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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035709/heart-rate-variability-and-salivary-cortisol-in-very-preterm-children-during-school-age
#1
Natalie Urfer-Maurer, Sebastian Ludyga, Tobias Stalder, Serge Brand, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Markus Gerber, Alexander Grob, Peter Weber, Sakari Lemola
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a major role in the human stress response and reflects physical and psychological adaptability to a changing environment. Long-term exposure to early life stressors may alter the function of the ANS. The present study examines differences in the ANS between children born very preterm and full-term as well as the association between the ANS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the other main branch of the human stress system. Fifty-four healthy children born very preterm (<32nd gestational week) and 67 full-term children aged 7-12 years provided data for the present study...
October 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033772/intraparenchymal-hemorrhage-due-to-brain-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Rafael Sartori Balbinot, Ana Laura Facco Muscope, Mateus Dal Castel, Silvana Sartori Balbinot, Raul Angelo Balbinot, Jonathan Soldera
Although extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are present in only 5-15% of cases, they are certainly factors associated with poor prognosis. The main sites include lung, lymph nodes, bones, and adrenal glands, in descending order. Metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely rare, and the incidences vary from 0.6 to 1.7%. We report a case of a 54-year-old man previously diagnosed with alcohol-induced cirrhosis of the liver and HCC. The patient was admitted presenting progressive left hemiparesis and headache which started 2 days earlier, with no history of cranioencephalic trauma...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031687/structure-function-relationships-for-the-selective-inhibition-of-human-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-by-a-novel-androgen-analog
#3
Jenny H Pham, Catherine M Will, Vance L Mack, Matthew Halbert, Edward Alexander Conner, Kevin M Bucholtz, James L Thomas
3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3β-HSD1) is selectively expressed in human placenta, mammary glands and breast tumors in women. Human 3β-HSD2 is selectively expressed in adrenal glands and ovaries. Based on AutoDock 3 and 4 results, we have exploited key differences in the amino acid sequences of 3β-HSD1 (Ser194, Arg195) and 3β-HSD2 (Gly194, Pro195) by designing a selective inhibitor of 3β-HSD1. 2,16-Dicyano-4,5-epoxy-androstane-3,17-dione (16-cyano-17-keto-trilostane or DiCN-AND) was synthesized in a 4-step procedure from androstenedione...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030109/social-information-changes-stress-hormone-receptor-expression-in-the-songbird-brain
#4
Jamie M Cornelius, Gillian Perreau, Valerie R Bishop, Jesse S Krause, Rachael Smith, Thomas P Hahn, Simone L Meddle
Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted...
October 10, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025828/diurnal-cortisol-and-mental-well-being-in-middle-and-older-age-evidence-from-four-cohort-studies
#5
Mai Stafford, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Cyrus Cooper, Catharine Gale, Michael P Gardner, Marie-Claude Geoffroy, Chris Power, Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper
OBJECTIVES: We conducted an individual participant meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that cortisol patterns indicative of dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning would be prospectively associated with poorer well-being at follow-up. SETTING: Four large UK-based cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: Those providing valid salivary or serum cortisol samples (n=7515 for morning cortisol; n=1612 for cortisol awakening response) at baseline (age 44-82) and well-being data on the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale at follow-up (0-8 years) were included...
October 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016169/the-microbiome-as-a-novel-paradigm-in-studying-stress-and-mental-health
#6
Richard T Liu
At the intersection between neuroscience, microbiology, and psychiatry, the enteric microbiome has potential to become a novel paradigm for studying the psychobiological underpinnings of mental illness. Several studies provide support for the view that the enteric microbiome influences behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Moreover, recent findings are suggestive of the possibility that dysregulation of the enteric microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) and associated bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium may be involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, particularly depression...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986775/timeline-metastatic-progression-in-the-wake-of-the-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-seed-and-soil%C3%A2-%C3%A2-theory
#7
Aymeric Amelot, Louis-Marie Terrier, Jean-Jacques Mazeron, Charles-Ambroise Valery, Philippe Cornu, Alexandre Carpentier, Marc Leveque
Little is known about the natural history of cancer and its evolution to metastasis. Paget was the first to postulate the important role played by microenvironment in metastasis progression. Since, the concept of his "seed and soil" theory has been supported and confirmed. Understanding the chronology and natural course that underlie metastasis is mandatory to deepen this concept and to progress in the development of novel therapeutic strategies. A total of 413 patients who underwent treatment for brain metastasis (2013-2016) were included...
