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Iñigo Molina, Estibaliz Martinez, Carmen Morillo, Jesus Velasco, Alvaro Jara
In this work a parametric multi-sensor Bayesian data fusion approach and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used for a Change Detection problem. For this purpose two sets of SPOT5-PAN images have been used, which are in turn used for Change Detection Indices (CDIs) calculation. For minimizing radiometric differences, a methodology based on zonal "invariant features" is suggested. The choice of one or the other CDI for a change detection process is a subjective task as each CDI is probably more or less sensitive to certain types of changes...
September 30, 2016: Sensors
Asser Mathiassen Oppfeldt, Jens F Dahlerup, Lisbet A Christensen, Christian L Hvas
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used to treat refractory and recurring Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Although FMT appears to be safe and highly effective in patients with a preserved colon and immunocompetence, its use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are on immunomodulating therapies is controversial. In particular, patients who have undergone colectomy may have different treatment responses to FMT. In this case report, we describe the successful use of FMT in a female patient aged 19 years with Crohn's disease who underwent ileorectal anastomosis following colectomy...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Saara M Kotila, Silja Mentula, Jukka Ollgren, Anni Virolainen-Julkunen, Outi Lyytikäinen
We evaluated incidence, case-fatality rate, and trends of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in Finland during 2008-2013. CDIs were identified in the National Infectious Disease Register, deaths in the National Population Information System, hospitalizations to classify infections as CA or HA in the National Hospital Discharge Register, and genotypes in a reference laboratory. A total of 32,991 CDIs were identified: 10,643 (32.3%) were CA (32.9 cases/100,000 population) and 22,348 (67...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
R Landin-Romero, P J McKenna, A Romaguera, E Álvarez-Moya, S Sarró, C Aguirre, C Sarri, A Compte, C Bosque, R Salvador, E Pomarol-Clotet
BACKGROUND: A key finding underlying the continuum of psychosis concept is the presence of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy subjects. However, it remains uncertain to what extent these experiences are related to the genetic risk for schizophrenia and how far they actually resemble attenuated forms of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Forty-nine adults with no history of mental illness in first-degree relatives and 59 siblings of patients with schizophrenia were rated on the psychosis section of the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule IV (C DIS-IV) and the Rust Inventory of Schizotypal Cognitions (RISC)...
September 12, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Jen-Chieh Lee, Yuan-Pin Hung, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
Critical patients are susceptible to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), which cause significant morbidity and mortality in the hospital. In Taiwan, the epidemiology of CDI in intensive care units (ICUs) is not well understood. This study was aimed to describe the incidence and the characteristics of CDI in the ICUs of a medical center in southern Taiwan. Adult patients with diarrhea but without colostomy/colectomy or laxative use were enrolled. Stool samples were collected with or without 5 ml alcohol and were plated on cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar...
2016: PloS One
Warren N Fawley, Kerrie A Davies, Trefor Morris, Peter Parnell, Robin Howe, Mark H Wilcox
There are limited national epidemiological data for community-associated (CA)-Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Between March 2011 and March 2013, laboratories in England submitted to the Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) up to 10 diarrhoeal faecal samples from successive patients with CA-CDI, defined here as C. difficile toxin-positive diarrhoea commencing outside hospital (or less than 48 hours after hospital admission), including those cases associated with community-based residential care, with no discharge from hospital within the previous 12 weeks...
July 21, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
D Lefevre-Tantet-Etchebarne, V Sivadon-Tardy, B Davido, F Bouchand, J Grenet, E Farfour, R Getti, C Duran, M Chéron, E Mathieu, J Salomon, A Dinh
OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become an emerging infectious disease, especially in community settings. Little data is available on its frequency and characteristics in France. We aimed to describe CDI case patients consulting at the emergency department and to compare community-acquired and nosocomial CDIs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study over a three-year period of community-acquired and nosocomial CDI case patients seen at the emergency department and compared their characteristics...
July 1, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Efthymios D Avgerinos, Nathan L Liang, Omar M El-Shazly, Catalyn Toma, Michael J Singh, Michel S Makaroun, Rabih A Chaer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and midterm outcomes of catheter-directed intervention (CDI) compared with anticoagulation (AC) alone in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (sPE). METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all patients treated for sPE between January 2009 and October 2014. Two groups were identified on the basis of the therapy: AC and CDI. End points included complications, mortality, and change in echocardiographic parameters...
July 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Linda A Selvey, Claudia Slimings, David J L Joske, Thomas V Riley
OBJECTIVES: Identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and assess CDI outcomes among Australian patients with a haematological malignancy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving all patients admitted to hospitals in Western Australia with a haematological malignancy from July 2011 to June 2012. Hospital admission data were linked with all hospital investigated CDI case data. Potential risk factors were assessed by logistic regression...
2016: PloS One
Larry K Kociolek, Dale N Gerding, James R Osmolski, Sameer J Patel, David R Snydman, Laura A McDermott, David W Hecht
The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in adults is partly related to the global spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, namely, BI/NAP1/027. Although CDIs are also increasingly diagnosed in children, BI/NAP1/027 is relatively uncommon in children. Little is known about the antibiotic susceptibility of pediatric CDI isolates. C. difficile was cultured from tcdB-positive stools collected from children diagnosed with CDI between December 2012 and December 2013 at an academic children's hospital...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Giuseppe Esposito, Nicola Nobile, Stefano Gigli, Luisa Seguella, Marcella Pesce, Alessandra d'Alessandro, Eugenia Bruzzese, Elena Capoccia, Luca Steardo, Rosario Cuomo, Giovanni Sarnelli
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) caused by Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) lead to severe ulceration, inflammation and bleeding of the colon, and are difficult to treat. AIM: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of rifaximin on TcdA-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and investigate the role of PXR in its mechanism of action. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were incubated with TcdA and treated with rifaximin (0...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Kyriakos K Trigkidis, Eleni Boukouvala, Matthew E Falagas
Antibiotics have been the most important risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, only data from non-randomised studies have been reviewed. We sought to evaluate the risk for development of CDI associated with the major antibiotic classes by analysing data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched and the references of selected RCTs were also hand-searched. Eligible studies should have compared only one antibiotic versus another administered systemically...
