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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924618/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-health-outcomes-among-american-indians-in-oklahoma-the-thrive-study
#1
Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Marianna Wetherill, Jordan Hearod, Tvli Jacob, Alicia L Salvatore, Tamela Cannady, Mandy Grammar, Joy Standridge, Jill Fox, Jennifer Spiegel, AnDina Wiley, Carolyn Noonan, Dedra Buchwald
INTRODUCTION: Limited available data document higher prevalences of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and health outcomes among American Indians (AIs) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: As part of a randomized control trial to improve tribal food and physical activity environments, our tribal-academic partnership surveyed a cross-sectional sample of American Indian adults (n = 513) to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, tobacco use, physical activity, and vegetable and fruit intake...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923864/outcomes-of-the-smoker-s-health-project-a-pragmatic-comparative-effectiveness-trial-of-tobacco-dependence-interventions-based-on-self-determination-theory
#2
Geoffrey C Williams, Christopher P Niemiec, Heather Patrick, Richard M Ryan, Edward L Deci
A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory, namely, Intensive Treatment (IT; six contacts over 6 months), Extended Need Support (ENS; eight contacts over 12 months) and Harm Reduction (HR; eight contacts over 12 months with medication use if willing to reduce cigarette use by half)...
December 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921634/smoking-cessation-in-smoke-free-prisons-a-grounded-theory-study
#3
Ashleigh Djachenko, Winsome St John, Creina Mitchell
Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916172/neck-dissection-versus-watchful-waiting-in-early-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-tongue-our-experience-on-127-cases
#4
Giovanni Dell'Aversana Orabona, Paola Bonavolontà, Fabio Maglitto, Marco Friscia, Giorgio Iaconetta, Luigi Califano
BACKGROUND: Early oral squamous cell carcinoma (EOSCC) represents about 90% of the oral cancers especially in older males. The etiology is multifactorial, strongly related to tobacco and alcohol abuse, but also infective agents, Human papillomaviruses (HPV16-18), genetic factors and pre-neoplastic lesions seem to be implicated. There is no consensus in the literature for the treatment of early squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (stages I-II); both an elective neck dissection policy and a watchful-waiting policy have their proponents in the different centers...
December 2016: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914771/overview-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Allison M Glasser, Lauren Collins, Jennifer L Pearson, Haneen Abudayyeh, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Andrea C Villanti
CONTEXT: Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911435/detecting-biomarkers-of-secondhand-marijuana-smoke-in-young-children
#6
Karen M Wilson, Michelle R Torok, Binnian Wei, Lanqing Wang, Michelle Robinson, Connie S Sosnoff, Benjamin C Blount
BACKGROUND: The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow detection of secondhand marijuana smoke in children. METHODS: We studied children ages 1 month to 2 years hospitalized with bronchiolitis in Colorado from 2013-2015. Parents completed a survey, and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine using LC/MS/MS (LOD 0.03 ng/ml) and marijuana metabolites including COOH-THC (LOD 0.015 ng/ml). RESULTS: A total of 43 subjects had urine samples available for analysis...
December 2, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905848/tobacco-21-an-important-public-policy-to-protect-our-youth
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901036/the-effects-of-policy-actions-to-improve-population-dietary-patterns-and-prevent-diet-related-non-communicable-diseases-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
L Hyseni, M Atkinson, H Bromley, L Orton, F Lloyd-Williams, R McGill, S Capewell
Poor diet generates a bigger non-communicable disease (NCD) burden than tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity combined. We reviewed the potential effectiveness of policy actions to improve healthy food consumption and thus prevent NCDs. This scoping review focused on systematic and non-systematic reviews and categorised data using a seven-part framework: price, promotion, provision, composition, labelling, supply chain, trade/investment and multi-component interventions. We screened 1805 candidate publications and included 58 systematic and non-systematic reviews...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897468/commitment-and-capacity-for-providing-evidence-based-tobacco-treatment-in-u-s-drug-treatment-facilities
#9
Kimber P Richter, Jamie J Hunt, A Paula Cupertino, Byron J Gajewski, Yu Jiang, Janet Marquis, Peter D Friedmann
BACKGROUND: Although people with mental illness, including substance use disorders, consume 44% of cigarettes in the U.S., few facilities provide tobacco treatment. This study assesses staff- and facility-level drivers of tobacco treatment in substance use treatment. METHODS: We administered surveys to 405 clinic directors selected from a comprehensive inventory of 3,800 U.S. outpatient facilities. The main outcome was the validated 7-item Index of Tobacco Treatment Quality...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895546/a-gaping-gap-smokeless-tobacco-control-in-pakistan
#10
REVIEW
Zohaib Khan
Oral cancer is second most common cancer in Pakistan and one of the major contributing factors to its high incidence is smokeless tobacco (SLT) use. 5.3% of Pakistan's youth are current SLT users. The World Health Organization requires the signatories of its "Framework Convention on Tobacco Control" to officially ban the sale of tobacco products to minors. We reviewed the Government of Pakistan's tobacco control, and related supporting policies, to assess how these address the issue of sale of SLT products to minors and found evident gaps in this regard...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893799/tobacco-smoking-and-tuberculosis-among-men-living-with-hiv-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-case-control-study
#11
Liza Bronner Murrison, Neil Martinson, Rachael M Moloney, Regina Msandiwa, Mondiwana Mashabela, Jonathan M Samet, Jonathan E Golub
SETTING: Although there is ample evidence that smoking increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), the magnitude of impact on TB risk among HIV-infected persons is poorly described. Given that a high proportion of patients with TB are co-infected with HIV in South Africa, the risks arising from the intersection of smoking, TB, and HIV/AIDS have key relevance for tobacco control policies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with current tobacco smoking among men with HIV in South Africa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892686/tobacco-and-the-malays-ethnicity-health-and-the-political-economy-of-tobacco-in-malaysia
#12
Simon Barraclough, Martha Morrow
OBJECTIVES: To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. DESIGN: Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports...
