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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927762/urinary-incontinence-incident-parkinsonism-and-parkinson-s-disease-pathology-in-older-adults
#1
Noa M Buchman, Sue E Leurgans, Raj J Shah, Veronique VanderHorst, Robert S Wilson, Yaacov G Bachner, David Tanne, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with incident parkinsonism in older adults. METHODS: We used data from 2,617 older persons without dementia. Assessment included baseline self-report UI and annual structured exam which assessed parkinsonian signs, motor performances, cognitive function, and self-report disabilities. We used a series of Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of UI with parkinsonism and adverse health outcomes and a mixed-effect model to examine the association of UI with the annual rate of cognitive decline...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927041/investigational-agents-for-the-management-of-huntington-s-disease
#2
Thomas Müller
An inherited, chronic progressive, neurodegenerative disorder is Huntington's disease, characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. Predictive genetic testing allows earlier diagnosis and identification of gene carriers for Huntington's disease. These individuals are ideal candidates for testing of therapeutic interventions for disease modification. Areas covered: According to queries in Pubmed, Embase and clinical register databases, research and clinical studies emerge on symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies in Huntington's disease...
December 7, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922237/the-comparison-of-general-movements-assessment-and-neurological-examination-during-early-infancy
#3
Büşra Kepenek-Varol, Mine Çalışkan, Zeynep İnce, Burak Tatlı, Emine Eraslan, Asuman Çoban
This prospective single-blinded study was performed to evaluate general movements (GMs) in group of high-risk, low-birth-weight and preterm infants and to compare results with neurologic examination. All infants' neurologic examinations, Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM) and Bayley-III Scale were performed at the corrected age of 12 months. A total of 22 infants were included. Eight infants (group-1) (mean: 31.6±3.29 weeks, range: 25-36 weeks) had normal GMs in all recordings and were ultimately evaluated as "normal"; 12 (group-2) (mean: 31...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919792/the-role-of-posturography-in-assessing-the-process-of-rehabilitation-in-poststroke-patients-a-case-study
#4
Witold Rongies, Bartosz Słomka, Angelika Duczek, Włodzimierz Dolecki
Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and disability both in Poland and around the world. Each year, 250 out of 100,000 people in Europe are diagnosed with a disruption of cerebral perfusion in the form of stroke. In Poland, approximately 65,000-70,000 people are affected each year, with the incidence steadily increasing. Stroke survivors suffer from impaired cognitive and motor functions. Moreover, they exhibit severe gait pattern abnormalities, which together with balance disorders, constitute the main factors increasing the risk of falls in this patient group...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919701/evaluation-of-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-chronic-embryonic-exposure-with-inorganic-mercury-on-motor-and-anxiety-like-responses-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#5
Noraini Abu Bakar, Nurul Syafida Asma' Mohd Sata, Nurul Farhana Ramlan, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai
Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919251/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-sensory-awareness-training-and-additional-motor-practice-for-learning-scalpel-skills-in-podiatry-students
#6
Ryan S Causby, Michelle N McDonnell, Lloyd Reed, Susan L Hillier
BACKGROUND: The process of using a scalpel, like all other motor activities, is dependent upon the successful integration of afferent (sensory), cognitive and efferent (motor) processes. During learning of these skills, even if motor practice is carefully monitored there is still an inherent risk involved. It is also possible that this strategy could reinforce high levels of anxiety experienced by the student and affect student self-efficacy, causing detrimental effects on motor learning...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918480/cord-blood-dna-methylation-biomarkers-for-predicting-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Nicolette A Hodyl, Claire T Roberts, Tina Bianco-Miotto
Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy can significantly alter the development of the fetus resulting in impaired child neurodevelopment. Such exposures can lead to epigenetic alterations like DNA methylation, which may be a marker of poor cognitive, motor and behavioral outcomes in the infant. Here we review studies that have assessed DNA methylation in cord blood following maternal exposures that may impact neurodevelopment of the child. We also highlight some key studies to illustrate the potential for DNA methylation to successfully identify infants at risk for poor outcomes...
December 3, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911298/a-24-week-multi-modality-exercise-program-improves-executive-control-in%C3%A2-older-adults-with-a-self-reported-cognitive-complaint-evidence-from%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-antisaccade-task
#8
Matthew Heath, Erin Shellington, Sam Titheridge, Dawn P Gill, Robert J Petrella
Exercise programs involving aerobic and resistance training (i.e., multiple-modality) have shown promise in improving cognition and executive control in older adults at risk, or experiencing, cognitive decline. It is, however, unclear whether cognitive training within a multiple-modality program elicits an additive benefit to executive/cognitive processes. This is an important question to resolve in order to identify optimal training programs that delay, or ameliorate, executive deficits in persons at risk for further cognitive decline...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905362/-characteristics-of-parkinson-s-disease-course-in-the-heterozygous-carriage-of-mutations-in-the-glucocerebrosidase-a-gene
#9
O A Gan'kina, E E Vasenina, O S Levin, E Yu Fedotova, S N Illarioshkin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. Literature sources indicate the association of PD and mutations in the glucocerebrosidase A (GBA) gene. According to our study, the frequency of the two most common mutations in the GBA gene, N370S and L444P, is 1.85%. Mutation carriers have slower progression of motor symptoms, but are more likely to develop drug-induced motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. In carriers of GBA mutations, the severity of cognitive impairment corresponds to age-matched patients without mutations...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896574/cognitive-function-in-early-hiv-infection
#10
Aanchal Prakash, Jue Hou, Lei Liu, Yi Gao, Casey Kettering, Ann B Ragin
This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890688/weight-loss-is-associated-with-improvements-in-cognitive-function-among-overweight-and-obese-people-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Nicola Veronese, Silvia Facchini, Brendon Stubbs, Claudio Luchini, Marco Solmi, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi, Stefania Maggi, Theodore Cosco, Luigi Fontana
Whilst obesity is associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment, the influence of weight loss on cognitive function in obese/overweight people is equivocal. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal studies evaluating the influence of voluntary weight loss on cognitive function in obese/overweight individuals. Articles were acquired from a systematic search of major databases from inception till 01/2016. A random effect meta-analysis of weight loss interventions (diet, physical activity, bariatric surgery) on different cognitive domains (memory, attention, executive functions, language and motor speed) was conducted...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887597/technology-enhanced-multi-domain-at-home-continuum-of-care-program-with-respect-to-usual-care-for-people-with-cognitive-impairment-the-ability-telerehabilitation-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
O Realdon, F Rossetto, M Nalin, I Baroni, M Cabinio, R Fioravanti, F L Saibene, M Alberoni, F Mantovani, M Romano, R Nemni, F Baglio
BACKGROUND: According to the World Alzheimer Report (Prince, The Global Impact of Dementia: an Analysis of Prevalence, Incidence, Cost and Trends, 2015), 46.8 million people worldwide are nowadays living with dementia. And this number is estimated to approximate 131.5 million by 2050, with an increasing burden on society and families. The lack of medical treatments able to stop or slow down the course of the disease has moved the focus of interest toward the nonpharmacological approach and psychosocial therapies for people with/at risk of dementia, as in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) condition...
