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Implantation, embryo

Lijun Zhao, Yang Xu, Xiaoling Duo, Xiaoying Tian, Peng Wang
The effect of Shoutai pill on endometrial receptivity was analyzed. A total of 160 patients with spontaneous abortion were enrolled in this study. They were treated in the Fifth People's Hospital of Jinan (Shandong, China) from February 2014 to June 2016. The following treatment regimen was performed for the patients: after menstruation, Shoutai pill was taken as continuous medication for more than 5 menstrual cycles, the pill was taken 20 days per month, medication was stopped during menstruation, and contraceptive measures were taken during this period...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
T Einfalt, D Witzigmann, C Edlinger, S Sieber, R Goers, A Najer, M Spulber, O Onaca-Fischer, J Huwyler, C G Palivan
Despite tremendous efforts to develop stimuli-responsive enzyme delivery systems, their efficacy has been mostly limited to in vitro applications. Here we introduce, by using an approach of combining biomolecules with artificial compartments, a biomimetic strategy to create artificial organelles (AOs) as cellular implants, with endogenous stimuli-triggered enzymatic activity. AOs are produced by inserting protein gates in the membrane of polymersomes containing horseradish peroxidase enzymes selected as a model for natures own enzymes involved in the redox homoeostasis...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Jennifer C Pontré, John P Ryan, Andy Tan, Roger J Hart
BACKGROUND: Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is repeated unsuccessful embryo transfers (ETs). AIMS: To identify predictive embryonic markers of implantation in RIF, following pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) of cleavage stage embryos, after accounting for male and female factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of RIF patients undergoing PGS after correction of modifiable causes. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients underwent 140 in vitro ferilisation cycles...
March 18, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Eva Pallinger, Zoltan Bognar, Agnes Bogdan, Timea Csabai, Hajnalka Abraham, Julia Szekeres-Bartho
Earlier evidence suggests, that the embryo signals to the maternal immune system. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by all types of cells, and because they transport different kinds of molecules from one cell to the other, they can be considered as means of intercellular communication. The aim of this work was to test, whether the embryo is able to produce sufficient amounts of EVs to alter the function of peripheral lymphocytes. Embryo-derived EVs were identified by their Annexin V biding capacity, and sensitivity to Triton X dependent lysis, using flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
T Arthur Chang, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Behzad Gerami-Naini, Jessica G Drenzek, Maureen Durning, Mark A Garthwaite, Jenna Kropp Schmidt, Thaddeus G Golos
BACKGROUND: The initiation of primate embryo invasion into the endometrium and the formation of the placenta from trophoblasts, fetal mesenchyme, and vascular components are essential for the establishment of a successful pregnancy. The mechanisms which direct morphogenesis of the chorionic villi, and the interactions between trophectoderm-derived trophoblasts and the fetal mesenchyme to direct these processes during placentation are not well understood due to a dearth of systems to examine and manipulate real-time primate implantation...
March 16, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Masami Hayashi, Kayo Yoshida, Kohei Kitada, Akane Kizu, Daisuke Tachibana, Mitsuru Fukui, Takashi Morita, Masayasu Koyama
PURPOSE: To study the outcomes of mouse preimplantation embryos irradiated with low doses of X-rays (≤ 1 Gy) and investigate apoptosis and pluripotency of the irradiated embryos. METHODS: Mouse embryos at the 2-cell stage were collected for in vitro culture. After reaching the 8-cell stage, embryos were irradiated with various low doses of X-rays (0-1 Gy). Blastocysts with a normal appearance were transferred into a pseudopregnant uterus. The developmental rate to blastocysts and the survival rate following embryo transfer were examined...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Mark T Brown
Moral status ascribes equal obligations and rights to individuals on the basis of membership in a protected group. Substance change is an event that results in the origin or cessation of individuals who may be members of groups with equal moral status. In this paper, two substance changes that affect the moral status of human embryos are identified. The first substance change begins with fertilization and ends with the formation of the blastocyst, a biological individual with moral status comparable to that ascribed to human organs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Lan Hai, Maria M Szwarc, Bin He, David M Lonard, Ramakrishna Kommagani, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
Speckle-type poz protein (SPOP) is an E3-ubiquitin ligase adaptor for turnover of a diverse number of proteins involved in key cellular processes from chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation to cell signaling. Genomic analysis revealed that SPOP somatic mutations are found in a subset of endometrial cancers, suggesting that these mutations act as oncogenic drivers of this gynecologic malignancy. These studies also raise the question as to the role of wild type SPOP in normal uterine function. To address this question, we generated a mouse model (Spopd/d) in which SPOP is ablated in uterine cells that express the PGR...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Lanlin Yang, Sufen Cai, Shuoping Zhang, Xiangyi Kong, Yifan Gu, Changfu Lu, Jing Dai, Fei Gong, Guangxiu Lu, Ge Lin
STUDY QUESTION: Does single cleavage-stage (Day 3) embryo transfer using a time-lapse (TL) hierarchical classification model achieve comparable ongoing pregnancy rates (OPR) to single blastocyst (Day 5) transfer by conventional morphological (CM) selection? SUMMARY ANSWER: Day 3 single embryo transfer (SET) with a hierarchical classification model had a significantly lower OPR compared with Day 5 SET with CM selection. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cleavage-stage SET is an alternative to blastocyst SET...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
M Irani, N Zaninovic, C Canon, C O'Neill, V Gunnala, Q Zhan, G Palermo, D Reichman, Z Rosenwaks
