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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325162/-active-anti-smoking-policy-is-a-moral-duty-of-government-responsibility-for-reducing-smoking-lies-with-both-the-individual-and-society
#1
M Verweij
Tobacco discouragement, smoking cessation and tobacco endgame policies are sometimes criticised for being unduly paternalistic: governments should respect citizens' freedom and not take over their individual responsibility for healthy behaviour. In this commentary, I argue that very strict tobacco policies can be justified on multiple grounds, including the harm principle, the public good of maintaining a healthy society, and the reduction of health inequities. The moral reasons governments have to protect people against the harms of smoking do not limit or infringe upon the responsibility of each individual to take care of her own health: responsibility for healthy behaviour is not a zero-sum game...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322529/-interventi-di-popolazione-per-contrastare-l-epidemia-di-prodotti-insalubri
#2
Giuseppe Gorini
"The multinational corporations producing tobacco, alcohol, soft drinks, and processed foods have a role of vectors in the increase of chronic diseases, so that one can speak of manufacturing epidemics. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a literature review on different approaches in population-based interventions to stem the rise in consumption of unhealthy products. Different approaches were found: • command-and-control regulations: the route is definitely more advanced for tobacco with the implementation of an international treaty, which requires 180 ratifying states to implement a series of tobacco control policies...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316562/changes-in-cigarette-smoking-initiation-cessation-and-relapse-among-u-s-adults-a-comparison-of-two-longitudinal-samples
#3
Zinan Yi, Maria E Mayorga, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Jennifer L Pearson
BACKGROUND: The tobacco epidemic in the U.S. has matured in the past decade. However, due to rapidly changing social policy and commercial environments, tailored prevention and interventions are needed to support further reduction in smoking. METHODS: Using Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2002-2003 and 2010-2011 longitudinal cohorts, five smoking states are defined including daily-heavy, daily-light, non-daily, former and non-smoker...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315843/market-level-exposure-to-state-antismoking-media-campaigns-and-public-support-for-tobacco-control-policy-in-the-united-states-2001-2002
#4
Jeff Niederdeppe, Maxwell Kellogg, Christofer Skurka, Rosemary J Avery
OBJECTIVE: This study tests whether exposure to state antismoking media campaigns is associated with increased support for comprehensive bans on smoking indoors and cigarette advertising. METHODS: We combine commercially available data on market-level state-sponsored antismoking advertisements with three waves of the Current Population Survey's Tobacco Use Supplement to test the relationship between market-level volume of state antismoking advertising exposure and support for tobacco control policy between 2001 and 2002...
March 18, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315761/a-growing-geographic-disparity-rural-and-urban-cigarette-smoking-trends-in-the-united-states
#5
N J Doogan, M E Roberts, M E Wewers, C A Stanton, D R Keith, D E Gaalema, A N Kurti, R Redner, A Cepeda-Benito, J Y Bunn, A A Lopez, S T Higgins
Rural areas of the United States have a higher smoking prevalence than urban areas. However, no recent studies have rigorously examined potential changes in this disparity over time or whether the disparity can be explained by demographic or psychosocial characteristics associated with smoking. The present study used yearly cross sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2007 through 2014 to examine cigarette smoking trends in rural versus urban areas of the United States. The analytic sample included 303,311 respondents...
March 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303469/association-between-maternal-exposure-to-tobacco-presence-of-tgfa-gene-and-the-occurrence-of-oral-clefts-a-case-control-study
#6
Mohammed Junaid, M B Aswath Narayanan, D Jayanthi, S G Ramesh Kumar, A Leena Selvamary
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between maternal tobacco use or exposure, presence of variant transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) gene, and the occurrence of oral clefts. METHODS: The present case control study was carried out for 5 months in three tertiary government hospitals in Chennai city with a sample of 100 children (50 children with non syndromic cleft and 50 control) aged 0-24 months. The details of maternal risk factors during the period of gestation were recorded from case and control parents through a pre-validated questionnaire, following which blood samples from 92 children (46 case and 46 controls) based on consent were obtained and evaluated for TGFA gene polymorphism...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302918/the-heterogeneous-impact-of-a-successful-tobacco-control-campaign-a-case-study-of-mauritius
#7
Hana Ross, Leelmanee Moussa, Tom Harris, Rajive Ajodhea
BACKGROUND: Mauritius has one of the highest smoking prevalences in Africa, contributing to its high burden of non-communicable diseases. Mauritius implemented a series of tobacco control measures from 2009 to 2012, including tobacco tax increases. There is evidence that these policies reduced tobacco consumption, but it is not clear what impact they had across different socioeconomic groups. METHOD: The impact of tobacco control measures on different income groups was analysed by contrasting household tobacco expenditures reported in 2006-2007 and 2012 household expenditure surveys...
