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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#1
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638591/replicable-in-vivo-physiological-and-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-shank3b-null-mutant-mouse-model-of-autism
#2
Sameer C Dhamne, Jill L Silverman, Chloe E Super, Stephen H T Lammers, Mustafa Q Hameed, Meera E Modi, Nycole A Copping, Michael C Pride, Daniel G Smith, Alexander Rotenberg, Jacqueline N Crawley, Mustafa Sahin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition characterized by social, repetitive, and sensory behavioral abnormalities. No treatments are approved for the core diagnostic symptoms of ASD. To enable the earliest stages of therapeutic discovery and development for ASD, robust and reproducible behavioral phenotypes and biological markers are essential to establish in preclinical animal models. The goal of this study was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes that are replicable between independent cohorts in a mouse model of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637556/pretrauma-functional-independence-measure-score-predicts-survival-in-geriatric-trauma
#3
Brian Fletcher, Eric Bradburn, Christopher Baker, Bryan Collier, Mark Hamill, Katherine Shaver
The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) is used by rehabilitation professionals to access disability. The FIM score combines both motor and cognitive parameters to assess a patient's level of required assistance in performing activities of daily living (ADL). The geriatric trauma patient is becoming an increasingly important cohort for trauma services. FIM has been shown to predict discharge outcomes and those at high risk for falls. We hypothesized pretrauma FIM scores may predict survival in the geriatric trauma population...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636872/long-term-postnatal-steroid-effect-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#4
YoungAh Youn, Cheong-Jun Moon, In Kyung Sung
We examined whether hydrocortisone exposure ≤ 1week in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) was associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes at corrected 18 months. Further, the clinical factors associated with worse long term outcome were also evaluated. Of a total of 191 VLBWI, the clinical data for these infants relating were retrospectively collected for analysis. Among the 191 VLBWI, 115 (60.2%) infants were exposed to early postnatal hydrocortisone ≤ 1 week of life in our NICU of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea between December 2012 and December 2014...
June 18, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631970/computerized-neuropsychological-test-performance-of-youth-football-players-at-different-positions-a-comparison-of-high-and-low-contact-players
#5
William T Tsushima, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Andrea M Siu, Tama Fukuyama, Nathan M Murata
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of head impact frequency on the neuropsychological test results of football players who participate in different positions on the team. Based on the biomechanical measures of head impact frequency reported in high school football, a High Contact group (n = 480) consisting of offensive and defensive linemen was compared with a Low Contact group (n = 640) comprised of receivers and defensive backs. The results revealed that the High Contact group obtained poorer performances on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) on three Composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Impulse Control) and the Total Symptom score compared to the Low Contact group...
February 28, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629944/what-are-the-risk-factors-for-dislocation-in-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-multicenter-case-control-study-of-128-unstable-and-438-stable-hips
#6
M H Fessy, S Putman, A Viste, R Isida, N Ramdane, A Ferreira, A Leglise, B Rubens-Duval, N Bonin, F Bonnomet, A Combes, S Boisgard, D Mainard, S Leclercq, H Migaud
INTRODUCTION: Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a leading reason for surgical revision. The risk factors for dislocation are controversial, particularly those related to the patient and to the surgical procedure itself. The differences in opinion on the impact of these factors stem from the fact they are often evaluated using retrospective studies or in limited patient populations. This led us to carry out a prospective case-control study on a large population to determine: 1) the risk factors for dislocation after THA, 2) the features of these dislocations, and 3) the contribution of patient-related factors and surgery-related factors...
June 16, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629879/prediction-of-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-a-clinical-genetic-score-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-nine-cohorts
#7
Ganqiang Liu, Joseph J Locascio, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Brendon Boot, Zhixiang Liao, Kara Page, Daly Franco, Kyle Burke, Iris E Jansen, Ana Trisini-Lipsanopoulos, Sophie Winder-Rhodes, Caroline M Tanner, Anthony E Lang, Shirley Eberly, Alexis Elbaz, Alexis Brice, Graziella Mangone, Bernard Ravina, Ira Shoulson, Florence Cormier-Dequaire, Peter Heutink, Jacobus J van Hilten, Roger A Barker, Caroline H Williams-Gray, Johan Marinus, Clemens R Scherzer
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is a debilitating manifestation of disease progression in Parkinson's disease. We aimed to develop a clinical-genetic score to predict global cognitive impairment in patients with the disease. METHODS: In this longitudinal analysis, we built a prediction algorithm for global cognitive impairment (defined as Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] ≤25) using data from nine cohorts of patients with Parkinson's disease from North America and Europe assessed between 1986 and 2016...
