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Prophylactic antibiotics Audits

Aparna Gangopadhyay
Aim: To identify risk factors that lower efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia among older patients on chemoradiation. Background: Audit of institutional data showed that older adults are at higher risk of febrile neutropenia during chemoradiation. In limited resource settings widespread use of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is not economically feasible and antibiotics are used commonly. Despite compliance with antibiotics, prophylaxis is inadequate in many patients owing to patient and tumor related factors...
May 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
February 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Natalie M Lowe, Jonathan M Bernstein, Kathleen Mais, Kate Garcez, Lip W Lee, Andrew Sykes, David J Thomson, Jarrod J Homer, Catharine M West, Nicholas J Slevin
PURPOSE: The benefit of adding docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) induction chemotherapy to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate whether ICT is well tolerated when given with prophylactic treatment against predicted adverse effects and which patients benefit most. METHODS: A single-centre audit identified 132 HNSCC patients with stage IVa/b neck node-positive disease, prescribed TPF followed by CRT...
February 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Alon Vaisman, Janine McCready, Sandy Hicks, Jeff Powis
Background: Use of alternative second-line antibiotics is associated with adverse events in patients reporting β-lactam allergy. In the perioperative setting, we hypothesized that structured allergy histories, without the use of skin testing, can reduce alternative prophylactic antibiotic use. Objectives: Assess the impact of structured allergy histories on patients with self-reported β-lactam allergy (SRBA) undergoing elective surgical procedures. Methods: Structured allergy histories were performed by a pharmacist and reviewed with an infectious diseases physician...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jan W T Deelen, Caroline E Visser, Jan M Prins, Reinier M van Hest
BACKGROUND: The prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents to prevent infections in non-surgical situations has hardly been investigated. We investigate the extent, indications and appropriateness of antimicrobial prophylaxis given outside the operating room in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Four point-prevalence surveys were conducted in which all inpatients on that day were screened for the use of prophylactic antimicrobials: medical prophylaxis, prophylaxis around non-surgical interventions and surgical prophylaxis given on the ward...
April 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Katja Weiss, Arne Simon, Norbert Graf, Jakob Schöpe, Joachim Oertel, Stefan Linsler
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP) has been identified as an important target for internal audits, concerning the judicious use of antibiotics. Paediatric oncology patients with brain tumours face an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery and receive routine PAP in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients younger than 18 years admitted to the paediatric oncology centre (POC) with a neurosurgical intervention...
January 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
P Ym Woo, H T Wong, J Ks Pu, W K Wong, L Yw Wong, M Wy Lee, K Y Yam, W M Lui, W S Poon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of primary ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection among patients treated at neurosurgical centres of the Hospital Authority and to identify underlying risk factors. METHODS: This multicentre historical cohort study included consecutive patients who underwent primary ventriculoperitoneal shunting at a Hospital Authority neurosurgery centre from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011. The primary endpoint was shunt infection, defined as: (1) the presence of cerebrospinal fluid or shunt hardware culture that yielded the pathogenic micro-organism with associated compatible symptoms and signs of central nervous system infection or shunt malfunction; or (2) surgical incision site infection requiring shunt reinsertion (even in the absence of positive culture); or (3) intraperitoneal pseudocyst formation (even in the absence of positive culture)...
October 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Saiprasad Ravi, Mark Zhu, Christopher Luey, Simon W Young
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic antibiotics significantly reduce prosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates after hip and knee arthroplasty. However, rising antibiotic resistance has raised concerns over the adequacy of conventional prophylaxis. This study aimed to identify organisms causing PJIs in hip and knee arthroplasty secondary to perioperative contamination and their susceptibility to current prophylactic antibiotics. METHODS: We performed a retrospective audit of 4009 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (1852 hips and 2157 knees) at three tertiary referral hospitals...
December 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Kevin Phan, Konrad Schultz, Christopher Huang, Stephen Halcrow, John Fuller, David McDowell, Peter J Mews, Prashanth J Rao
External ventricular drains (EVD) are crucial for the emergency management of hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure. Infection is the most morbid and costly cause of EVD malfunction and can cost up to $50,000 US to treat per case. In 2007, Canberra Hospital changed EVD management protocols requiring set-up of EVD transducer systems in theatre, cessation of prophylactic antibiotics after 24hours, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples second or third daily and discontinuation of elective EVD changes. The current study aimed to retrospectively audit EVD inserted between 2006 and 2010 in order to determine the impact of these changes...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
J A Greenberg, J Hsu, M Bawazeer, J Marshall, J O Friedrich, A Nathens, N Coburn, H Huang, R S McLeod
Despite existing evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, clinical compliance with recommendations is poor. We conducted a retrospective review of 248 patients admitted between 2010 and 2012 with acute pancreatitis at eight University of Toronto affiliated hospitals. We included all patients admitted to ICU (52) and 25 ward patients from each site (196). Management was compared with the most current evidence used in the Best Practice in General Surgery Management of Acute Pancreatitis Guideline...
