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Adrenal support

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914578/near-complete-response-to-pembrolizumab-in-microsatellite-stable-metastatic-sebaceous-carcinoma
#1
Evidio Domingo-Musibay, Paari Murugan, Alessio Giubellino, Sandeep Sharma, Daniel Steinberger, Jianling Yuan, Matthew A Hunt, Emil Lou, Jeffrey S Miller
BACKGROUND: Sebaceous carcinoma is an aggressive adnexal skin tumor with a predilection for the eyelids and sebaceous glands of the head and neck. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73 year-old man presented with confusion and was found to have widely disseminated sebaceous carcinoma with metastases to brain, lungs, liver, bowel, lymph nodes, and bone. Following initial treatment of the brain metastases with surgery he received post-operative radiosurgery. He then began systemic immunotherapy with pembrolizumab...
June 19, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913172/physiological-impacts-of-housing-maned-wolves-chrysocyon-brachyurus-with-female-relatives-or-unrelated-males
#2
Marieke K Jones, Lauren E Reiter, Michael P Gilmore, Elizabeth W Freeman, Nucharin Songsasen
The maned wolf is a threatened canid species native to South America. Previous studies have suggested the species exhibits induced ovulation. In captive breeding facilities, reproductive success is low while rates of neonatal mortality are high. Females that are not recommended for breeding are frequently housed together. However there has never been a systematic study of the reproductive consequences of co-housing females. This study was conducted for three purposes, to: (1) corroborate the presence of induced ovulation, (2) determine whether elevated cortisol is implicated in neonatal pup mortality, and (3) evaluate the endocrine correlates of group housed females...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906237/technical-note-ct-guided-percutaneous-core-biopsy-for-assessment-of-morphologically-normal-adrenal-glands-showing-high-fdg-uptake-in-patients-with-lung-cancer
#3
Guillaume Chassagnon, Souhail Bennani, Gael Freche, Pierre Magdeleinat, Audrey Mansuet-Lupo, Marie-Pierre Revel
OBJECTIVES: Increased FDG uptake in morphologically normal adrenal glands on PET-CT is a diagnostic challenge with major implications on treatment. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report our experience of CT-guided percutaneous core biopsy of morphologically normal adrenal glands showing increased FDG uptake in a context of lung cancer. METHODS: Biopsies for non-enlarged adrenal glands showing increased FDG uptake in lung cancer patients performed at our institution from December 2014 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888307/sex-differences-in-chronic-stress-responses-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Yan Yan, Sky Dominguez, Daniel W Fisher, Hongxin Dong
Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and severity, but the mechanisms underlying this sex divergence are unknown. Though some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities towards the disease. While a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to affect these differences in risks, none have been definitively verified...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874863/role-of-cryptochrome-1-and-cryptochrome-2-in-aldosterone-producing-adenomas-and-adrenocortical-cells
#5
Martina Tetti, Isabella Castellano, Francesca Venziano, Corrado Magnino, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero, Silvia Monticone
Mice lacking the core-clock components, cryptochrome-1 (CRY1) and cryptochrome-2 (CRY2) display a phenotype of hyperaldosteronism, due to the upregulation of type VI 3β-hydroxyl-steroid dehydrogenase ( Hsd3b6 ), the murine counterpart to the human type I 3β-hydroxyl-steroid dehydrogenase ( HSD3B1 ) gene. In the present study, we evaluated the role of CRY1 and CRY2 genes, and their potential interplay with HSD3B isoforms in adrenal pathophysiology in man. Forty-six sporadic aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) and 20 paired adrenal samples were included, with the human adrenocortical cells HAC15 used as the in vitro model...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871818/epigenetic-alterations-of-the-pomc-promoter-in-tobacco-dependence
#6
Marc Muschler, Mathias Rhein, Andreas Ritter, Thomas Hillemacher, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich, Alexander Glahn
Impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is substantially involved in several psychiatric disorders. Smoking interferes with HPA axis by activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and thus stimulating the expression of POMC. The POMC transcript is processed into several peptide hormones, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), that play a role in stress response and weight control. In alcohol dependence, POMC promoter methylation is associated with craving...
