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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637289/the-importance-of-knowing-when-you-don-t-remember-neural-signaling-of-retrieval-failure-predicts-memory-improvement-over-time
#1
Yana Fandakova, Silvia A Bunge, Carter Wendelken, Peter Desautels, Lauren Hunter, Joshua K Lee, Simona Ghetti
Just as the ability to remember prior events is critical for guiding our decision-making, so too is the ability to recognize the limitations of our memory. Indeed, we hypothesize that neural signaling of retrieval failure promotes more accurate memory judgments over time. To test this hypothesis, we collected longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 8 to 9 years olds, 10 to 12 years olds, and adults, with two time points spaced approximately 1.4 years apart (198 scan sessions in total)...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637221/digital-direct-detection-of-micrornas-using-single-molecule-arrays
#2
Limor Cohen, Mark R Hartman, Aaron Amardey-Wellington, David R Walt
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many biological pathways, and detecting miRNAs accurately is critical for diagnosing a variety of diseases including cancer. However, most current methods for miRNA detection require lengthy sample preparation and amplification steps that can bias the results. In addition, lack of specificity and reproducibility give rise to various challenges in detection of circulating miRNAs in biological samples. In this work, we applied the Single Molecule Array (Simoa) technique to develop an ultra-sensitive sandwich assay for direct detection of multiple miRNAs without pre-amplification...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637087/deleting-pck-improves-growth-and-suppresses-by-product-formation-during-1-3-propanediol-fermentation-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#3
Yongqiang Zhang, Zongxiao Ji, Jie Lin, Danfeng Xu, Shuilin Fu, Heng Gong
AIMS: To investigate the role of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation in cell metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of deleting pck, which encodes PEP carboxykinase (PCK), and/or ppc, which encodes PEP carboxylase (PPC), on growth, enzyme activity, and metabolite formation of K. pneumoniae were investigated. A self-regulatory mechanism of PEP carboxylation was found in ppc- or pck-deficient mutants, which resulted in almost no change of succinate formation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636946/ptbp2-controls-an-alternative-splicing-network-required-for-cell-communication-during-spermatogenesis
#4
Molly M Hannigan, Leah L Zagore, Donny D Licatalosi
Alternative splicing has essential roles in development. Remarkably, spermatogenic cells express more alternatively spliced RNAs compared to most whole tissues; however, regulation of these RNAs remains unclear. Here, we characterize the alternative splicing landscape during spermatogenesis and reveal an essential function for the RNA-binding protein Ptbp2 in this highly regulated developmental program. We found that Ptbp2 controls a network of genes involved in cell adhesion, migration, and polarity, suggesting that splicing regulation by Ptbp2 is critical for germ cell communication with Sertoli cells (multifunctional somatic cells necessary for spermatogenesis)...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636938/the-ldb1-complex-co-opts-ctcf-for-erythroid-lineage-specific-long-range-enhancer-interactions
#5
Jongjoo Lee, Ivan Krivega, Ryan K Dale, Ann Dean
Lineage-specific transcription factors are critical for long-range enhancer interactions, but direct or indirect contributions of architectural proteins such as CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) to enhancer function remain less clear. The LDB1 complex mediates enhancer-gene interactions at the β-globin locus through LDB1 self-interaction. We find that an LDB1-bound enhancer upstream of carbonic anhydrase 2 (Car2) activates its expression by interacting directly with CTCF at the gene promoter. Both LDB1 and CTCF are required for enhancer-Car2 looping, and the domain of LDB1 contacted by CTCF is necessary to rescue Car2 transcription in LDB1-deficient cells...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636876/tissue-alignment-enhances-remodeling-potential-of-tendon-derived-cells-lessons-from-a-novel-microtissue-model-of-tendon-scarring
#6
Jasper Foolen, Stefania L Wunderli, Sandra Loerakker, Jess G Snedeker
Tendinopathy is a widespread and unresolved clinical challenge, in which associated pain and hampered mobility present a major cause for work-related disability. Tendinopathy associates with a change from a healthy tissue with aligned extracellular matrix (ECM) and highly polarized cells that are connected head-to-tail, towards a diseased tissue with a disorganized ECM and randomly distributed cells, scar-like features that are commonly attributed to poor innate regenerative capacity of the tissue. A fundamental clinical dilemma with this scarring process is whether treatment strategies should focus on healing the affected (disorganized) tissue or strengthen the remaining healthy (anisotropic) tissue...