February 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Maryam Nesvaderani, Guy D Eslick, Shadi Faraj, Daniel Vagg, Michael R Cox
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute surgical presentation with evidence-based guidelines for early management. The aim of this study was to assess the compliance to the published guidelines in patients presenting with AP in Western Sydney. METHODS: A retrospective case note audit was conducted for all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of AP from 2008 to 2011 in Western Sydney. RESULTS: There were 932 patients. The mortality was low for mild (0...
October 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Lalit Kalra, Saddif Irshad, John Hodsoll, Matthew Simpson, Martin Gulliford, David Smithard, Anita Patel, Irene Rebollo-Mesa
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke pneumonia is associated with increased mortality and poor functional outcomes. This study assessed the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for reducing pneumonia in patients with dysphagia after acute stroke. METHODS: We did a prospective, multicentre, cluster-randomised, open-label controlled trial with masked endpoint assessment of patients older than 18 years with dysphagia after new stroke recruited from 48 stroke units in the UK, accredited and included in the UK National Stroke Audit...
November 7, 2015: Lancet
P Owens, S McHugh, M Clarke-Moloney, D Healy, F Fitzpatrick, P McCormick, E Kavanagh
As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded...
March 2015: Irish Medical Journal
Tori Sutherland, Jennifer Beloff, Marie Lightowler, Xiaoxia Liu, Luigino Nascimben, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
BACKGROUND: The Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) was launched in 2005. The core prophylactic perioperative antibiotic guidelines were created due to recognition of the impact of proper perioperative prophylaxis on an estimated annual one million inpatient days and $1.6 billion in excess health care costs secondary to preventable surgical site infections (SSIs). An internal study was conducted to create low cost, standardized processes on an institutional level to improve compliance with prophylactic antibiotic administration...
2014: Patient Safety in Surgery
S O'Neill, A G Robertson, A J Robson, C H Richards, G A Nicholson, D Mittapalli
PURPOSE: This audit assessed inguinal hernia surgery in Scotland and measured compliance with British Hernia Society Guidelines (2013), specifically regarding management of bilateral and recurrent inguinal hernias. It also assessed the feasibility of a national trainee-led audit, evaluated regional variations in practise and gauged operative exposure of trainees. METHODS: A prospective audit of adult inguinal hernia repairs across every region in Scotland (30 hospitals in 14 NHS boards) over 2-weeks was co-ordinated by the Scottish Surgical Research Group (SSRG)...
October 2015: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Shamir O Cawich, Santosh Kulkarni, Michael Ramdass, Dale Hassranah, Ian Bambury, Loxley R Christie, Vijay Naraynsingh
CONTEXT: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries occur uncommonly in Caribbean practice but are accompanied by substantial morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinicians' compliance with management guidelines at a national referral hospital in Jamaica. DESIGN: Retrospective review of the records of all consecutive obstetric patients with anal sphincter injuries between November 1, 2007, and December 30, 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was the completion of each of 8 tasks from existing management guidelines: 1) interdisciplinary consultation, 2) perineal examination with the patient under anesthesia, 3) injury repair in the operating room, 4) prophylactic antibiotics at induction, 5) repair by an experienced clinician, 6) repair method appropriate for injury grade, 7) slowly absorbable suture chosen for sphincter repair, and 8) rapidly absorbable suture for mucosal repair...
2014: Permanente Journal
Marcelino Yazbek Hanna, Catherine Tremlett, Gurvir Josan, Ali Eltom, Robert Mills, Mark Rochester, David M Livermore
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate in the Norwich population, and its correlation with ciprofloxacin resistance in the faecal flora. We also aimed to determine the usefulness of a pre-biopsy rectal screen for resistant bacteria in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The incidence and microbiology of sepsis after TRUS-guided prostate biopsies between 2007 and 2011 was audited retrospectively...
July 2015: BJU International
N Morisaki, T Ganchimeg, E Ota, J P Vogel, J P Souza, R Mori, A M Gülmezoglu
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the variability in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section, and its effect on the prevention of postoperative infections. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study. SETTING: Twenty-nine countries participating in the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. POPULATION: Three hundred and fifty-nine health facilities with the capacity to perform caesarean section...
March 2014: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Brigid M Gillespie, Wendy Chaboyer, Evelyn Kang, Jayne Hewitt, Paul Nieuwenhoven, Nicola Morley
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine wound assessment and management in patients following surgery and to compare these practices with current evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infection across one healthcare services district in Queensland, Australia. BACKGROUND: Despite innovations in surgical techniques, technological advances and environmental improvements in the operating room, and the use of prophylactic antibiotics, surgical site infections remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients following surgery...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur, Yousif M A, Ahmed S A El-Sayed, Manar E Abdel-Rahman
INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infections account for 14%-25% of all nosocomial infections. The main aims of this study were to audit the use of prophylactic antibiotic, to quantify the rate of post-operative wound infection, and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in general surgery. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the General Surgery Department in Khartoum Teaching Hospital- Sudan. All Adult patients (age ≥18 years) admitted during March 1(st) to 31(st) October 2010 were recruited...
December 2013: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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