-Barnola, Amandine Septier, Nathanaëlle Montanier, Ingrid Plotton, Florence Roucher-Boulez, Véronique Ducros, Anne-Marie Lefrançois-Martinez, Jean-Christophe Pointud, Mohamad Zubair, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi, David T Breault, Pierre Val, Antoine Martinez
The adrenal cortex undergoes remodeling during fetal and postnatal life. How zona reticularis emerges in the postnatal gland to support adrenarche, a process whereby higher primates increase prepubertal androgen secretion, is unknown. Using cell-fate mapping and gene deletion studies in mice, we show that activation of PKA has no effect on the fetal cortex, while it accelerates regeneration of the adult cortex, triggers zona fasciculata differentiation that is subsequently converted into a functional reticularis-like zone, and drives hypersecretion syndromes...
January 25, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319371/a-four-tiered-prognostic-score-for-patients-receiving-palliative-thoracic-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#14
Carsten Nieder, Terje Tollåli, Ellinor Haukland, Anne Reigstad, Liv Randi Flatøy, Astrid Dalhaug
Palliative radiotherapy improves lung cancer related symptoms. Prognosis should be taken into account when deciding about fractionation. In this study, prognostic factors derived from multivariate analysis were used to assign a point sum reflecting 6-month survival. Four prognostic groups were compared. Performance status, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, liver/adrenal gland metastases, and extrathoracic disease status significantly predicted survival and formed the basis of the score. The four groups had a median survival of 0...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306773/midlife-stress-alters-memory-and-mood-related-behaviors-in-old-age-role-of-locally-activated-glucocorticoids
#15
Nicola Wheelan, Christopher J Kenyon, Anjanette P Harris, Carolynn Cairns, Emad Al Dujaili, Jonathan R Seckl, Joyce L W Yau
Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice...
December 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305800/suspected-ontogeny-of-a-recently-described-hypo-androgenic-pcos-like-phenotype-with-advancing-age
#16
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, Sarah K Darmon, Qi Wang, Lin Zhang, David F Albertini, David H Barad
BACKGROUND: A recent report described a new PCOS-like phenotype in lean older infertile women, and was characterized by high age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) but hypo- rather than the expected hyper-androgenism. The hypo-androgenism was, furthermore, characterized of, likely, adrenal origin and autoimmune etiology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We extracted data on 708 consecutive infertility patients, and separated them into three age-strata, <35, 36-42, and >42 years...
January 6, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301234/the-effect-of-coatings-and-nerve-growth-factor-on-attachment-and-differentiation-of-pheochromocytoma-cells
#17
Anna Orlowska, Pallale Tharushi Perera, Mohammad Al Kobaisi, Andre Dias, Huu Khuong Duy Nguyen, Shahram Ghanaati, Vladimir Baulin, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
Cellular attachment plays a vital role in the differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells are noradrenergic clonal cells isolated from the adrenal medulla of Rattus norvegicus and studied extensively as they have the ability to differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells. The effect of several experimental parameters including (i) the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF); (ii) substratum coatings, such as poly-L-lysine (PLL), fibronectin (Fn), and laminin (Lam); and (iii) double coatings composed of PLL/Lam and PLL/Fn on the differentiation process of PC12 cells were studied...
December 31, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285318/comparison-of-hydrocortisone-and-prednisone-in-the-glucocorticoid-replacement-therapy-post-adrenalectomy-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#18
Kunlong Tang, Liang Wang, Zhongyuan Yang, Yingying Sui, Liming Li, Yuting Huang, Peng Gao
Cushing's syndrome requires glucocorticoid replacement following adrenalectomy. Based on a simplified glucocorticoid therapy scheme and the peri-operative observation, we investigated its efficacy and safety up to 6 months post-adrenalectomy in this cohort study. We found the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were normal post-adrenalectomy, and sufficient to stimulate the recovery of the dystrophic adrenal cortex, thus exogenous supplemental ACTH might not be necessary. Patients were grouped by oral reception of either hydrocortisone or prednisone since day 2 post-adrenalectomy...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278511/the-adrenal-gland-microenvironment-in-health-disease-and-during-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Waldemar Kanczkowski, Mariko Sue, Stefan R Bornstein
The adrenal gland is a key component of the stress system in the human body. Multiple direct and paracrine interactions between different cell types and their progenitors take place within the adrenal gland microenvironment. These unique interactions are supported by high vascularization and the adrenal cortex extracellular matrix. Alterations in the adrenal gland microenvironment are known to influence the progression of several pathological conditions, such as obesity and sepsis, and to be influenced by these disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275786/glucocorticoid-receptor-dna-methylation-and-childhood-trauma-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-patients
#20
Elise Beau Vangeel, Stefan Kempke, Jelena Bakusic, Lode Godderis, Patrick Luyten, Leen Van Heddegem, Veerle Compernolle, Philippe Persoons, Diether Lambrechts, Benedetta Izzi, Kathleen Freson, Stephan Claes
OBJECTIVE: Although the precise mechanisms are not yet understood, previous studies have suggested that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and trauma in early childhood. Consistent with findings suggesting that early life stress-induced DNA methylation changes may underlie dysregulation of the HPA axis, we previously found evidence for the involvement of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (NR3C1) methylation in whole blood of CFS patients...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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