July 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
C Alicino, D R Giacobbe, P Durando, D Bellina, A M DI Bella, C Paganino, V Del Bono, C Viscoli, G Icardi, A Orsi
Limited information is available on the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in Italian hospitals. In this study, we assessed the changes in the incidence of CDI over a 5-year period in a teaching hospital in Liguria, the Italian region with the oldest population. Secondary endpoints were the development of severe CDI and 30-day mortality. The annual incidence of CDI/10000 patient-days significantly increased from 0·54 in 2010 to 3·04 in 2014 (χ 2 for trend, P < 0·001). The median age of patients with CDI was 81 years...
September 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Larry K Kociolek, Maria Bovee, Donna Carter, Jody D Ciolino, Rupal Patel, Anna O'Donnell, Angela H Rupp, Xiaotian Zheng, Stanford T Shulman, Sameer J Patel
BACKGROUND: Although Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are increasingly diagnosed in children, many children diagnosed with CDI lack classic risk factors. Frequent use of highly sensitive tcdB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in low-risk patients leads to CDI misdiagnosis and unnecessary CDI antibiotic use in children with C difficile carriage. METHODS: For this quasi-experimental study, we developed and implemented an educational intervention (EI) to inform healthcare providers (HCPs) about tcdB PCR test limitations...
May 17, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Michael C Frank, Mika Braginsky, Daniel Yurovsky, Virginia A Marchman
The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) are a widely used family of parent-report instruments for easy and inexpensive data-gathering about early language acquisition. CDI data have been used to explore a variety of theoretically important topics, but, with few exceptions, researchers have had to rely on data collected in their own lab. In this paper, we remedy this issue by presenting Wordbank, a structured database of CDI data combined with a browsable web interface. Wordbank archives CDI data across languages and labs, providing a resource for researchers interested in early language, as well as a platform for novel analyses...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Child Language
Yves Longtin, Bianka Paquet-Bolduc, Rodica Gilca, Christophe Garenc, Elise Fortin, Jean Longtin, Sylvie Trottier, Philippe Gervais, Jean-François Roussy, Simon Lévesque, Debby Ben-David, Isabelle Cloutier, Vivian G Loo
IMPORTANCE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of health care-associated infection worldwide, and new preventive strategies are urgently needed. Current control measures do not target asymptomatic carriers, despite evidence that they can contaminate the hospital environment and health care workers' hands and potentially transmit C difficile to other patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of detecting and isolating C difficile asymptomatic carriers at hospital admission on the incidence of health care-associated CDI (HA-CDI)...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Anna Polewczyk, Marianna Janion, Andrzej Kutarski
Cardiac device infections (CDIs) continue to be a serious clinical problem, with varying terminology and different classifications constituting one of the major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in routine clinical practice. The problem invariably arises during an attempt to estimate the extent of the infection, which in consequence determines the choice of treatment strategy (duration of antibiotic therapy). The most serious form of CDI is lead-related infective endocarditis (LRIE). There are no clearly established diagnostic criteria for this disease; the available Duke University criteria are difficult to apply in patients with a suspicion of LRIE because of low sensitivity...
April 13, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
A Penit, P Bemer, J Besson, L Cazet, C Bourigault, M-E Juvin, M-H Fix, S Bruley des Varannes, D Boutoille, E Batard, D Lepelletier
OBJECTIVE: To describe the management and treatment of community-acquired C. difficile infections (CDI) and to evaluate family physicians' (FP) knowledge and practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational study from December 2013 to June 2014. All community-acquired CDI case patients diagnosed in the community or at the University Hospital of Nantes were prospectively included. A questionnaire was mailed to 150 FPs of the area of Nantes. RESULTS: A total of 27 community-acquired CDI case patients were included (incidence: 7...
May 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Lisa Hall, Alison Farrington, Brett G Mitchell, Adrian G Barnett, Kate Halton, Michelle Allen, Katie Page, Anne Gardner, Sally Havers, Emily Bailey, Stephanie J Dancer, Thomas V Riley, Christian A Gericke, David L Paterson, Nicholas Graves
BACKGROUND: The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) study will generate evidence about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a novel cleaning initiative that aims to improve the environmental cleanliness of hospitals. The initiative is an environmental cleaning bundle, with five interdependent, evidence-based components (training, technique, product, audit and communication) implemented with environmental services staff to enhance hospital cleaning practices...
2016: Implementation Science: IS
Nicola Black, Barbara Mullan, Louise Sharpe
The current aim was to examine the effectiveness of behaviour change techniques (BCTs), theory and other characteristics in increasing the effectiveness of computer-delivered interventions (CDIs) to reduce alcohol consumption. Included were randomised studies with a primary aim of reducing alcohol consumption, which compared self-directed CDIs to assessment-only control groups. CDIs were coded for the use of 42 BCTs from an alcohol-specific taxonomy, the use of theory according to a theory coding scheme and general characteristics such as length of the CDI...
September 2016: Health Psychology Review
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