June 2, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808689/-identifying-the-importance-of-mt-3-expression-for-neuroblastoma-cells
#7
T Eckschlager, A Vícha, P Jenčová, Rodrigo Merlos, S Dostálová, H Buchtelová, V Strmiska, P Michálek, Z Heger, V Adam
BACKGROUND: Resistance of cancer cells to cytostatics is caused by a number of mechanisms that are often combined. These include reduced cell entry or increased efflux, increased DNA repair, defects of, apoptotic pathways, increased cytostatic degradation as well as elevated levels of intracellular thiols of glutathione and metallothioneins (MT). It has been reported that high concentrations of thiol groups in the cytoplasm bind platinum alkylation derivatives and chemorezistence is due to the transfer of platinum from the cytostatic to MT, which inactivates them...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807017/striking-parallels-between-carotid-body-glomus-cell-and-adrenal-chromaffin-cell-development
#8
Dorit Hockman, Igor Adameyko, Marketa Kaucka, Perrine Barraud, Tomoki Otani, Adam Hunt, Anna C Hartwig, Elisabeth Sock, Dominic Waithe, Marina C M Franck, Patrik Ernfors, Sean Ehinger, Marthe J Howard, Naoko Brown, Jeffrey Reese, Clare V H Baker
Carotid body glomus cells mediate essential reflex responses to arterial blood hypoxia. They are dopaminergic and secrete growth factors that support dopaminergic neurons, making the carotid body a potential source of patient-specific cells for Parkinson's disease therapy. Like adrenal chromaffin cells, which are also hypoxia-sensitive, glomus cells are neural crest-derived and require the transcription factors Ascl1 and Phox2b; otherwise, their development is little understood at the molecular level. Here, analysis in chicken and mouse reveals further striking molecular parallels, though also some differences, between glomus and adrenal chromaffin cell development...
May 25, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802803/effects-of-alcohol-and-psychostimulants-on-the-vasopressin-system-behavioral-implications
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Godino, Georgina M Renard
Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by a compulsion to seek drugs, a loss of control with respect to drug consumption, and negative emotional states, including increased anxiety and irritability during withdrawal. Central vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors are involved in controlling social behavior, anxiety and reward, all of which are altered by drugs of abuse. Hypothalamic AVP neurons influence the stress response by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The extrahypothalamic AVP system, however, is commonly associated with social recognition, motivational and anxiety responses...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796990/neuroprotective-effects-of-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-through-inhibiting-expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-from-bradykinin-challenged-astroglia
#10
Chian-Jiun Liou, Chuen-Mao Yang, Tsong-Hai Lee, Pei-Shan Liu, Hsi-Lung Hsieh
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), one of the most important neuroactive steroids, is produced in the adrenals and the brain. DHEAS is believed to play a critical role in modulating different forms of cellular control, including processes associated with human neural systems. Its production rate and level in serum, adrenals, and brain gradually decrease with advancing age. The decline of DHEAS level was associated with age-related neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, most probably because the steroids protect the central nervous system (CNS) neurons against neurotoxic challenges...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790920/elucidating-the-role-of-the-maternal-embryonic-leucine-zipper-kinase-melk-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#11
Katja Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Yu Zhang, Adwitiya Kar, Raud Razzaghi, Mei Xu, Katherine Gowan, Christopher D Raeburn, Maria Albuja-Cruz, Kenneth L Jones, Hilary Somerset, Lauren Fishbein, Stephen Leong, Margaret E Wierman
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer with a five-year survival less than 35%. Mortality remains high due to lack of targeted therapies. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase (MELK) as 4.1-fold overexpressed in ACC compared to normal adrenal samples. High MELK expression in human tumors correlated with shorter survival and with increased expression of genes involved in cell division and growth. We investigated the functional effects of MELK inhibition using newly developed ACC cell lines with variable MELK expression, CU-ACC1 and CU-ACC2, compared with H295R cells...
May 21, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790126/endocrinopathy-induced-euvolemic-hyponatremia
#12
Talia Diker-Cohen, Benaya Rozen-Zvi, Dana Yelin, Amit Akirov, Eyal Robenshtok, Anat Gafter-Gvili, Daniel Shepshelovich
Euvolemic hyponatremia results from either the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), hypothyroidism, or adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, the criteria for diagnosis of SIADH entail the exclusion of hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism. We aim to assess the yield of euvolemic hyponatremia workup focusing on underlying endocrinopathies in a real-world setting. A single-center retrospective study includes all patients diagnosed with euvolemic hyponatremia in a tertiary hospital between 1...
May 22, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783145/electrochemical-biosensor-system-using-a-cmos-microelectrode-array-provides-high-spatially-and-temporally-resolved-images
#13
William Tedjo, Jasmine E Nejad, Rachel Feeny, Lang Yang, Charles S Henry, Stuart Tobet, Tom Chen
The ability to view biological events in real time has contributed significantly to research in the life sciences. While video capture of real time changes in anatomical relationships is important, it is equally important to visualize real time changes in the chemical communications that drive cell behaviors. This paper describes an electrochemical imaging system capable of capturing changes in chemical gradients in live tissue slices. The system consists of a CMOS microchip with 8192 configurable Pt surface electrodes, on-chip potentiostat, on-chip control logic, and a microfluidic device designed to interface with the CMOS chip to support ex vivo tissue experimentation...