October 6, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985281/striatin-gene-polymorphic-variants-are-associated-with-salt-sensitive-blood-pressure-in-normotensives-and-hypertensives
#8
Tina Gupta, Molly Connors, Jia Wei Tan, Worapaka Manosroi, Noha Ahmed, Pei Yee Ting, Amanda E Garza, Jose R Romero, Paul N Hopkins, Jonathan S Williams, Gordon H Williams
BACKGROUND: Understanding the interactions between genetics, sodium (Na+) intake, and blood pressure (BP) will help overcome the lack of individual specificity in our current treatment of hypertension. This study had 3 goals: expand on the relationship between striatin gene (STRN) status and salt-sensitivity of BP (SSBP); evaluate the status of Na+ and volume regulating systems by striatin risk allele status; evaluate potential SSBP mechanisms. METHODS: We assessed the relationship between STRN status in humans (HyperPATH cohort) and SSBP and on volume regulated systems in humans and a striatin knockout mouse (STRN+/-)...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984197/circular-rna-expression-profiles-and-features-in-human-tissues-a-study-using-rna-seq-data
#9
Tianyi Xu, Jing Wu, Ping Han, Zhongming Zhao, Xiaofeng Song
BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNA) is one type of noncoding RNA that forms a covalently closed continuous loop. Similar to long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), circRNA can act as microRNA (miRNA) 'sponges' to regulate gene expression, and its abnormal expression is related to diseases such as atherosclerosis, nervous system disorders and cancer. So far, there have been no systematic studies on circRNA abundance and expression profiles in human adult and fetal tissues. RESULTS: We explored circRNA expression profiles using RNA-seq data for six adult and fetal normal tissues (colon, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and stomach) and four gland normal tissues (adrenal gland, mammary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland)...
October 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953805/linking-the-psychosocial-aetiology-and-neurobiology-of-unipolar-depression
#10
Lucia Coulter, Mina Ibrahimi, Ravi Patel, Mark Agius
Psychosocial factors are an important contributor to the aetiology of unipolar depression. This paper reviews the evidence for the contribution of different psychosocial factors, and provides an overview of the proposed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between psychosocial factors and depression. Implicated psychosocial factors fall into three interrelated groups: life events, socioeconomic status, and social support. The life events most strongly linked with depression are bereavement, disability or medical illness, and childhood maltreatment...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945045/-real-world-analysis-to-explore-clinical-features-of-shenxiong-glucose-injection-combined-with-other-medications
#11
Gui-Qian Wang, Yan-Ming Xie, Huan Liu, Yin Zhang, Ping-Ping Jia, Yan Zhuang
To explore the real world clinical medication and combination characteristics of Shenxiong glucose injection. The basic information of patients with Shenxiong glucose injection, traditional Chinese and western medicine diagnosis information, doctor advice information and laboratory test information from the hospital information system(HIS) of 19 tertiary hospitals in China. Apriori algorithm was adopted to establish the models, and Clementine 12.0 was used for correlation analysis to analyze the real world clinical medication and combination characteristics of Shenxiong glucose injection...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944106/emotion-regulation-regulates-more-than-emotion-associations-of-momentary-emotion-regulation-with-diurnal-cortisol-in-current-and-past-depression-and-anxiety
#12
Kirsten Gilbert, Susan Mineka, Richard E Zinbarg, Michelle G Craske, Emma K Adam
Maladaptive emotion regulation and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning are characteristic of depression and anxiety. However, little research examines whether and how emotion regulation affects HPA axis functioning. We utilized an experience sampling methodology to examine associations between three emotion regulation strategies (problem solving, disengagement, and emotional expression/support seeking) and diurnal cortisol rhythms and reactivity in everyday life. Participants were young adults with current, past, or no history of internalizing disorders (depression or anxiety; N = 182)...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943940/leptomeningeal-metastasis-of-pulmonary-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Guozi Yang, Zhenyu Pan, Ning Ma, Limei Qu, Tingting Yuan, Xiaochuan Pang, Xu Yang, Lihua Dong, Shixin Liu
Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare and malignant form of lung cancer with a poor prognosis for patients. The common sites of metastases are the liver, adrenal glands, bone and brain. LCNEC rarely metastasizes to the small intestine, ovaries, tonsils, mandible, vulva or spine. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of leptomeningeal metastasis of LCNEC to date. The present case report describes an unusual case of leptomeningeal metastasis from pulmonary LCNEC alongside a review of the literature...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939371/prenatal-androgen-exposure-and-children-s-aggressive-behavior-and-activity-level
#14
Debra Spencer, Vickie Pasterski, Sharon Neufeld, Vivette Glover, Thomas G O'Connor, Peter C Hindmarsh, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Melissa Hines
Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys)...
