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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911385/application-of-impermeable-barriers-combined-with-candidate-factor-soaked-beads-to-study-inductive-signals-in-the-chick
#1
Susan Wilde, Malcolm P Logan
The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation(1). Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909687/morphogenesis-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neurons-under-in-vitro-culture-conditions
#2
Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908602/kisspeptin-and-embryo-implantation-after-icsi
#3
Zehra Jamil, Syeda Sadia Fatima, Sara Arif, Faiza Alam, Rehana Rehman
A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Australian Concept Infertility Medical Centre from June 2014 to June 2015 to relate serum kisspeptin levels on human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) day with pregnancy outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 176 women aged 20 to 42 years, with regular menstrual cycles, normal thyroid function and prolactin levels selected for ICSI were included in the study. Patients with uterine fibroids, metabolic disorders, short agonist and antagonist protocol were excluded...
November 18, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907899/reducing-the-number-of-fetuses-in-a-pregnancy-providers-and-patients-views-of-challenges
#4
Robert L Klitzman
STUDY QUESTION: How do patients and providers perceive and make decisions about possible reductions of multi-fetal pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: Physicians may be transferring additional embryos, assuming that patients will later undergo reduction if need be; but decisions to reduce pregnancies are difficult for patients, who may agree to undergo the procedure in advance and later renege. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Implanting more than one embryo increases the likelihood that at least one embryo will successfully lead to a child but also that the patient may end up with twins or higher-order multiple births...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907016/direct-unequal-cleavages-embryo-developmental-competence-genetic-constitution-and-clinical-outcome
#5
Qiansheng Zhan, Zhen Ye, Robert Clarke, Zev Rosenwaks, Nikica Zaninovic
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, developmental potential, chromosomal constitution and clinical outcome of embryos with direct unequal cleavages (DUC). DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTING: Academic Institution. PARTICIPANT: 21,261 embryos from 3,155 cycles cultured in EmbryoScope®. RESULTS: The total incidence of DUCs per embryo occupying the first three cleavages were 26...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905550/deep-sequencing-of-transcriptome-profiling-of-gstm2-knock-down-in-swine-testis-cells
#6
Yuqi Lv, Yi Jin, Yongqiang Zhou, Jianjun Jin, Zhenfa Ma, Zhuqing Ren
Glutathione-S-transferases mu 2 (GSTM2), a kind of important Phase II antioxidant enzyme of eukaryotes, is degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay due to a C27T substitution in the fifth exon of pigs. As a reproductive performance-related gene, GSTM2 is involved in embryo implantation, whereas, functional deficiency of GSTM2 induces pre- or post-natal death in piglets potentially. To have some insight into the role of GSTM2 in embryo development, high throughput RNA sequencing is performed using the swine testis cells (ST) with the deletion of GSTM2...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903796/decreased-endometrial-expression-of-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-receptor-disrupts-the-stat3-signaling-in-adenomyosis-during-the-implantation-window
#7
Chih-Feng Yen, Shuen-Kuei Liao, S Joseph Huang, Selcuk Tabak, Felice Arcuri, Chyi-Long Lee, Aydin Arici, Felice Petraglia, Hsin-Shih Wang, Umit A Kayisli
BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis was found to have negative impacts on embryo implantation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), proposed to be a molecular marker for endometrial receptivity, works through the LIF receptor (LIFR) on both the embryo and the endometrium. We aimed to evaluate the endometrial expression of LIF and LIFR and its subsequent signaling in patients with adenomyosis during the window of implantation (WOI). METHODS: Endometrium was obtained during the WOI from patients with adenomyosis (age <45 years) who underwent hysterectomy and from age-matched controls who had no endometriosis or adenomyosis...