June 18, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#7
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636684/balanced-work-function-as-a-driver-for-facile-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-comprehension-and-experimental-assessment-of-interfacial-catalytic-descriptor
#8
Aleksandar R Zeradjanin, Ashokanand Vimalanandan, George Polymeros, Angel A Topalov, Karl J J Mayrhofer, Michael Rohwerder
A major step in the development of (electro)catalysis would be the possibility to estimate accurately the energetics of adsorption processes related to reaction intermediates. Computational chemistry (e.g. using DFT) developed significantly in that direction and allowed the fast prediction of (electro)catalytic activity trends and improved the general understanding of adsorption at electrochemical interfaces. However, building a reliable and comprehensive picture of electrocatalytic reactions undoubtedly requires experimental assessment of adsorption energies...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636600/hidden-morphological-diversity-among-early-tetrapods
#9
Jason D Pardo, Matt Szostakiwskyj, Per E Ahlberg, Jason S Anderson
Phylogenetic analysis of early tetrapod evolution has resulted in a consensus across diverse data sets in which the tetrapod stem group is a relatively homogenous collection of medium- to large-sized animals showing a progressive loss of 'fish' characters as they become increasingly terrestrial, whereas the crown group demonstrates marked morphological diversity and disparity. The oldest fossil attributed to the tetrapod crown group is the highly specialized aïstopod Lethiscus stocki, which shows a small size, extreme axial elongation, loss of limbs, spool-shaped vertebral centra, and a skull with reduced centres of ossification, in common with an otherwise disparate group of small animals known as lepospondyls...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#10
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636443/personal-protective-equipment-supply-chain-lessons-learned-from-recent-public-health-emergency-responses
#11
Anita Patel, Maryann M D'Alessandro, Karen J Ireland, W Greg Burel, Elaine B Wencil, Sonja A Rasmussen
Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636411/asthma-and-influenza-vaccination-in-elderly-hospitalized-patients-matched-case-control-study-in-spain
#12
María Morales Suárez-Varela, Agustin Llopis, Estrella Fernandez-Fabrellas, Francisco Sanz, M Jose Perez-Lozano, Vicente Martin, Jenaro Astray, Jesús Castilla, Mikel Egurrola, Luis Force, Diana Toledo, Àngela Domínguez
OBJECTIVES: Influenza infection is an exacerbating factor for asthma, and its prevention is critical in managing asthmatic patients. We investigated the effect of influenza vaccination on asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza in Spain. METHODS: We made a matched case-control study to assess the frequency of hospitalization for influenza in people aged ≥65 years. Hospitalized patients with unplanned hospital admissions were recruited from 20 hospitals representing seven Spanish regions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636383/gene-expression-profiling-in-human-lung-cells-exposed-to-isoprene-derived-secondary-organic-aerosol
#13
Ying-Hsuan Lin, Maiko Arashiro, Phillip W Clapp, Tianqu Cui, Kenneth G Sexton, William Vizuete, Avram Gold, Ilona Jaspers, Rebecca C Fry, Jason Douglas Surratt
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene contributes a substantial mass fraction to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The formation of isoprene SOA is influenced largely by anthropogenic emissions through multiphase chemistry of its multi-generational oxidation products. Considering the abundance of isoprene SOA in the troposphere, understanding mechanisms of adverse health effects through inhalation exposure is critical to mitigating its potential impact on public health...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636369/dynamics-of-charged-species-in-ionic-neutral-block-copolymer-and-surfactant-complexes
#14
Jose M Borreguero, Philip A Pincus, Bobby G Sumpter, Monojoy Goswami
Structure-property relationships of ionic block copolymer (BCP) surfactant complexes are critical towards the progress of favorable engineering design of efficient charge transport materials. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations are used to understand the dynamics of charge-neutral BCP and surfactant complexes. The dynamics are examined for two different systems, charged-neutral double hydrophilic and hydrophobic-hydrophilic block copolymers with oppositely charged surfactant moieties. The dynamics of the surfactant head, tails and charges are studied for five different BCP volume fractions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636359/relativistic-approximations-to-paramagnetic-nmr-chemical-shift-and-shielding-anisotropy-in-transition-metal-systems