June 16, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624710/role-of-impaired-vision-during-dual-task-walking-in-young-and-older-adults
#8
Vennila Krishnan, Young-Hee Cho, Olfat Mohamed
While cognitive-motor interference in dual-task activities is well established, it is still unknown how such interference is influenced by concurrent visual challenges. Nineteen community-dwelling healthy, cognitively intact, older adults (Mean±SD=71.45±1.25years, 6 males) and nineteen young adults (Mean±SD=22.25±0.68years, 4 males) performed a cognitive-single-task (serial subtraction by 3), a walking-single-task and a cognitive-walking-dual-task under normal, blurred and peripheral-vision-loss conditions (artificially imposed using goggles)...
June 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624581/polygenic-risk-for-depression-and-the-neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Dilara Yüksel, Bruno Dietsche, Andreas J Forstner, Stephanie H Witt, Robert Maier, Marcella Rietschel, Carsten Konrad, Markus M Nöthen, Udo Dannlowski, Bernhard T Baune, Tilo Kircher, Axel Krug
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show impairments of cognitive functioning such as working memory (WM), and furthermore alterations during WM-fMRI tasks especially in frontal and parietal brain regions. The calculation of a polygenic risk score (PRS) can be used to describe the genetic influence on MDD, hence imaging genetic studies aspire to combine both genetics and neuroimaging data to identify the influence of genetic factors on brain functioning. We aimed to detect the effect of MDD-PRS on brain activation during a WM task measured with fMRI and expect healthy individuals with a higher PRS to be more resembling to MDD patients...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621495/the-spectrum-of-pre-dementia-stages-cognitive-profile-of-motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-and-relationship-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
H Sekhon, G Allali, C P Launay, J Chabot, O Beauchet
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a pre-dementia syndrome. There is little information on the cognitive profile of individuals with MCR syndrome and its overlap with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) syndrome. This study aimed to examine and compare the cognitive performance of non-demented older community dwellers with and without MCR and MCI syndromes. METHODS: A total of 291 non-demented individuals were selected from the Gait and Alzheimer Interactions Tracking study, which is a cross-sectional study...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615372/preconception-micronutrient-supplementation-with-iron-and-folic-acid-compared-with-folic-acid-alone-affects-linear-growth-and-fine-motor-development-at-2-years-of-age-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-vietnam
#11
Phuong H Nguyen, Ines Gonzalez-Casanova, Melissa F Young, Truong Viet Truong, Hue Hoang, Huong Nguyen, Son Nguyen, Ann M DiGirolamo, Reynaldo Martorell, Usha Ramakrishnan
Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects.Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone.Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605056/mild-cognitive-impairment-as-a-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#12
Jeroen Hoogland, Judith A Boel, Rob M A de Bie, Ronald B Geskus, Ben A Schmand, John C Dalrymple-Alford, Connie Marras, Charles H Adler, Jennifer G Goldman, Alexander I Tröster, David J Burn, Irene Litvan, Gert J Geurtsen
BACKGROUND: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD were recently formulated. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this international study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the comprehensive (level II) version of these criteria by assessment of their contribution to the hazard of PD dementia. METHODS: Individual patient data were selected from four separate studies on cognition in PD that provided information on demographics, motor examination, depression, neuropsychological examination suitable for application of level II criteria, and longitudinal follow-up for conversion to dementia...
June 12, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588078/walking-as-a-window-to-risk-and-resiliency
#13
Karen P Alexander
Walking is fundamental to preserving health and independence. An individual's usual pace of walking is also recognized as an indicator of health, risk for dependency, and a predictor of long-term survival. Reducing gait speed by just 0.1m/sec provides important information about outcomes in older adults that goes beyond chronologic age, sex, comorbidity, and self-reported function combined. This small reduction in gate speed is significant because each individual sets the pace necessary to accommodate a host of integrated functions that allow him or her to walk...