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a benefit to assessing ploidy in delayed embryos reaching the morula stage on Day 6 of development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Day-6 morulae should be considered for biopsy in women <40 years old undergoing preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) because they are associated with acceptable, albeit reduced, euploidy and implantation rates (IRs). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Embryo development and morphology have been shown to correlate with aneuploidy and pregnancy rates...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Harriet C Fitzgerald, Jemma Evans, Nicholas Johnson, Giuseppe Infusini, Andrew Webb, Luk J R Rombauts, Beverley J Vollenhoven, Lois A Salamonsen, Tracey A Edgell
The regenerative, proliferative phase of a woman's menstrual cycle is a critical period which lays the foundation for the subsequent, receptive secretory phase. Although endometrial glands and their secretions are essential for embryo implantation and survival, the proliferative phase, when these glands form, has been rarely examined. We hypothesized that alterations in the secreted proteome of the endometrium of idiopathic infertile women would reflect a disturbance in proliferative phase endometrial regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Zer Vue, Gabriel Gonzalez, C Allison Stewart, Shyamin Mehra, Richard R Behringer
Endometrial or uterine glands secrete substances essential for uterine receptivity to the embryo, implantation, conceptus survival, and growth. Adenogenesis is the process of gland formation within the stroma of the uterus. In the mouse, uterine gland formation initiates at postnatal day (P) 5. Uterine gland morphology is poorly understood because it is primarily based on two-dimensional (2D) histology. To more fully describe uterine gland morphogenesis, we generated three-dimensional (3D) models of postnatal uterine glands from P0 to P21, based on volumetric imaging using light sheet microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yan Hao, Dawei Chen, Zhiguo Zhang, Ping Zhou, Yunxia Cao, Zhaolian Wei, Xiaofeng Xu, Beili Chen, Weiwei Zou, Mingrong Lv, Dongmei Ji, Xiaojin He
Hearing loss may place a heavy burden on the patient and patient's family. Given the high incidence of hearing loss among newborns and the huge cost of treatment and care (including cochlear implantation), prenatal diagnosis is strongly recommended. Termination of the fetus may be considered as an extreme outcome to the discovery of a potential deaf fetus, and therefore preimplantation genetic diagnosis has become an important option for avoiding the birth of affected children without facing the risk of abortion following prenatal diagnosis...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Sabrina L Roberti, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of inhibiting mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARδ pathways in the early post-implantation period on decidual function, embryo viability and feto-placental growth in the rat? SUMMARY ANSWER: mTOR inhibition from day 7 to day 9 of pregnancy in rats caused decidual PPARγ and PPARδ upregulation on day 9 of pregnancy and resulted in embryo resorption by day 14 of pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
X Ma, P H Li, M X Zhu, L C He, S P Sui, S Gao, G S Su, N S Ding, Y Huang, Z Q Lu, X G Huang, R H Huang
Litter size has a great impact on the profit of swine producers. Uterine development is an important determinant of reproduction efficiency and could hence affect litter size. Chinese Erhualian pig is one of the most prolific breeds in the world, even though large phenotypic variation in litter size was observed within Erhualian sows. To dissect the genetic basis of the phenotypic variation, we herein conducted genome-wide association studies for total number born and number born alive (NBA) of Erhualian sows...
March 14, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Xiaoli Qin, Yan Liang, Yuna Guo, Xiaorui Liu, Weihong Zeng, Fan Wu, Yi Lin, Yan Zhang
PROBLEM: Trophoblast cells regulate embryo implantation and placental development. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is an initiator of translation involved in cellular processes, such as migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the function of eIF5A in trophoblast cells is unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: We inhibited eIF5A and Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D (CAMK1D) expression in HTR8 cells using RNA interference. The effects of eIF5A and CAMK1D on HTR8 cells were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, flow cytometry, cell transfection assays, cell migration assays, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
R Poverini, R Lisi, F Lisi, V Berlinghieri, W Bielli, P Carfagna, A Costantino, D Iacomino, G Nicodemo
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulation factor plays different crucial roles during embryo implantation and subsequent development. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of embryo cell culture medium, with the inclusion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulation factor (GM-CSF), on embryo development and pregnancy rate. To this end, we took advantage of our retrospective observational study to correlate the outcomes from two different culture media. We included in this study 25 unselected patient from our IVF Center that underwent heterologous IVF cycle with crypreserved oocytes...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Christoph Rehmann-Sutter
Do we have a moral obligation to genetically cure embryos rather than selecting between them? Such an obligation would be an ethical argument for human germline gene editing (hGGE) to avoid the inheritance of genetic conditions instead of using pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). In this article, the intuition that we do have such a moral obligation is critically evaluated. The article first develops a theoretical framework for discussing the ethical questions of hGGE. This framework is based on an exploration of the phenomenology of the germline, from both biological and philosophical points of view...
April 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
Maria Gomes Fernandes, Monika Bialecka, Daniela C F Salvatori, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
STUDY QUESTION: Which set of antibodies can be used to identify migratory and early post-migratory human primordial germ cells (hPGCs)? STUDY FINDING: We validated the specificity of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including POU5F1, NANOG, PRDM1 and TFAP2C as specific markers of hPGCs at 4.5 weeks of development of Carnegie stage (CS12-13), whereas KIT and SOX17 also marked the intra-aortic hematopoietic stem cell cluster in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The dynamics of gene expression during germ cell development in mice is well characterized and this knowledge has proved crucial to allow the development of protocols for the in-vitro derivation of functional gametes...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
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