#15
Syed Awais Rouf, Jiří Mareš, Juha Vaara
We apply approximate relativistic methods to calculate the magnetic property tensors, i.e., the g-tensor, zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor (D), and hyperfine coupling (HFC) tensors, for the purpose of constructing paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance (pNMR) shielding tensors. The chemical shift and shielding anisotropy are calculated by applying a modern implementation of the classic Kurland-McGarvey theory (J. Magn. Reson. 1970, 2, 286), which formulates the shielding tensor in terms of the g- and HFC tensors obtained for the ground multiplet, in the case of higher than doublet multiplicity defined by the ZFS interaction...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636077/arabidopsis-shaker-pollen-inward-k-channel-spik-functions-in-snrk1-complex-regulated-pollen-hydration-on-the-stigma
#16
Dan-Dan Li, Huan Guan, Fei Li, Chang-Zhen Liu, Yu-Xiu Dong, Xian-Sheng Zhang, Xin-Qi Gao
Pollen hydration is a critical step that determines pollen germination on stigma. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex (SnRK1 complex). In pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were decreased which lead to compromised hydration of the mutant pollen on stigma. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in kinβγ mutant pollen by RNA-seq and found the expression of inward shaker K(+) channel SPIK was down-regulated in the kinβγ pollen...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635983/risk-factors-for-re-excision-following-breast-conserving-surgery
#17
Kimberly Rodriguez, Gayle G Wilkins, Patricia Newcomb, Patricia A Gwirtz, Robin Skrine
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To identify previously unstudied factors predicting re-excision following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and to assess the feasibility of obtaining data about breast density for predictive modeling.
. DESIGN: Retrospective secondary data analysis.
. SETTING: Data were obtained from the cancer registry and electronic health records (EHRs) at Texas Health Harris Methodist Hospital, a large, urban, private, nonprofit hospital in North Texas...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635678/evaluation-of-classifier-performance-for-multiclass-phenotype-discrimination-in-untargeted-metabolomics
#18
Patrick J Trainor, Andrew P DeFilippis, Shesh N Rai
Statistical classification is a critical component of utilizing metabolomics data for examining the molecular determinants of phenotypes. Despite this, a comprehensive and rigorous evaluation of the accuracy of classification techniques for phenotype discrimination given metabolomics data has not been conducted. We conducted such an evaluation using both simulated and real metabolomics datasets, comparing Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Sparse PLS-DA, Random Forests, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Artificial Neural Network, k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), and Naïve Bayes classification techniques for discrimination...
June 21, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635614/advanced-treatment-planning-using-direct-4d-optimisation-for-pencil-beam-scanned-particle-therapy
#19
Kinga Bernatowicz, Ye Zhang, Rosalind Lucy Perrin, Damien Charles Weber, Antony John Lomax
We report on development of a new four-dimensional (4D) optimisation approach for scanned proton beams, which incorporates both irregular motion patterns and the delivery dynamics of the treatment machine into the plan optimiser. Furthermore, we assess the effectiveness of this technique to reduce dose to critical structures in proximity to moving targets, while maintaining effective target dose homogeneity and coverage. The proposed approach has been tested using both a simulated phantom and a clinical liver cancer case, and allows for realistic 4D calculations and optimisation using irregular breathing patterns extracted from e...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635594/translation-repression-via-modulation-of-the-cytoplasmic-poly-a-binding-protein-in-the-inflammatory-response
#20
Xu Zhang, Xiaoli Chen, Qiuying Liu, Shaojie Zhang, Wenqian Hu
Gene expression is precisely regulated during the inflammatory response to control infection and limit the detrimental effects of inflammation. Here, we profiled global mRNA translation dynamics in the mouse primary macrophage-mediated inflammatory response and identified hundreds of differentially translated mRNAs. These mRNAs' 3'UTRs have enriched binding motifs for several RNA-binding proteins, which implies extensive translational regulatory networks. We characterized one such protein, Zfp36, as a translation repressor...
June 21, 2017: ELife
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