Read by QxMD icon Read

Adrenal support

Jack H Crawford, Matthew S Hull, Santiago Borasino, Brad L Steenwyk, Kristal M Hock, Kevin Wall, Jeffrey A Alten
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI). Emerging evidence supports association of AI with morbidity after cardiac surgery. AIMS: The aim of this study was to define AI incidence in neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery with CPB and its association with intraoperative post-CPB outcomes. METHODS: Forty subjects enrolled in a prior randomized control trial who received preoperative methylprednisolone as part of our institutional neonatal bypass protocol were included...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Kathleen E Morrison, C Neill Epperson, Mary D Sammel, Grace Ewing, Jessica S Podcasy, Liisa Hantsoo, Deborah R Kim, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are one of the greatest predictors of affective disorders for women. Periods of dynamic hormonal flux, including pregnancy, exacerbate the risk for affective disturbance and promote hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, a key feature of affective disorders. Little is understood as to how stress experienced in late childhood, defined as preadolescence, alters the programming unique to this period of brain maturation and its interaction with the hormonal changes of pregnancy and postpartum...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
A Hosseini, H R Sadeghnia, A Rajabian
Oxidative stress and apoptosis contribute to neuronal degeneration in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is considered responsible for the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is thought to be involved in glutamate-induced apoptosis process. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of Citrus aurantium in the glutamate-induced rat's adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells) were investigated...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Gian Paolo Rossi
Primary aldosteronism (PA) involves more than 11% of patients referred to specialized hypertension centers and, therefore, is much more common than commonly held. Moreover, it causes a damage to the heart, blood vessels and kidneys, which translates into a high rate of cardiovascular events, in excess to the degree of blood pressure raise. Along with the notion that a timely diagnosis entails a fundamental step for the choice of an appropriate therapy, which can correct the arterial hypertension and the hypokalemia, this justifies efforts to search for PA in the majority of the patients with hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Masahiro Kinoshita, Sachiko Iwata, Hisayoshi Okamura, Mamoru Saikusa, Naoko Hara, Chihoko Urata, Yuko Araki, Osuke Iwata
Studies suggested the presence of foetal adrenal rhythms of cortisol, which are entrained in antiphase to maternal rhythms. In contrast, neonates are thought to have no adrenal rhythm until 2-3 months after birth. To test the hypothesis that a foetal-type adrenal rhythm is preserved after birth, saliva samples were collected from 65 preterm/term infants during hospital stay (30-40 weeks corrected age) at 10:00 and 19:00 h. Cortisol levels were assessed for their diurnal difference and dependence on antenatal/postnatal clinical variables...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sophie E Walker, Aurélie Papilloud, Damien Huzard, Carmen Sandi
Aggressive behavior is not uniform, including proactive and reactive forms of aggression. Aberrant functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is frequently associated with abnormal aggression. Here, we review the rodent literature in order to assess whether developmental abnormalities in the HPA axis can be causally linked with the emergence of abnormal aggression. We examine studies that involve genetic models and life challenges (e.g., early life stress, drug exposure) that course with developmental alterations in the HPA axis...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Joshua J Joseph, Sherita H Golden
Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Dea Seidenfaden, Ulla Knorr, Mia Greisen Soendergaard, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Martin Balslev Jorgensen, Anders Jorgensen
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity is a well-established risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. In particular, there is evidence that childhood adversity increases the occurrence of positive symptoms, possibly through glucocorticoid influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission. AIMS: To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress...
September 24, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Nienke A V Derks, Harm J Krugers, Casper C Hoogenraad, Marian Joëls, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for developing psychopathology in adulthood. When these effects occur is largely unknown. We here studied at which time during development ELS affects hippocampal synaptic plasticity, from early life to adulthood, in a rodent ELS model. Moreover, we investigated whether the sensitivity of synaptic plasticity to the stress-hormone corticosterone is altered by exposure to ELS. MATERIALS & METHODS: Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to maternal deprivation (MD) for 24h on postnatal day (P)3 or left undisturbed with their mother (control)...
2016: PloS One
Z Grubic, M Maskalan, K Stingl Jankovic, S Zvecic, K Dumic Kubat, N Krnic, R Zunec, J Ille, V Kusec, M Dumic
The CYP21A2 mutations that are in linkage disequilibrium with particular HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles/haplotypes, cause deficiency of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme (21-OHD) and account for the majority of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cases. The aim of this study was to investigate those associations with the p.V282L mutation linked to the non-classical (NC) form of CAH among Croatians. The study included parents of patients with the NC form of CAH, positive for the p.V282L mutation (N = 55) and cadaveric donor samples (N = 231)...
November 2016: HLA
L Depypere, T Lerut, J Moons, W Coosemans, G Decker, H Van Veer, P De Leyn, P Nafteux
Recurrent disease after esophagectomy bears an infaust prognosis, especially when multiple recurrences are present. But little is known about survival in patients with limited recurrence (solitary locoregional recurrence or solid organ metastasis). Herein, we report our experience with these subgroups. We analyzed 1754 consecutive patients surgically treated with curative resection for esophageal cancer and cancer of the gastroesophageal junction between 1990 and 2012. Seven subgroups were defined according to the recurrence type (locoregional vs...
