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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164522/detection-of-clostridium-difficile-in-fecal-specimens-a-comparative-evaluation-of-nucleic-acid-amplification-test-and-toxigenic-culture
#1
Shima Lotfian, Masoumeh Douraghi, Amir Aliramezani, Sedighe Ghourchian, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad, Hojjat Zeraati
BACKGROUND: The available data regarding Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in developing countries are scarce. This may be related in part to the complexity of anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays of C. difficile. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of PCR in comparison with toxigenic culture for direct detection of conserved genes as well as toxin genes of C. difficile in fecal specimens of patients with clinical symptoms of CDI. METHODS: Loose or soft feces from 171 patients suspected of having C...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153556/use-of-tigecycline-for-the-management-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-in-oncology-patients-and-case-series-of-breakthrough-infections
#2
B J Brinda, Y Pasikhova, R E Quilitz, C M Thai, J N Greene
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in adults. Cancer patients, in particular, are at a higher risk for CDI. Limited clinical data exist regarding the use of tigecycline for the treatment of CDI, especially in patients with oncologic and haematologic malignancies. AIM: To characterize the use of tigecycline for treatment of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-centre, single-arm, chart review evaluating the use of tigecycline for the management of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116533/negative-d-dimer-testing-excludes-pulmonary-embolism-in-non-high-risk-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#3
John B Harringa, Rebecca L Bracken, Scott K Nagle, Mark L Schiebler, Michael S Pulia, James E Svenson, Michael D Repplinger
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of d-dimer testing to obviate the need for cross-sectional imaging for patients at "non-high risk" for pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: This is a retrospective study of emergency department patients at an academic medical center who underwent cross-sectional imaging (MRA or CTA) to evaluate for PE from 2008 to 2013. The primary outcome was the NPV of d-dimer testing when used in conjunction with clinical decision instruments (CDIs = Wells', Revised Geneva, and Simplified Revised Geneva Scores)...
January 24, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096487/a-clostridium-difficile-specific-gel-forming-protein-required-for-optimal-spore-germination
#4
M Lauren Donnelly, William Li, Yong-Qing Li, Lauren Hinkel, Peter Setlow, Aimee Shen
: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002482/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-by-pcr-ribotype-017-and-018-strains
#5
Jieun Kim, Yeonjae Kim, Hyunjoo Pai
The objective of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) caused by toxin A-negative/toxin B-positive (A-B+) PCR ribotype 017 (R017) and A+B+ ribotype 018 (R018) strains, prevalent in Asian countries. From February 2010 through January 2013, all CDI patients in our hospital were enrolled; their medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and the isolates were characterized by toxigenic culture and PCR ribotyping. Based on the ribotypes, a total of 510 cases were categorized as R017 (139, 27...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986664/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-hospitalized-children-in-the-netherlands
#6
Sofie M van Dorp, Edela Smajlović, Cornelis W Knetsch, Daan W Notermans, Sabine C de Greeff, Ed J Kuijper
BACKGROUND: Little is known about pediatric Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology. We describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of CDI among hospitalized children in the Netherlands. METHODS: Between May 2009 and May 2015, 26 hospitals registered characteristics of pediatric (aged 2-18 years) and adult (aged 18 years) CDI in a national sentinel surveillance study. Routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) of selected strains was performed...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959316/clostridium-difficile-infection-and-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#7
Alyssa Liubakka, Byron P Vaughn
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major source of morbidity and mortality for hospitalized patients. Although most patients have a clinical response to existing antimicrobial therapies, recurrent infection develops in up to 30% of patients. Fecal microbiota transplant is a novel approach to this complex problem, with an efficacy rate of nearly 90% in the setting of multiple recurrent CDI. This review covers the current epidemiology of CDI (including toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains, risk factors for infection, and recurrent infection), methods of diagnosis, existing first-line therapies in CDI, the role of fecal microbiota transplant for multiple recurrent CDIs, and the potential use of fecal microbial transplant for patients with severe or refractory infection...