September 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937015/chronic-noise-exposure-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#15
Anne T M Konkle, Stephen E Keith, James P McNamee, David Michaud
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between the relative risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and long-term exposure to elevated levels of transportation noise. The contention is that this association is largely owing to an increase in stress-related biomarkers that are thought to be associated with CVD. Animal models have demonstrated that acute noise exposure is capable of triggering a stress response; however, similar studies using chronic noise models are less common...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927573/sex-differences-in-early-life-programming-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-humans
#16
REVIEW
Robert M Gifford, Rebecca M Reynolds
Increasing evidence supports fetal glucocorticoid exposure with associated altered offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity as a key mechanism linking early life events with later life disease. Alterations in HPA axis activity are linked to a range of cardiometabolic and psychiatric diseases. As many of these diseases manifest sex differences in presentation we review the evidence for programmed sex-differences in the HPA axis. Available literature suggests vulnerability of the female HPA axis to prenatal stressors with female offspring demonstrating increased HPA axis reactivity...
September 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919297/androgens-and-endometrium-new-insights-and-new-targets
#17
REVIEW
Ioannis Simitsidellis, Philippa T K Saunders, Douglas A Gibson
Androgens are synthesised in both the ovary and adrenals in women and play an important role in the regulation of female fertility, as well as in the aetiology of disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis and endometrial cancer. The endometrium is an androgen target tissue and the impact of AR-mediated effects has been studied using human endometrial tissue samples and rodent models. In this review we highlight recent evidence that endometrial androgen biosynthesis and intracrine action is important in preparation of a tissue microenvironment that can support implantation and establishment of pregnancy...
September 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918760/effects-of-a-school-readiness-intervention-on-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-functioning-and-school-adjustment-for-children-in-foster-care
#18
Alice M Graham, Katherine C Pears, Hyoun K Kim, Jacqueline Bruce, Philip A Fisher
Maltreated children in foster care are at high risk for dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and educational difficulties. The present study examined the effects of a short-term school readiness intervention on HPA axis functioning in response to the start of kindergarten, a critical transition marking entry to formal schooling, and whether altered HPA axis functioning influenced children's school adjustment. Compared to a foster care comparison group, children in the intervention group showed a steeper diurnal cortisol slope on the first day of school, a pattern previously observed among nonmaltreated children...
September 18, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918107/depression-evening-salivary-cortisol-and-inflammation-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-psychoneuroendocrinological-structural-regression-model
#19
Sara F Milrad, Daniel L Hall, Devika R Jutagir, Emily G Lattie, Sara J Czaja, Dolores M Perdomo, Mary Ann Fletcher, Nancy Klimas, Michael H Antoni
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a poorly understood illness that is characterized by diverse somatic symptoms, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and heightened inflammatory indicators. These symptoms are often exacerbated and accompanied by psychological distress states and depression. Since depression is known to be associated with HPA axis dysfunction and greater inflammation, a psychoneuroendocrinological (PNE) model of inflammation was examined in persons diagnosed with CFS in order to uncover underlying biopsychosocial mechanisms in this poorly understood chronic illness...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911179/deciphering-the-function-of-the-blunt-circadian-rhythm-of-melatonin-in-the-newborn-lamb-impact-on-adrenal-and-heart
#20
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
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