November 25, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876573/stem-cell-therapies-in-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Yuan Wang, Xunming Ji, Rehana K Leak, Fenghua Chen, Guodong Cao
Aging, a complex process associated with various structural, functional and metabolic changes in the brain, is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. These diseases share similar neuropathological changes, such as the formation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, loss of neurons and synapses, dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU), reduction of self-repair capacity, and motor and/or cognitive deficiencies. In addition to gray matter dysfunction, the plasticity and repair capacity of white matter also decrease with aging and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases...
November 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#14
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871051/aging-modifies-the-effect-of-gch1-rs11158026-on-dat-uptake-and-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-severity
#15
Joseph Webb, Auriel A Willette
Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms within Parkinson's disease (PD) can predict disease risk, but their influence on clinical, cognitive, and neurobiological indices remains unexplored. We investigated differences between functional polymorphisms at RS11158026 coding for guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GCH1), an essential enzyme for dopamine production in nigrostriatal cells. Among newly diagnosed, untreated PD subjects and age-matched controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, T allele carriers showed higher PD risk (odds ratio = 1...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866858/clinical-variables-and-biomarkers-in-prediction-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-s-disease-a-cohort-study
#16
Anette Schrag, Uzma Faisal Siddiqui, Zacharias Anastasiou, Daniel Weintraub, Jonathan M Schott
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is associated with an increased incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia. Predicting who is at risk of cognitive decline early in the disease course has implications for clinical prognosis and for stratification of participants in clinical trials. We assessed the use of clinical information and biomarkers as predictive factors for cognitive decline in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. METHODS: The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is a cohort study in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease...
November 17, 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865437/early-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-preterm-infants
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth E Rogers, Susan R Hintz
Infants born at extreme preterm gestation are at risk for both death and disability. Although rates of survival have improved for this population, and some evidence suggests a trend toward decreased neuromotor impairment over the past decades, a significant improvement in overall early neurodevelopmental outcome has not yet been realized. This review will examine the rates and types of neurodevelopmental impairment seen after extremely preterm birth, including neurosensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862270/familial-aggregation-of-parkinson-s-disease-may-affect-progression-of-motor-symptoms-and-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Johannes Jernqvist Gaare, Geir Olve Skeie, Charalampos Tzoulis, Jan Petter Larsen, Ole-Bjørn Tysnes
BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation has been described in PD of both early and late onset, but has not been studied in a true population-based sample. Moreover, little is known about its association with disease progression and endophenotypes. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this work were to determine familial aggregation of idiopathic PD in a population-based cohort and study the association with clinical endophenotypes and disease progression. METHODS: We examined family history data from the Norwegian ParkWest study, a well-characterized, population-based cohort of incident PD patients and age-matched healthy controls...
November 10, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855312/age-related-differences-in-fatal-intersection-crashes-in-the-united-states
#19
David A Lombardi, William J Horrey, Theodore K Courtney
OBJECTIVE: Given the aging U.S. population and resulting number of older drivers in the coming years, it is important to understand the factors leading to their involvement in vehicle crashes and develop counter-measures to reduce their frequency and severity. This is also useful for helping older adults "age in place" in terms of accessibility, mobility, quality of life and safety. Thus, the objective of this study was to provide up-to-date data on differences in age-related risks and rates for involvement in fatal intersection motor-vehicle crashes in the US...
November 14, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852007/apc-conditional-knock-out-mouse-is-a-model-of-infantile-spasms-with-elevated-neuronal-%C3%AE-catenin-levels-neonatal-spasms-and-chronic-seizures
#20
Antonella Pirone, Jon Alexander, Lauren A Lau, David Hampton, Andrew Zayachkivsky, Amy Yee, Audrey Yee, Michele H Jacob, Chris G Dulla
Infantile spasms (IS) are a catastrophic childhood epilepsy syndrome characterized by flexion-extension spasms during infancy that progress to chronic seizures and cognitive deficits in later life. The molecular causes of IS are poorly defined. Genetic screens of individuals with IS have identified multiple risk genes, several of which are predicted to alter β-catenin pathways. However, evidence linking malfunction of β-catenin pathways and IS is lacking. Here, we show that conditional deletion in mice of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC cKO), the major negative regulator of β-catenin, leads to excessive β-catenin levels and multiple salient features of human IS...
November 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
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