March 15, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298370/alcohol-policy-changes-and-22-year-trends-in-individual-alcohol-consumption-in-a-swiss-adult-population-a-1993-2014-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#8
Shireen Dumont, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Thierry Favrod-Coune, Jean-Marc Theler, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Barbara Broers, Idris Guessous
OBJECTIVE: Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Swiss general adult population. PARTICIPANTS: Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18-75 years)...
March 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277706/user-identified-positive-outcome-expectancies-of-electronic-cigarette-use-a-concept-mapping-study
#9
Eric K Soule, Sarah F Maloney, Mignonne C Guy, Thomas Eissenberg, Pebbles Fagan
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use is growing in popularity, but little is known about the perceived positive outcomes of ECIG use. This study used concept mapping (CM) to examine positive ECIG outcome expectancies. Sixty-three past 30-day ECIG users (38.1% female) between the ages of 18 and 64 (M = 37.8, SD = 13.3) completed a CM module. In an online program, participants provided statements that completed a prompt: "A specific positive, enjoyable, or exciting effect (i.e., physical or psychological) that I have experienced WHILE USING or IMMEDIATELY AFTER USING an electronic cigarette/electronic vaping device is...
March 9, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274382/legal-priorities-for-prevention-of-non-communicable-diseases-innovations-from-who-s-eastern-mediterranean-region
#10
REVIEW
L O Gostin, H Abou-Taleb, S A Roache, A Alwan
OBJECTIVES: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally and in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This paper reports on a research collaboration between the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Office (EMRO) and the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University that aims to identify (1) regionally relevant, cost-effective and affordable legal interventions to prevent NCDs, and (2) methods to strengthen implementation and enforcement...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274267/controlling-corporate-influence-in-health-policy-making-an-assessment-of-the-implementation-of-article-5-3-of-the-world-health-organization-framework-convention-on-tobacco-control
#11
Gary Jonas Fooks, Julia Smith, Kelley Lee, Chris Holden
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) stands to significantly reduce tobacco-related mortality by accelerating the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control measures. However, the extent to which States Parties have implemented the Convention varies considerably. Article 5.3 of the FCTC, is intended to insulate policy-making from the tobacco industry's political influence, and aims to address barriers to strong implementation of the Convention associated with tobacco industry political activity...
March 8, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274238/the-health-impact-of-trade-and-investment-agreements-a-quantitative-systematic-review-and-network-co-citation-analysis
#12
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Sanjay Basu, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Regional trade agreements are major international policy instruments that shape macro-economic and political systems. There is widespread debate as to whether and how these agreements pose risks to public health. Here we perform a comprehensive systematic review of quantitative studies of the health impact of trade and investment agreements. We identified studies from searches in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Global Health Online. Research articles were eligible for inclusion if they were quantitative studies of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements or policy...
March 8, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270238/-dutch-tobacco-control-policy-milestones-in-the-past-and-a-look-into-the-future
#13
M C Willemsen
- As early as 1975, the Health Council of the Netherlands was aware of what an effective tobacco control policy should constitute.- Centre-right governments in the 1980's and 1990's impeded the implementation of such a policy. In 1988, the Tobacco Act was introduced, but this had no effect on smoking rates.- In 2002, the Tobacco Act was amended, introducing more far-reaching measures, which resulted in a reduction in the number of smokers.- To accelerate the downward trend in smoking rates, more investments need to be made in mass media campaigns, and tobacco tax rates will need to be increased each year...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261558/awareness-attitude-and-use-of-tobacco-among-medical-students-in-chennai
#14
Ramkumar Boopathirajan, Logaraj Muthunarayanan
BACKGROUND: Health professionals have an important role to play in the fight against tobacco. As individuals, health professionals can help educate the population; as community members, they can support anti-smoking policies; and, at a societal level, they can influence national and global tobacco control efforts. The objectives of the study was to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among medical students in Chennai and to measure the extent of attitude toward, behavior around and knowledge of tobacco use among medical students...