July 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894465/is-denial-a-maladaptive-coping-mechanism-which-prolongs-pre-hospital-delay-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#8
X Y Fang, L Albarqouni, A F von Eisenhart Rothe, S Hoschar, J Ronel, K-H Ladwig
OBJECTIVE: During an acute myocardial infarction, patients often use denial as a coping mechanism which may provide positive mood regulating effects but may also prolong prehospital delay time (PHD). However, empirical evidences are still sparse. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 533 ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients from the Munich Examination of Delay in Patients Experiencing Acute Myocardial Infarction (MEDEA) study. Data on sociodemographic, clinical and psycho-behavioral characteristics were collected at bedside...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796474/-clostridium-difficile-infection-what-is-currently-available-for-treatment
#9
A Stallmach
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-secreting bacillus. It is transmitted via a fecal-oral route and can be found in 1-3 % of the healthy population. Symptoms caused by C. difficile range from uncomplicated diarrhea to a toxic megacolon. The incidence, frequency of recurrence, and mortality rate of C. difficile infections (CDIs) have increased significantly over the past few decades. The most important risk factor is antibiotic treatment in elderly patients and patients with severe comorbidities...
December 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706048/assessment-of-data-fusion-algorithms-for-earth-observation-change-detection-processes
#10
Iñigo Molina, Estibaliz Martinez, Carmen Morillo, Jesus Velasco, Alvaro Jara
In this work a parametric multi-sensor Bayesian data fusion approach and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used for a Change Detection problem. For this purpose two sets of SPOT5-PAN images have been used, which are in turn used for Change Detection Indices (CDIs) calculation. For minimizing radiometric differences, a methodology based on zonal "invariant features" is suggested. The choice of one or the other CDI for a change detection process is a subjective task as each CDI is probably more or less sensitive to certain types of changes...
September 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664230/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurring-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-patient-with-crohn-s-disease-and-ileorectal-anastomosis
#11
Asser Mathiassen Oppfeldt, Jens F Dahlerup, Lisbet A Christensen, Christian L Hvas
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used to treat refractory and recurring Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Although FMT appears to be safe and highly effective in patients with a preserved colon and immunocompetence, its use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are on immunomodulating therapies is controversial. In particular, patients who have undergone colectomy may have different treatment responses to FMT. In this case report, we describe the successful use of FMT in a female patient aged 19 years with Crohn's disease who underwent ileorectal anastomosis following colectomy...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648884/community-and-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infections-finland-2008-2013-1
#12
Saara M Kotila, Silja Mentula, Jukka Ollgren, Anni Virolainen-Julkunen, Outi Lyytikäinen
We evaluated incidence, case-fatality rate, and trends of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in Finland during 2008-2013. CDIs were identified in the National Infectious Disease Register, deaths in the National Population Information System, hospitalizations to classify infections as CA or HA in the National Hospital Discharge Register, and genotypes in a reference laboratory. A total of 32,991 CDIs were identified: 10,643 (32.3%) were CA (32.9 cases/100,000 population) and 22,348 (67...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632907/examining-the-continuum-of-psychosis-frequency-and-characteristics-of-psychotic-like-symptoms-in-relatives-and-non-relatives-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
R Landin-Romero, P J McKenna, A Romaguera, E Álvarez-Moya, S Sarró, C Aguirre, C Sarri, A Compte, C Bosque, R Salvador, E Pomarol-Clotet
BACKGROUND: A key finding underlying the continuum of psychosis concept is the presence of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy subjects. However, it remains uncertain to what extent these experiences are related to the genetic risk for schizophrenia and how far they actually resemble attenuated forms of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Forty-nine adults with no history of mental illness in first-degree relatives and 59 siblings of patients with schizophrenia were rated on the psychosis section of the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule IV (C DIS-IV) and the Rust Inventory of Schizotypal Cognitions (RISC)...