November 30, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896299/basement-membrane-ultrastructure-and-component-localization-data-from-uterine-tissues-during-early-mouse-pregnancy
#8
Celestial R Jones-Paris, Sayan Paria, Taloa Berg, Juan Saus, Gautam Bhave, Bibhash C Paria, Billy G Hudson
Basement membranes (BMs) are specialized extracellular scaffolds that provide architecture and modulate cell behaviors in tissues, such as fat, muscle, endothelium, endometrium, and decidua. Properties of BMs are maintained in homeostasis for most adult tissues. However, BM ultrastructure, composition, and localization are rapidly altered in select uterine tissues that are reprogrammed during pregnancy to enable early maternal-embryo interactions. Here, our data exhibit both static and dynamic BMs that were tracked in mouse uterine tissues during pre-, peri-, and postimplantation periods of pregnancy...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896242/intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-outcomes-with-freshly-ejaculated-sperms-and-testicular-or-epididymal-sperm-extraction-in-patients-with-idiopathic-cryptozoospermia
#9
Ali Asghar Ketabchi
BACKGROUND: Cryptozoospermia (CO) is a situation in which spermatozoa cannot be observed in a fresh semen sample unless an extended centrifugation and microscopic search are performed. CO patients are suggested to use only intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as infertility treatment. But still there is debate about the choice of sperm source in cryptozoospermic men candidate for ICSI. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate fertility outcomes in men with idiopathic cryptozoospermia who were treated using ICSI with freshly ejaculated sperm and testis sperm extraction (TESE) or percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)...
November 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894976/comparison-of-the-clinical-outcomes-of-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-between-spermatozoa-retrieved-from-testicular-biopsy-and-from-ejaculate-in-cryptozoospermia-patients
#10
Xianfeng Cui, Pan Ding, Ge Gao, Yunshan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) between spermatozoa retrieved from testicular biopsy and from ejaculate in cryptozoospermia patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 285 cryptozoospermia patients, who underwent ICSI treatment in our center during the period from March 2009 to November 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Within them, ejaculated sperms were used in 214 cases (group 1) and testicular sperms extracted by testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) or conventional testis dissection sperm extraction (TESE) were used in 71 cases (group 2)...
November 25, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894197/temporal-validation-of-a-simplified-blastocyst-grading-system
#11
Alison Richardson, Sophie Brearley, Saran Ahitan, Sarah Chamberlain, Tracey Davey, Lyndsey Zujovic, James Hopkisson, Bruce Campbell, Nick Raine-Fenning
We have recently established the clinical effectiveness and credibility of a simplified blastocyst grading system by demonstrating its prognostic potential and the inter- and intra-observer variability associated with it. To be considered clinically useful, however, the grading system also needs to be accurate (i.e. well calibrated with good discriminative ability). This study prospectively evaluates the performance of the grading system on subsequent patients from the same IVF unit in an attempt to temporally validate the model...
November 28, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890611/histone-methyltransferase-setdb1-is-indispensable-for-meckel-s-cartilage-development
#12
Kohei Yahiro, Norihisa Higashihori, Keiji Moriyama
The histone methyltransferase Setdb1 represses gene expression by catalyzing lysine 9 of histone H3 trimethylation. Given that the conventional knockout of Setdb1 is embryo-lethal at the implantation stage, its role in craniofacial development is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Setdb1, using conditional knockout mice-in which Setdb1 was deleted in the Meckel's cartilage (Setdb1 CKO)-and the mouse chondrogenic cell line ATDC5-in which Setdb1 was inhibited by siRNA. Deletion of Setdb1 in Meckel's cartilage, the supportive tissue in the embryonic mandible, led to its enlargement, instead of the degeneration that normally occurs...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889789/effect-of-natural-cycle-endometrial-preparation-for-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer-in-patients-with-advanced-endometriosis
#13
Haiyan Guo, Yun Wang, Qiuju Chen, Weiran Chai, Qifeng Lv, Yanping Kuang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural cycle (NC) endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) in women with advanced endometriosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study included 179 patients with stage III-IV endometriosis who underwent 233 FET cycles at a tertiary care academic reproductive medical center between March 2011 and August 2013 (group A). The control group included 258 patients with tubal factor infertility who underwent 300 FET cycles (group B)...