April 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773951/the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-major-depressive-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Sang Won Jeon, Yong-Ku Kim
Although depression has generally been explained with monoamine theory, it is far more multifactorial, and therapies that address the disease's pathway have not been developed. In this context, an understanding of neuroinflammation and neurovascular dysfunction would enable a more comprehensive approach to depression. Inflammation is in a sense a type of allostatic load involving the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing glucocorticoid resistance, and affecting serotonin synthesis and metabolism, neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771299/at-the-crossroads-of-fate-somatic-cell-lineage-specification-in-the-fetal-gonad
#15
Emmi Rotgers, Anne Jørgensen, Humphrey Hung-Chang Yao
The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal primordium. After separation of the adrenal and gonadal primordia, the gonadal somatic cells initiate sex-specific differentiation during gonadal sex determination with the specification of the supporting cell lineages: Sertoli cells in the testis vs...
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765355/tuberculosis-the-disrupted-immune-endocrine-response-and-the-potential-thymic-repercussion-as-a-contributing-factor-to-disease-physiopathology
#16
REVIEW
Luciano D'Attilio, Natalia Santucci, Bettina Bongiovanni, María L Bay, Oscar Bottasso
Upon the pathogen encounter, the host seeks to ensure an adequate inflammatory reaction to combat infection but at the same time tries to prevent collateral damage, through several regulatory mechanisms, like an endocrine response involving the production of adrenal steroid hormones. Our studies show that active tuberculosis (TB) patients present an immune-endocrine imbalance characterized by an impaired cellular immunity together with increased plasma levels of cortisol, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and decreased amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763645/agmatine-potentiates-neuroprotective-effects-of-subthreshold-concentrations-of-ketamine-via-mtor-s6-kinase-signaling-pathway
#17
Mauren K Tavares, Suellen Dos Reis, Nicolle Platt, Isabella A Heinrich, Ingrid A V Wolin, Rodrigo B Leal, Manuella P Kaster, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Andiara E Freitas
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most robust neurobiological findings in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) over the last 40 years. The persistent increase in glucocorticoids levels induces morphological and anatomical changes in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. Ketamine represents a major advance for the treatment of MDD, however the psychotomimetic effects of this compound limit its widespread use. Agmatine is a neuromodulator that has been shown to be a putative novel and well-tolerated antidepressant/augmenter drug...
May 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762691/diagnostic-accuracy-of-post-acth-challenge-salivary-cortisol-concentrations-for-identifying-horses-with-equine-glandular-gastric-disease
#18
Fay J Sauer, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Alessandra Ramseyer, Beatriz Vidondo, Milena D Scheidegger, Vinzenz Gerber
The aims of this study were to better characterize the adrenal response to i.v. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in horses with and without gastric disease and to validate and simplify the ACTH stimulation test by determining the diagnostic accuracy of six consecutive sampling time points after ACTH administration for equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) and equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD). Twenty-six endurance and eventing horses without clinical disease [Sport Horse Population (SHP)] and an independent population of 62 horses [General Population (GP)] were grouped by gastroscopic findings (no/mild vs...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749102/neural-mechanisms-of-the-link-between-giving-social-support-and-health
#19
REVIEW
Tristen K Inagaki
Giving social support to others has emerged as an additional route by which social ties influence health. Thus, giving support to others not only influences the health of the individual receiving support, but also the health of the individual giving the support. However, the neural mechanisms by which giving support leads to health are only beginning to be explored. In hopes of consolidating and guiding future research on giving support and health, the current review considers why, how, and when giving support is health promoting...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738496/endogenous-purification-of-nr4a2-nurr1-identified-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-as-a-prime-coregulator-in-human-adrenocortical-h295r-cells
#20
Erika Noro, Atsushi Yokoyama, Makoto Kobayashi, Hiroki Shimada, Susumu Suzuki, Mari Hosokawa, Tomohiro Takehara, Rehana Parvin, Hiroki Shima, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Akira Sugawara
Aldosterone is synthesized in zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex in response to angiotensin II. This stimulation transcriptionally induces expression of a series of steroidogenic genes such as HSD3B and CYP11B2 via NR4A (nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A) nuclear receptors and ATF (activating transcription factor) family transcription factors. Nurr1 belongs to the NR4A family and is regarded as an orphan nuclear receptor. The physiological significance of Nurr1 in aldosterone production in adrenal cortex has been well studied...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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