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motoric cognitive risk

Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Elisa Pelosin, Ambra Bisio, Thierry Pozzo, Giovanna Lagravinese, Oscar Crisafulli, Roberta Marchese, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
Postural reactions can be influenced by concomitant tasks or different contexts and are modulated by a higher order motor control. Recent studies investigated postural changes determined by motor contagion induced by action observation (chameleon effect) showing that observing a model in postural disequilibrium induces an increase in healthy subjects' body sway. Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with postural instability and impairments in cognitively controlled balance tasks. However, no studies investigated if viewing postural imbalance might influence postural stability in PD and if patients are able to inhibit a visual postural perturbation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Charlotte Zerna, Amy Y X Yu, Jayesh Modi, Shiel K Patel, Jonathan I Coulter, Eric E Smith, Shelagh B Coutts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesions (WML) are associated with cognitive decline, increased stroke risk, and disability in old age. We hypothesized that superimposed acute cerebrovascular occlusion on chronic preexisting injury (leukoaraiosis) leads to worse outcome after minor cerebrovascular event, both using quantitative (volumetric) and qualitative (Fazekas scale) assessment, as well as relative total brain volume. METHODS: WML volume assessment was performed in 425 patients with high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA; motor/speech deficits >5 minutes) or minor strokes from the CATCH study (CT and MRI in the Triage of TIA and Minor Cerebrovascular Events to Identify High Risk Patients)...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Anand Rughani, Jason M Schwalb, Christos Sidiropoulos, Julie Pilitsis, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Jennifer A Sweet, Sandeep Mittal, Alberto J Espay, Jorge Gonzalez Martinez, Aviva Abosch, Emad Eskandar, Robert Gross, Ron Alterman, Clement Hamani
QUESTION 1: Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? RECOMMENDATION: Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Josefine Starnberg, Mikael Norman, Björn Westrup, Magnus Domellöf, Staffan K Berglund
BACKGROUND: Being born with very low birth weight (<1500 g) is associated with poorer neurocognition later in life. The aim of this study was to explore neurodevelopmental functions in those born with marginally low birth weight (LBW; 2000-2500 g). METHODS: This was originally a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of early iron supplementation in 285 marginally LBW children. Herein, we explored the combined marginally LBW group and compared their results to 95 normal birth weight (NBW; 2501-4500 g) controls in an observational design...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Fan Lou, Ming Li, Xiaoguang Luo, Yan Ren
Background: The clock genes controlling biological rhythm play an important role in the pathophysiology of aging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between a variant of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene and circadian dysfunction of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Six hundred and forty-six cases of Parkinson's disease from consecutive outpatients and inpatients ward from our hospital were included in this study...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
Colleen Peyton, Michael D Schreiber, Michael E Msall
AIM: To determine the relationship between the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) at 3 months and cognitive, language, and motor outcomes on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) at 2 years of age in high-risk infants born preterm. METHOD: One hundred and six infants (47 females, 59 males) born at earlier than 31 weeks gestational age were prospectively tested with the TIMP at 10 to 15 weeks after term age and were assessed again with the Bayley-III at 2 years corrected age...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Fabian Blasberg, Lars Wojtecki, Saskia Elben, Philipp Jörg Slotty, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Stefan Jun Groiss
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually performed as awake surgery allowing sufficient intraoperative testing. Recently, outcomes after asleep surgery have been assumed comparable. However, direct comparisons between awake and asleep surgery are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference between awake and asleep surgery comparing motor and nonmotor outcome after subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS in a large single center PD population...
March 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Deokjong Lee, Jinsick Park, Kee Namkoong, In Young Kim, Young-Chul Jung
Background and aims Altered risk/reward decision-making is suggested to predispose individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) to pursue short-term pleasure, despite long-term negative consequences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play important roles in risk/reward decision-making. This study investigated gray matter differences in the ACC and OFC of young adults with and without IGD using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Methods We examined 45 young male adults with IGD and 35 age-matched male controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Stephanie S G Brown, Shinjini Basu, Heather C Whalley, Peter C Kind, Andrew C Stanfield
The FMR1 premutation confers a 40-60% risk for males of developing a neurodegenerative disease called the Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a late-onset disease that primarily involves progressive symptoms of tremor and ataxia, as well as cognitive decline that can develop into dementia in some patients. At present, it is not clear whether changes to brain function are detectable in motor regions prior to the onset of frank symptomatology. The present study therefore aimed to utilize an fMRI motor task for the first time in an asymptomatic premutation population...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kimi Estela Kobayashi-Cuya, Ryota Sakurai, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Susumu Ogawa, Toru Takebayashi, Yoshinori Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Deterioration of hand motor function is a possible risk factor of cognitive impairment in older adults. Despite a growing body of research, a lack of clarity exists regarding the relationships. This review offers a synthesis of existing observational studies evaluating the associations of handgrip strength and hand dexterity with cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect were systematically searched (search dates: 1990-2016), and relevant articles were cross-checked for related and relevant publications...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Tommaso Accinni, Luca Carlone, Marianna Frascarelli, Guido Maria Lattanzi, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), or DiGeorge syndrome (DG), is one of the most common genetic deletion syndromes. DG also carries a high risk for psychiatric disorders, with learning disabilities frequently being reported. Impairments in specific cognitive domains, such as executive functioning and attention, have also been described. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with DG using ERPs, and in particular the P300 and CNV components. We studied ten patients with DG and ten healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task and a CNV motor task...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Vicky L Ng, Lisa G Sorensen, Estella M Alonso, Emily M Fredericks, Wen Ye, Jeff Moore, Saul J Karpen, Benjamin L Shneider, Jean P Molleston, Jorge A Bezerra, Karen F Murray, Kathleen M Loomes, Philip Rosenthal, Robert H Squires, Kasper Wang, Ronen Arnon, Kathleen B Schwarz, Yumirle P Turmelle, Barbara H Haber, Averell H Sherker, John C Magee, Ronald J Sokol