October 5, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Erik Monasterio, Omer Mei-Dan, Anthony C Hackney, Amy R Lane, Igor Zwir, Sandor Rozsa, C Robert Cloninger
This is the first report of the psychobiology of stress in BASE jumpers, one of the most dangerous forms of extreme sport. We tested the hypotheses that indicators of emotional style (temperament) predict salivary cortisol reactivity, whereas indicators of intentional goal-setting (persistence and character) predict salivary alpha-amylase reactivity during BASE jumping. Ninety-eight subjects completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) the day before the jump, and 77 also gave salivary samples at baseline, pre-jump on the bridge over the New River Gorge, and post-jump upon landing...
September 29, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Audrey R Tyrka, Kathryn K Ridout, Stephanie H Parade
Early childhood experiences have lasting effects on development, including the risk for psychiatric disorders. Research examining the biologic underpinnings of these associations has revealed the impact of childhood maltreatment on the physiologic stress response and activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. A growing body of literature supports the hypothesis that environmental exposures mediate their biological effects via epigenetic mechanisms. Methylation, which is thought to be the most stable form of epigenetic change, is a likely mechanism by which early life exposures have lasting effects...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Michael Deuschle, Ulrike Gotthardt, Ulrich Schweiger, Michael Dettling, Florian Holsboer, Isabella Heuser
Animal studies suggest that repeated episodes of elevated glucocorticoids lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system at a supra-pituitary level, and to impaired mnemonic function. We compared cognitive tests and both, feedback integrity and stress responsivity of the HPA system, between 11 elderly, male marathon runners - a model of repeated HPA system activation - and 10 sedentary controls. Marathon runners had significantly increased baseline, stress and post-stress ACTH, but not cortisol concentrations...
September 28, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Amy A Lubik, Mannan Nouri, Sarah Truong, Mazyar Ghaffari, Hans H Adomat, Eva Corey, Michael E Cox, Na Li, Emma S Guns, Parvin Yenki, Steven Pham, Ralph Buttyan
Despite the substantial benefit of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic prostate cancer, patients often progress to castration-resistant disease (CRPC) that is more difficult to treat. CRPC is associated with renewed androgen receptor activity in tumor cells and restoration of tumor androgen levels through acquired intratumoral steroidogenesis (AIS). Although prostate cancer (PCa) cells have been shown to have steroidogenic capability in vitro, we previously found that benign prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) can also synthesize testosterone (T) from an adrenal precursor, DHEA, when stimulated with a hedgehog (Hh) pathway agonist, SAG...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Manon Fagniart, Christine Reynaert, Denis Jacques, Bries Lepièce, Nicolas Zdanowicz
BACKGROUND: Exposure to stress modifies the humoral and cellular immunity by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. On one hand, this psycho-immunological theory allows the analyse of links between immunity and depression. On the other hand, the correlation between the immune response, the clinical expression in major depressive disorder (MDD) and the gender was proven. Our analysis evaluates the influence of the gender and the level of depression severity on the cellular immune response associated with it...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Julien Vouillarmet, Fabio Fernandes-Rosa, Julia Graeppi-Dulac, Pierre Lantelme, Myriam Decaussin-Petrucci, Charles Thivolet, Jean-Louis Peix, Sheerazed Boulkroun, Eric Clauser, Maria-Christina Zennaro
CONTEXT: Recurrent somatic mutations in KCNJ5, CACNA1D, ATP1A1 and ATP2B3 have been identified in aldosterone producing adenomas (APA). The question as to whether they are responsible for both nodulation and aldosterone production is not solved. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the case of a young patient who was diagnosed with severe arterial hypertension due to primary aldosteronism at age 26, followed by hemorrhagic stroke four years later. Abdominal computed tomography showed bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Dawn Elizabeth Livingstone, Emma M Di Rollo, Tracy Cs Mak, Karen Sooy, Brian R Walker, Ruth Andrew
5α-reductases irreversibly catalyse A-ring reduction of pregnene steroids, including glucocorticoids and androgens. Genetic disruption of 5α-reductase 1 in male mice impairs glucocorticoid clearance and predisposes to glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis upon metabolic challenge. However it is unclear whether this is driven by changes in androgen and/or glucocorticoid action. Female mice with transgenic disruption of 5α-reductase 1 (5αR1-KO) were studied, representing a 'low androgen' state. Glucocorticoid clearance and stress responses were studied in mice aged 6m...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Rebecca M Reynolds
Increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids is a key mechanism thought to underlie the early life programming of later life disease. There is substantial experimental data in animal models in support of this hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests glucocorticoid programming may also occur in humans with some studies now linking maternal endogenous cortisol levels with size at birth and gestation at delivery. The dramatic changes to the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy mean that large-scale studies in humans are challenging to conduct...
September 16, 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
Gian Paolo Rossi
Primary aldosteronism (PA) involves more than 11% of patients referred to specialized hypertension centers and, therefore, is much more common than commonly held. Moreover, it causes a damage to the heart, blood vessels and kidneys, which translates into a high rate of cardiovascular events, in excess to the degree of blood pressure raise. Along with the notion that a timely diagnosis entails a fundamental step for the choice of an appropriate therapy, which can correct the arterial hypertension and the hypokalemia, this justifies efforts to search for PA in the majority of the patients with hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"