December 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509051/clostridium-difficile-infections-in-medical-intensive-care-units-of-a-medical-center-in-southern-taiwan-variable-seasonality-and-disease-severity
#14
Jen-Chieh Lee, Yuan-Pin Hung, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
Critical patients are susceptible to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), which cause significant morbidity and mortality in the hospital. In Taiwan, the epidemiology of CDI in intensive care units (ICUs) is not well understood. This study was aimed to describe the incidence and the characteristics of CDI in the ICUs of a medical center in southern Taiwan. Adult patients with diarrhea but without colostomy/colectomy or laxative use were enrolled. Stool samples were collected with or without 5 ml alcohol and were plated on cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487436/enhanced-surveillance-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-occurring-outside-hospital-england-2011-to-2013
#15
Warren N Fawley, Kerrie A Davies, Trefor Morris, Peter Parnell, Robin Howe, Mark H Wilcox
There are limited national epidemiological data for community-associated (CA)-Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Between March 2011 and March 2013, laboratories in England submitted to the Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) up to 10 diarrhoeal faecal samples from successive patients with CA-CDI, defined here as C. difficile toxin-positive diarrhoea commencing outside hospital (or less than 48 hours after hospital admission), including those cases associated with community-based residential care, with no discharge from hospital within the previous 12 weeks...
July 21, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377443/community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-emergency-departments
#16
D Lefevre-Tantet-Etchebarne, V Sivadon-Tardy, B Davido, F Bouchand, J Grenet, E Farfour, R Getti, C Duran, M Chéron, E Mathieu, J Salomon, A Dinh
OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become an emerging infectious disease, especially in community settings. Little data is available on its frequency and characteristics in France. We aimed to describe CDI case patients consulting at the emergency department and to compare community-acquired and nosocomial CDIs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study over a three-year period of community-acquired and nosocomial CDI case patients seen at the emergency department and compared their characteristics...
October 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318043/improved-early-right-ventricular-function-recovery-but-increased-complications-with-catheter-directed-interventions-compared-with-anticoagulation-alone-for-submassive-pulmonary-embolism
#17
Efthymios D Avgerinos, Nathan L Liang, Omar M El-Shazly, Catalyn Toma, Michael J Singh, Michel S Makaroun, Rabih A Chaer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and midterm outcomes of catheter-directed intervention (CDI) compared with anticoagulation (AC) alone in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (sPE). METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all patients treated for sPE between January 2009 and October 2014. Two groups were identified on the basis of the therapy: AC and CDI. End points included complications, mortality, and change in echocardiographic parameters...
July 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314498/clostridium-difficile-infections-amongst-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-a-data-linkage-study
#18
Linda A Selvey, Claudia Slimings, David J L Joske, Thomas V Riley
OBJECTIVES: Identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and assess CDI outcomes among Australian patients with a haematological malignancy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving all patients admitted to hospitals in Western Australia with a haematological malignancy from July 2011 to June 2012. Hospital admission data were linked with all hospital investigated CDI case data. Potential risk factors were assessed by logistic regression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270275/differences-in-the-molecular-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients
#19
Larry K Kociolek, Dale N Gerding, James R Osmolski, Sameer J Patel, David R Snydman, Laura A McDermott, David W Hecht
The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in adults is partly related to the global spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, namely, BI/NAP1/027. Although CDIs are also increasingly diagnosed in children, BI/NAP1/027 is relatively uncommon in children. Little is known about the antibiotic susceptibility of pediatric CDI isolates. C. difficile was cultured from tcdB-positive stools collected from children diagnosed with CDI between December 2012 and December 2013 at an academic children's hospital...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242527/rifaximin-improves-clostridium-difficile-toxin-a-induced-toxicity-in-caco-2-cells-by-the-pxr-dependent-tlr4-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#20
Giuseppe Esposito, Nicola Nobile, Stefano Gigli, Luisa Seguella, Marcella Pesce, Alessandra d'Alessandro, Eugenia Bruzzese, Elena Capoccia, Luca Steardo, Rosario Cuomo, Giovanni Sarnelli
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) caused by Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) lead to severe ulceration, inflammation and bleeding of the colon, and are difficult to treat. AIM: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of rifaximin on TcdA-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and investigate the role of PXR in its mechanism of action. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were incubated with TcdA and treated with rifaximin (0...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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