OBJECTIVES: To assess neurodevelopmental outcomes among participants with biliary atresia with their native liver at ages 12 months (group 1) and 24 months (group 2), and to evaluate variables predictive of neurodevelopmental impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Participants enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study underwent neurodevelopmental testing with either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, or Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Stephanie L Merhar, Jennifer M McAllister, Kathryn E Wedig-Stevie, Amy C Klein, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Brenda B Poindexter
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about developmental outcomes in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). We hypothesized that children treated for NAS would score lower than the normative sample on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 87 infants treated for NAS and evaluated at 2 years of age. RESULTS: Children treated for NAS scored significantly lower than the norm (mean 100) on all 3 subscales (cognitive mean 96...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Ida M Ki Moore, Kari M Koerner, Patricia M Gundy, David W Montgomery, Kathleen C Insel, Lynnette L Harris, Olga A Taylor, Marilyn J Hockenberry
Aggressive central nervous system (CNS)-directed treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents, prevents metastasis of leukemia cells into the brain. Up to 60% of survivors experience cognitive problems, but knowledge about risk factors for and mechanisms of neurologic injury is lacking. Objectives of the present study were to (1) quantify changes in oxidant defense and apoptosis over the course of ALL therapy and (2) elucidate risk factors for long-term cognitive problems...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Leticia Bignardi, Talita Prates, Andiara De Rossi, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Fabrício Kitasono de Carvalho, Talitha de Siqueira Mellara, Alexandra Mussolino de Queiroz
Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a congenital malformation that occurs in the embryonic period, characterized by failure in closure of the caudal portion of the neural tube during central nervous system formation. Alterations and complications can be associated with this condition, such as hydrocephalus, neurogenic bladder, orthopedic problems, and motor and cognitive impairment. This patients with MMC also have predisposition to develop latex allergy and high caries risk and activity due to deficient oral hygiene, fermentable carbon hydrate-rich diet and prolonged use of sugar-containing oral medications...
March 7, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
Antonio Daniele, Giordano Lacidogna
Among non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive and behavioural symptoms may precede the appearance of motor symptoms and become increasingly severe over disease progression. In patients with PD, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) refers to a condition characterized by variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction, which does not significantly interfere with independence in daily living activities. PD-MCI may occur in at least 9% of patients in early disease stages1 , is a risk factor for PD dementia (PDD), and may present with a variety of patterns of impairment across several cognitive domains (executive functions, attention/working memory, episodic memory, visuospatial skills, language)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Roxana G Burciu, Rachael D Seidler, Priyank Shukla, Mike A Nalls, Andrew B Singleton, Michael S Okun, David E Vaillancourt
The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs356219 in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene has been shown to significantly contribute to an earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD), and regulates SNCA expression in PD brain regions, blood, and plasma. Here, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study healthy adults with and without the rs356219 risk genotype. Motor and cognitive tests were administered, and all participants underwent functional and structural MRI. Imaging analyses included (1) task-based functional MRI; (2) task-based functional connectivity; (3) free-water diffusion MRI of the substantia nigra; (4) voxel-based morphometry; and (5) surface-based morphometry...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Avital Hershkovitz, Corina Angel, Shai Brill, Ran Nissan
BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic (AC) drugs are associated with significant impairment in cognitive and physical function which may affect rehabilitation in older people. We aimed to evaluate whether AC burden is associated with rehabilitation achievement in post-acute hip-fractured patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study carried out in a post-acute geriatric rehabilitation center on 1019 hip-fractured patients admitted from January 2011 to October 2015. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACB) was used to quantify the AC burden...
March 3, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Raquel Baeta-Corral, Björn Johansson, Lydia Giménez-Llort
Coffee or caffeine has recently been suggested as prophylaxis for dementia. Although memory problems are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, this dementia is also characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms called Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD). The impact of preventive/therapeutic strategies on both cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms can be addressed in the 3xTg-AD mice, since they exhibit cognitive but also BPSD-like profiles. Here, we studied the long-term effects of a low dose of caffeine in male 3xTg-AD mice and as compared to age-matched non-transgenic (NTg) counterparts with normal aging...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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