June 6, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586709/the-motor-repertoire-in-3-to-5-month-old-infants-with-down-syndrome
#14
Dafne Herrero, Christa Einspieler, Carolina Y Panvequio Aizawa, Akmer Mutlu, Hong Yang, Alice Nogolová, Jasmin Pansy, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Peter B Marschik
BACKGROUND: Even though Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability, studies on early development are scarce. AIM: To describe movements and postures in 3- to 5-month-old infants with Down syndrome and assess the relation between pre- and perinatal risk factors and the eventual motor performance. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Exploratory study; 47 infants with Down syndrome (26 males, 27 infants born preterm, 22 infants with congenital heart disease) were videoed at 10-19 weeks post-term (median=14 weeks)...
June 3, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582865/motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-association-with-incident-dementia-and-disability
#15
Takehiko Doi, Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Joe Verghese, Takao Suzuki
BACKGROUND: It is important to examine the etiology of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR) and its association with dementia and disability to obtain biological insights and to develop preventive strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of MCR with incidence of dementia and disability in a Japanese community-dwelling sample of older adults. METHODS: Participants were 4,235 older adults (50% women, mean age: 72 years)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578432/effects-of-childhood-and-adolescence-physical-activity-patterns-on-psychosis-risk-a-general-population-cohort-study
#16
Elina Sormunen, Maiju M Saarinen, Raimo K R Salokangas, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Jarmo Hietala
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality in somatic diseases. The risk factors of this excess mortality include, e.g., obesity, dietary factors, and physical inactivity, especially after the onset of psychosis, but there are limited early developmental data on these factors in individuals who later develop psychosis. A population-based cohort study "Cardiovascular Risk of Young Finns" started in 1980 with 3596 children and adolescents from six different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years)...
January 13, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576605/cognitive-impairment-is-associated-with-hoehn-and-yahr-stages-in-early-de-novo-parkinson-disease-patients
#17
Mattia Siciliano, Rosa De Micco, Luigi Trojano, Manuela De Stefano, Chiara Baiano, Carla Passaniti, Antonio De Mase, Antonio Russo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Alessandro Tessitore
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between motor impairment and cognitive deterioration has long been described in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the study was to compare cognitive performance of de novo PD patients in relation to the motor impairment severity according to Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages. METHODS: Forty de novo PD patients at HY stage I and 40 patients at HY stage II completed a standardized neuropsychological battery. A multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare cognitive performance between HY groups...
May 25, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569544/novel-reading-index-for-identifying-disordered-reading-skill-development-a-preliminary-study
#18
Brianne Mohl, Noa Ofen, Lara L Jones, Joseph E Casey, Jeffrey A Stanley
Children with ADHD are at high risk of developing a Reading Disability (RD), although the reasons remain unclear. ADHD-associated impairments, including processing speed, can complicate clinical evaluation for a co-occurring RD diagnosis. We propose a novel metric to (a) assess reading development and (b) provide an alternative method to classifying readers that may aid investigations for etiologies of RD in ADHD. Specifically, as both phonological decoding and word recognition skills are important precursors of reading fluency, we propose a new quantitative method comparing these skills after accounting for variations in perception, motor response, or processing speeds...
June 1, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562287/interventions-targeting-sensory-challenges-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Amy S Weitlauf, Nila Sathe, Melissa L McPheeters, Zachary E Warren
CONTEXT: Sensory challenges are common among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interventions targeting sensory challenges in ASD. DATA SOURCES: Databases, including Medline and PsycINFO. STUDY SELECTION: Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: One investigator extracted data with review by a second...
May 26, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560818/emotion-regulation-deficits-in-regular-marijuana-users
#20
Kaeli Zimmermann, Christina Walz, Raissa T Derckx, Keith M Kendrick, Bernd Weber, Bruce Dore, Kevin N Ochsner, René Hurlemann, Benjamin Becker
Effective regulation of negative affective states has been associated with mental health. Impaired regulation of negative affect represents a risk factor for dysfunctional coping mechanisms such as drug use and thus could contribute to the initiation and development of problematic substance use. This study investigated behavioral and neural indices of emotion regulation in regular marijuana users (n = 23) and demographically matched nonusing controls (n = 20) by means of an fMRI cognitive emotion regulation (reappraisal) paradigm...
May 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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