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Tobacco policy

Barry A Finegan, Daniel Roblin, Fadi Hammal
Quality problem: For smokers, hospital admission is accompanied by forced involuntary nicotine abstinence due to smoke-free site/grounds policies. An audit of patients admitted to our surgical wards revealed that identification of smoking status was inadequate and that nicotine addiction management (NAM) was infrequently offered. The project aimed to enhance both these metrics by initiating NAM in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Initial assessment: Out of 744 patients admitted to our PACU in August 2015, 54% had their smoking status documented...
March 14, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Lauren K Lempert, Stanton A Glantz
Introduction: American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovereign, they are not subject to state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. This study analyzes tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians'/Alaska Natives' unique sovereign status and culture...
March 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
E A Smith, W S C Poston, C K Haddock, S A Jahnke, R E Malone
National military and veteran service organizations (MVSOs) have the potential to be advocates for stronger military tobacco control. This study consisted of qualitative analysis of interviews with 5 MVSO leaders (or their designees) and 6 focus groups conducted with veterans, to explore the opinions of MVSO leaders and veterans about military tobacco use and tobacco control policy, and to assess their current knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of engaging with civilian tobacco control. Themes discussed include the impact of tobacco use on the military mission and on veterans; the possibility of stronger military tobacco control policies; and the idea that such policies would affect the rights of military personnel...
2018: Military Behavioral Health
Norman Maldonado, Blanca Amalia Llorente, Roberto Magno Iglesias, Diego Escobar
BACKGROUND: By 2016, tobacco industry provided the only illicit trade estimates in Colombia and used these to discourage tax increases since the 1990s. To establish the viability of a threefold hike in the excise tax, policy makers needed unbiased estimates of the illicit cigarette. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the size of illicit cigarette trade in five Colombian cities (63% of the market), analyse characteristics of smokers of illicit cigarettes and compare market share results with one industry-funded survey...
March 14, 2018: Tobacco Control
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Shannon M Melody, Veronica Martin-Gall, Ben Harding, Mark Gk Veitch
OBJECTIVES: To describe the retail availability of tobacco and to examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area-level remoteness and socio-economic status classification in Tasmania. DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional study; analysis of tobacco retail outlet data collected by the Department of Health and Human Services (Tasmania) according to area-level (Statistical Areas Level 2) remoteness (defined by the Remoteness Structure of the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard) and socio-economic status (defined by the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage)...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Marta Trapero-Bertran, Celia Muñoz, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Adam Lester-George, Reiner Leidl, Bertalan Németh, Kei-Long Cheung, Subhash Pokhrel, Ángel Lopez-Nicolás
AIMS: To assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN: We used the European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD), a Markov-based state transition economic model, to estimate the return on investment (ROI) of: (a) the current provision of smoking cessation services (brief physician advice and printed self-helped material + smoking ban and tobacco duty at current levels); and (b) four alternative scenarios to complement the current provision: coverage of proactive telephone calls; nicotine replacement therapy (mono and combo) [prescription nicotine replacement therapy (Rx NRT)]; varenicline (standard duration); or bupropion...
March 13, 2018: Addiction
Marta Trapero-Bertran, Reiner Leidl, Celia Muñoz, Puttarin Kulchaitanaroaj, Kathryn Coyle, Maximilian Präger, Judit Józwiak-Hagymásy, Kei Long Cheung, Mickael Hiligsmann, Subhash Pokhrel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modelling return on investment (ROI) from smoking cessation interventions requires estimates of their costs and benefits. This paper describes a standardized method developed to source both economic costs of tobacco smoking and costs of implementing cessation interventions for a Europe-wide ROI model [European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD)]. DESIGN: Focused search of administrative and published data...
March 13, 2018: Addiction
Kevin D Everett, Ginny Chadwick, Stanley R Cowan, Emily Kinkade
Tobacco control policies reduce the health and economic burden caused by tobacco. With over half of the United States communities lacking adequate protective policies, an examination of policy adoption factors can provide insights to facilitate policy adoption. A case study approach examines the rate of adoption, prominent media frames, policy leaders' perceptions and coalition activities for smokefree and Tobacco 21 policies adopted in Missouri. Findings show compared to smokefree policy, Tobacco 21 requires a considerably shorter timeframe and fewer resources for adoption...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Naowarut Charoenca, Nipapun Kungskulniti, Duangkamon Sritabutra, Siriwan Pitayarangsarit, Stephen L Hamann
Background: Because implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization (WHO) treaty to reduce tobacco use, is an important goal of the 2015 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Thailand has sought to fully comply with all its articles, a multiperspective assessment was developed to ensure that any gaps in compliance with FCTC provisions were identified and addressed. Method: One assessment mechanism of this multicomponent assessment was the development by experts and use by stakeholders of a 3-tiered rating of all major provisions of the main articles of the FCTC...