November 27, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884089/an-animal-model-of-effects-of-nicotine-exposure-on-endometrial-receptivity-and-embryo-implantation-in-pregnancy
#14
Yaşam Kemal Akpak, Yasemin Çekmez, Aslı Erdoğan Çakır, Nilay Karaca, Gonca Batmaz, Serdar Gülşen, Esra Tuştaş Haberal
OBJECTIVE: This study aims at evaluating the endometrial receptivity in uterus of pregnant rats exposed to nicotine via examination of integrin expression by immunohistochemical effect. METHODS: In this study, 16 healthy pregnant rats were divided into two groups of control and study groups each comprising 8 rats. The rats randomised to study group were given a certain amount of nicotine before and during the pregnancy. Integrin expression was detected in uterus of all rats by immunohistochemical staining...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884061/embryos-cultured-in-a-time-lapse-system-result-in-superior-treatment-outcomes-a-strict-matched-pair-analysis
#15
Amy Barrie, Roy Homburg, Garry McDowell, Jeremy Brown, Charles Kingsland, Stephen Troup
A retrospective strict matched-pair analysis of 728 treatment cycles between January 2011 and September 2014 was performed. A total of 364 treatment cycles, where all embryos were cultured and examined in EmbryoScope(®), were matched to treatment cycles where all the embryos were cultured in a standard incubator with conventional morphological examination. Matching was performed for patient age, number of oocytes collected, treatment type and date of oocyte collection (± six months). The clinical (CPR), implantation (IR), live birth (LBR) and miscarriage rates (MR) were calculated and considered significant when p < 0...
November 24, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883036/the-mevalonate-pathway-regulates-primitive-streak-formation-via-protein-farnesylation
#16
Yoshimi Okamoto-Uchida, Ruoxing Yu, Norio Miyamura, Norie Arima, Mari Ishigami-Yuasa, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Suguru Yoshida, Takamitsu Hosoya, Makiko Nawa, Takeshi Kasama, Yoichi Asaoka, Reiner Wimmer Alois, Ulrich Elling, Josef M Penninger, Sachiko Nishina, Noriyuki Azuma, Hiroshi Nishina
The primitive streak in peri-implantation embryos forms the mesoderm and endoderm and controls cell differentiation. The metabolic cues regulating primitive streak formation remain largely unknown. Here we utilised a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation system and a library of well-characterised drugs to identify these metabolic factors. We found that statins, which inhibit the mevalonate metabolic pathway, suppressed primitive streak formation in vitro and in vivo. Using metabolomics and pharmacologic approaches we identified the downstream signalling pathway of mevalonate and revealed that primitive streak formation requires protein farnesylation but not cholesterol synthesis...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881083/loss-of-maternal-annexin-a10-via-a-34-kb-deleted-type-copy-number-variation-is-associated-with-embryonic-mortality-in-japanese-black-cattle
#17
Shinji Sasaki, Takayuki Ibi, Takayuki Akiyama, Moriyuki Fukushima, Yoshikazu Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Conception is a fundamental trait for successful cattle reproduction. However, conception rates in Japanese Black cattle have been gradually declining over the last two decades. Although conception failures are mainly caused by embryonic mortality, the role of maternal genetic factors in the process remains unknown. Copy number variation (CNV), defined as large-scale genomic structural variants, contributes to several genetic disorders. To identify CNV associated with embryonic mortality in Japanese Black cattle, we evaluated embryonic mortality as a categorical trait with a threshold model and conducted a genome-wide CNV association study for embryonic mortality using 791 animals...
November 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875265/oviduct-roles-in-fertilization-and-early-embryo-development
#18
REVIEW
Shuai Li, Wipawee Winuthayanon
Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873161/fgf-treatment-of-host-embryos-injected-with-es-cells-increases-rates-of-chimaerism
#19
Cathérine Dupont, Friedemann Loos, John Kong-A-San, Joost Gribnau
In spite of the emergence of genome editing tools, ES cell mediated transgenesis remains the most controllable way of creating genetically modified animals. Although tetraploid (4N) complementation of 4N host embryos and ES cells, is the only method guaranteeing that offspring are entirely ES cell derived, this technique is challenging, not always successful and difficult to implement in some laboratory settings. The current study shows that pretreatment of host blastocysts with FGF4 prior to ES cell injection can provide an alternative method for the generation of animals displaying high rates of chimaerism...
November 21, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873053/relationship-between-the-mechanism-of-hepatitis-b-virus-father-infant-transmission-and-pregnancy-outcome
#20
Ying Kong, Yi Liu, Xiaojing Liu, Na Li, Zirong Zhu, Aiyun Zhang, Jianxue Liu, Feng Ye, Shumei Lin
PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between the mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) father-infant transmission via reproductive cells and pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Abandoned in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos of fathers with chronic HBV infection were taken as study objects. HBV mRNA in embryos was detected, and successfully transplanted embryos were followed up to determine the relationship between HBV-infected embryos and pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: HBV mRNA signals were detected in one embryo in the group with HBV-positive fathers; the positive rate was 1/18 (5...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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