January 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259846/the-impact-of-a-federal-cigarette-minimum-pack-price-policy-on-cigarette-use-in-the-usa
#15
Nathan J Doogan, Mary Ellen Wewers, Micah Berman
BACKGROUND: Increasing cigarette prices reduce cigarette use. The US Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate the sale and promotion-and therefore the price-of tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential effect of federal minimum price regulation on the sales of cigarettes in the USA. METHOD: We used yearly state-level data from the Tax Burden on Tobacco and other sources to model per capita cigarette sales as a function of price...
March 4, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258070/the-costs-and-benefits-of-a-cigarette-ban
#16
Mathieu Doucet
The death toll from tobacco is staggering: it might contribute to one billion premature deaths over the course of the 21st century. In 'The case for banning cigarettes', Kalle Grill and Kristin Voigt argue that the well-being and equality benefits of a complete ban on cigarettes more than justify the restrictions on autonomy that such a ban would impose. Their argument depends on two crucial simplifications: an assumption that the ban would be effective and the restriction of the analysis to a comparison with the status quo, rather than a broader range of policy options...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253085/water-pipe-shisha-hookah-arghile-smoking-and-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-effects-on-cyp1a2-and-cyp2a6-phenotypes-as-measured-by-caffeine-urine-test
#17
Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Adrián Llerena, Fernando De Andrés, Ümit Karakaş, Hasan Gündoğar, Kamile Erciyas, Sabit Kimyon, Alper Mete, Kıvanç Güngör, Vural Özdemir
Public policies to stop or reduce cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke and associated diseases have yielded successful results over the past decade. Yet, the growing worldwide popularity of another form of tobacco consumption, water pipe smoking, has received relatively less attention. To the best of our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated the effects of water pipe smoking on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities and drug interaction potential in humans, whereas only limited information is available on the impact of secondhand smoke on drug metabolism...
March 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240970/head-and-neck-cancer-survivorship-care-guideline-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline-endorsement-of-the-american-cancer-society-guideline
#18
Larissa Nekhlyudov, Christina Lacchetti, Nancy B Davis, Thomas Q Garvey, David P Goldstein, J Chris Nunnink, Jose I Ruades Ninfea, Andrew L Salner, Talya Salz, Lillian L Siu
Purpose This guideline provides recommendations on the management of adults after head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment, focusing on surveillance and screening for recurrence or second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, care coordination, and practice implications. Methods ASCO has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. The American Cancer Society (ACS) HNC Survivorship Care Guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231493/availability-of-tobacco-cessation-services-in-substance-use-disorder-treatment-programs-impact-of-state-tobacco-control-policy
#19
Amanda J Abraham, Grace Bagwell-Adams, Jayani Jayawardhana
OBJECTIVE: Given the high prevalence of smoking among substance use disorder (SUD) patients, the specialty SUD treatment system is an important target for adoption and implementation of tobacco cessation (TC) services. While research has addressed the impact of tobacco control on individual tobacco consumption, largely overlooked in the literature is the potential impact of state tobacco control policies on availability of services for tobacco cessation. This paper examines the association between state tobacco control policy and availability of TC services in SUD treatment programs in the United States...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224973/tobacco-smoking-in-poland-in-the-years-from-2003-to-2014-multi%C3%A2-centre-national-population-health-examination-survey-wobasz
#20
Maria Polakowska, Dorota Kaleta, Walerian Piotrowski, Roman Topór-Mądry, Aleksandra Puch-Walczak, Arkadiusz Niklas, Wojciech Bielecki, Krystyna Kozakiewicz, Andrzej Pająk, Andrzej Tykarski, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Wojciech Drygas On Behalf Of Wobasz Investigators
INTRODUCTION    The reduction of tobacco smoking is a challenging problem of public health. OBJECTIVES    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the prevalence and tobacco use patterns in the adult population of Poles and its changes in a period between year 2003 and 2014. Furthermore, changes in the smoking addiction, the declared reasons for smoking as well as readiness and motivation to stop smoking has been assessed.  PATIENTS AND METHODS    Based on data from the Polish studies - WOBASZ and WOBASZ II, the analysis covered a population of 14576 persons from the 1st study (6906 men and 7670 women) and 5696 persons from the 2nd study (2578 men and 3118 women), aged 20 - 74...
January 17, 2017: Pol Arch Intern Med
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