2018: Tobacco Use Insights
Julianne Payne, Laurie Cluff, Jason Lang, Dyann Matson-Koffman, Antonio Morgan-Lopez
PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of elements of a workplace culture of health (COH) on employees' perceptions of employer support for health and lifestyle risk. DESIGN: We used 2013 and 2015 survey data from the National Healthy Worksite Program, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led initiative to help workplaces implement health-promoting interventions. SETTING: Forty-one employers completed the CDC Worksite Health Scorecard to document organizational changes...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Sze Lin Yoong, Emily Stockings, Li Kheng Chai, Flora Tzelepis, John Wiggers, Christopher Oldmeadow, Christine Paul, Armando Peruga, Melanie Kingsland, John Attia, Luke Wolfenden
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and change in prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use in youth by country and combustible smoking status. METHODS: Databases and the grey literature were systematically searched to December 2015. Studies describing the prevalence of ENDS use in the general population aged ≤20 years in a defined geographical region were included. Where multiple estimates were available within countries, prevalence estimates of ENDS use were pooled for each country separately...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Erin Brantley, Jessica Greene, Brian Bruen, Erika Steinmetz, Leighton Ku
Introduction: Smoking rates for Medicaid beneficiaries have remained flat in recent years. Medicaid may support smokers in quitting by covering a broad array of tobacco cessation services without barriers such as copays. This study examines the impact of increasing generosity in Medicaid tobacco cessation coverage policies on smoking and cessation behaviors. Methods: We used 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey data merged with information on state tobacco, Medicaid cessation, and Medicaid eligibility policies to estimate state fixed effects models of cessation medication use, counseling use, quit attempts, and current smoking...
March 7, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden, Sophie Mackinder
Despite the extensive literature on the tobacco industry, there has been little attempt to study how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) coordinate their political activities globally, or to theorise TTC strategies within the context of global governance structures and policy processes. This article draws on three concepts from political science - policy transfer, multi-level governance and venue shifting - to analyse TTCs' integrated, global strategies to oppose augmented packaging requirements across multiple jurisdictions...
March 9, 2018: Global Public Health
Graham A Colditz, Karen M Emmons
As a nation, we underinvest in prevention and fail to implement strategies that ensure all population groups equitably share in the return on investment in prevention research and the benefits of prevention effectiveness. There is significant evidence indicating that by applying knowledge that we already have to reduce tobacco, inactivity, and obesity (known modifiable causes of cancer), we can prevent more than 50% of cancers. Vaccination against HPV, aspirin and selective estrogen receptor modulators, and screening programs further reduce risk...
March 8, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Nicholas Stacey, Amit Summan, Aviva Tugendhaft, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Karen Hofman
Introduction: Excise taxes are policy tools that have been applied internationally with some success to reduce consumption of products adversely impacting population health including tobacco, alcohol and increasingly junk foods and sugary beverages. As in other low-income and middle-income countries, South Africa faces a growing burden of lifestyle diseases; accordingly we simulate the impact of multiple excise tax interventions in this setting. Methods: We construct a mathematical model to simulate the health and revenue effects of increased excise taxes, which is adaptable to a variety of settings given its limited data requirements...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Hao Yu, John Engberg, Deborah Scharf
BACKGROUND: To determine the relative impact of each of the three state-level tobacco control policies (cigarette taxation, tobacco control spending, and smoke-free air (SFA) laws) on adult smoking rate overall and separately for adult subgroups in the U.S. METHODS: We conducted a difference-in-differences analysis with generalized propensity scores. We merged state-level policies with the individual-level Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 1995-2009...
March 7, 2018: Substance Abuse
Soundarya Soundararajan, Gitanjali Narayanan, Arpana Agrawal, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Pratima Murthy
Background & objectives: Age at first drink has its influence on later life drinking patterns. The association between age at first drink and adult alcohol consumption has not been studied in clinical population. This study was aimed to determine the age at first drink and its correlation with adult life drinking patterns in alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: Adult participants with alcohol dependence were included from the inpatient and outpatient wards of a tertiary care de-addiction facility in India...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Christopher J Mehus, Jennifer Doty, Gary Chan, Adrian B Kelly, Sheryl Hemphill, John Toumbourou, Barbara J McMorris
BACKGROUND: Parents and peers both influence the development of adolescent substance misuse, and the Social Interaction Learning (SIL) model provides a theoretical explanation of the paths through which this occurs. OBJECTIVE: The SIL model has primarily been tested with conduct outcomes and in US samples. This study adds to the literature by testing the SIL model with four substance use outcomes in a sample of Australian youth. METHOD: We used structural equation modeling to test the fit of the SIL model to a longitudinal sample (n = 907) of students recruited in grade 5 in Victoria, Australia participating in the International Youth Development Study, who were resurveyed in grades 6 and 10...
March 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Merrian Brooks, Elizabeth Miller, Kaleab Abebe, Edward Mulvey
BACKGROUND: Future orientation (FO), an essential construct in youth development, encompassing goals, expectations for life, and ability to plan for the future. This study uses a multidimensional measure of future orientation to assess the relationship between change in future orientation and change in substance use over time. METHODS: Data were from the Pathways to Desistence study. Justice involved youth (n = 1,354), ages 14 to 18 at time of recruitment, completed interviews every six months for three years...
March 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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