November 28, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886526/food-and-beverage-product-reformulation-as-a-corporate-political-strategy
#13
C Scott, B Hawkins, C Knai
Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885168/educational-and-wealth-inequalities-in-tobacco-use-among-men-and-women-in-54-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#14
Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Sam Harper, Linda Ernstsen
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic differentials of tobacco smoking in high-income countries are well described. However, studies to support health policies and place monitoring systems to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smokeless tobacco use common in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are seldom reported. We aimed to describe, sex-wise, educational and wealth-related inequalities in tobacco use in LMICs. METHODS: We analysed Demographic and Health Survey data on tobacco use collected from large nationally representative samples of men and women in 54 LMICs...
November 24, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881279/the-economic-impact-of-cigarette-smoking-on-the-poor-in-jordan
#15
Amjad M Toukan
OBJECTIVES: To examine the expenditure on cigarette smoking in Jordan and compare the costs with potential investments in food and other essential items. METHODS: Review of available statistics and calculations were performed to estimate the economic cost of cigarette smoking in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Data on tobacco use and on household expenditures were collected from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan official databases. Information on the percentage of adult male smokers in each income group was based on cross-sectional data from 804 adult smokers...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871044/now-is-the-time-to-advocate-for-interventions-designed-specifically-to-prevent-and-control-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking
#16
REVIEW
A A Lopez, T Eissenberg, M Jaafar, R Afifi
Waterpipe tobacco usage is spreading rapidly worldwide, with reports of more youth being waterpipe users compared to adults. In many areas of the world, waterpipe usage surpasses cigarette smoking. Waterpipes and cigarettes are both mechanisms for inhalation of tobacco smoke and therefore have serious health consequences. However, because of the many differences between the two products, prevention and control strategies that have proven effective for cigarettes may not transfer readily to waterpipe. This report highlights the differences between waterpipes and cigarettes in toxicant exposure and physiologic effects, patterns of use, social norms, the extent of evidence, and the policy environment...
November 11, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869568/the-carrot-and-the-stick-strategies-to-improve-compliance-with-college-campus-tobacco-policies
#17
Amanda Fallin, Maria Roditis, Stanton Glantz
OBJECTIVE: Tobacco-free policies are being rapidly adopted nationwide, yet compliance with these policies remains a challenge. This study explored college campus key informants' experiences with tobacco policies, and their perceived benefits, drawbacks, and outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: The sample for this study was 68 key informants representing 16 different California universities with varying tobacco policies (no smoking indoors and within 20 feet of entrances, designated smoking areas, 100% smoke-free, and 100% tobacco-free)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868232/prospective-longitudinal-associations-between-household-smoke-exposure-in-early-childhood-and-antisocial-behavior-at%C3%A2-age-12
#18
L S Pagani, F Lévesque-Seck, I Archambault, M Janosz
Young children exert little control over household tobacco smoke exposure, which is considered a developmental neurotoxicant. Using the Quebec Longitudinal Study birth cohort, we examine prospective associations between early childhood smoke exposure and later antisocial behavior. Parents of 1035 children reported on the presence of household smokers at seven follow-ups from ages 1.5 to 7.5. At age 12, children self-reported on five aspects of early antisocial dispositions. After adjusting for confounders, every standard deviation increase in household smoke exposure was prospectively associated with a 19% standard deviation unit increase in conduct problems (β=0...
November 20, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868166/the-use-of-e-cigarettes-among-school-going-adolescents-in-a-predominantly-rural-environment-of-central-appalachia
#19
Daniel Owusu, Jocelyn Aibangbee, Candice Collins, Crystal Robertson, Liang Wang, Mary A Littleton, Rafie Boghozian, Vicki Casenburg, Hadii M Mamudu
E-cigarette use among youth in the United States (U.S.) continues to increase. In the rural Northeast Tennessee, where prevalence of tobacco use is higher than national and state averages, there is no literature on e-cigarette use to inform policies and programs. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use and examine association of e-cigarette use with two tobacco products among school-going adolescents. Data from 894 participants of a school-based survey conducted in 2016 in Northeast Tennessee were analyzed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866598/never-smoking-adolescents-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-in-africa
#20
Daniel Owusu, Hadii M Mamudu, Rijo M John, Abdallah Ibrahim, Ahmed E O Ouma, Sreenivas P Veeranki
INTRODUCTION: Though Africa is in Stage 1 of the tobacco epidemic, lack of effective public smoking laws or political will implies that secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure may be high in youth. The study objective is to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of SHS exposure among never-smoker adolescents in Africa and make cross-country comparisons. METHODS: Pooled data from the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 25 African countries during 2006-2011 were used...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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