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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681203/increasing-incidence-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-001-associated-with-severe-course-of-the-infection-and-previous-fluoroquinolone-use-in-the-czech-republic-2015
#1
M Krutova, J Matejkova, P Drevinek, E J Kuijper, O Nyc
The aim of the study was to provide an update on the epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) in a representative number of hospitals within the Czech Republic in 2015. In 2015, twenty-eight Czech hospitals were invited to participate in a CDI study. Laboratories sent the first 20 consecutive C. difficile isolates for characterization by capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping and the presence of toxin genes and collected patient data on previous hospitalization, antibiotic treatment, the number of CDI episodes and the course of CDI...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659674/blunt-diaphragmatic-injuries-pericardial-ruptures
#2
Tevrat Özalp, Mustafa Küpeli, Yaşar Sönmezoğlu, Abdülkadir Çakmak, Siraç Akgül, Mithat Fazlioğlu, Cevdet Tokat
Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic injuries (BTDIs) can be misdiagnosed. Careful evaluation of associated injuries in BTDI is important. In this study, we evaluated treatment options and difficulties in the diagnosis of patients with BTDI. We evaluated ten patients retrospectively with BTDI admitted to our departments, between January 2004 and 2015. Age, gender, trauma type, symptoms, radiological findings, diagnosis time, location and grade of the diaphragmatic injury, surgical type of repair, associated injuries and pericardial rupture, and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602274/impact-of-an-electronic-sepsis-initiative-on-antibiotic-use-and-health-care-facility-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-rates
#3
Robert Hiensch, Jashvant Poeran, Patricia Saunders-Hao, Victoria Adams, Charles A Powell, Allison Glasser, Madhu Mazumdar, Gopi Patel
BACKGROUND: Although integrated, electronic sepsis screening and treatment protocols are thought to improve patient outcomes, less is known about their unintended consequences. We aimed to determine if the introduction of a sepsis initiative coincided with increases in broad-spectrum antibiotic use and health care facility-onset (HCFO) Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates. METHODS: We used interrupted time series data from a large, tertiary, urban academic medical center including all adult inpatients on 4 medicine wards (June 2011-July 2014)...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551713/atomoxetine-effects-on-attentional-bias-to-drug-related-cues-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals
#4
Luca Passamonti, M Luijten, H Ziauddeen, I T S Coyle-Gilchrist, T Rittman, S A E Brain, R Regenthal, I H A Franken, B J Sahakian, E T Bullmore, T W Robbins, K D Ersche
RATIONALE: Biased attention towards drug-related cues and reduced inhibitory control over the regulation of drug-intake characterize drug addiction. The noradrenaline system has been critically implicated in both attentional and response inhibitory processes and is directly affected by drugs such as cocaine. OBJECTIVES: We examined the potentially beneficial effects of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine in improving cognitive control during two tasks that used cocaine- and non-cocaine-related stimuli...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479377/higher-incidence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-individuals-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, B Nancy Yu, Lisa M Lix, Laura E Targownik, Charles N Bernstein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) among individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have used data from single centers or CDI administrative data codes of limited diagnostic accuracy. We determined the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes after CDI in a population-based cohort of patients with IBD and laboratory confirmation diagnoses of CDI. METHODS: We searched the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database and Manitoba Health CDI databases to identify individuals with CDI, with or without IBD, from July 1, 2005 through March 31, 2014...
May 4, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457354/clostridium-difficile
#6
REVIEW
Scott R Curry
Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have emerged as one of the principal threats to the health of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The importance of C difficile colonization is increasingly recognized not only as a source for false-positive clinical testing but also as a source of new infections within hospitals and other health care environments. In the last five years, several new treatment strategies that capitalize on the increasing understanding of the altered microbiome and host defenses in patients with CDI have completed clinical trials, including fecal microbiota transplantation...
June 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452915/leapfrog-hospital-safety-score-magnet-designation-and-healthcare-associated-infections-in-united-states-hospitals
#7
Amy L Pakyz, Hui Wang, Yasar A Ozcan, Michael B Edmond, Timothy J Vogus
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) pose a challenge to patient safety. Although studies have explored individual level, few have focused on organizational factors such as a hospital's safety infrastructure (indicated by Leapfrog Hospital Safety Score) or workplace quality (Magnet recognition). The aim of the study was to determine whether Magnet and hospitals with better Leapfrog Hospital Safety Scores have fewer HAIs. METHODS: Ordered probit regression analyses tested associations between Safety Score, Magnet status, and standardized infection ratios, depicting whether a hospital had a Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection standardized infection ratio that was "better," "no different," or "worse" than a National Benchmark as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network definitions...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446383/development-and-validation-of-the-parenteral-nutrition-impact-questionnaire-pniq-a-patient-centric-outcome-measure-for-home-parenteral-nutrition
#8
Jeanette Wilburn, Stephen P McKenna, Alice Heaney, Matthew Rouse, Michael Taylor, Alison Culkin, Simon Gabe, Sorrel Burden, Simon Lal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Type 3 Intestinal Failure (IF) who need Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN) face several clinical, psychological and social problems. The study was designed to produce and test the first patient-centric measure for HPN ('PNIQ: Parenteral Nutrition Impact Questionnaire'). The new measure focused on the extent to which patients were able to fulfil their human needs. METHODS: Questionnaire content was derived from the analysis of transcripts of interviews conducted with UK HPN patients...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411694/predictors-of-failure-and-complications-of-catheter-directed-interventions-for-pulmonary-embolism
#9
Efthymios D Avgerinos, Adham N Abou Ali, Nathan L Liang, Elizabeth Genovese, Michael J Singh, Michel S Makaroun, Rabih A Chaer
OBJECTIVE: Catheter-directed interventions (CDIs) are increasingly performed for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) as they are presumed to provide similar therapeutic benefits to systemic thrombolysis while decreasing the dose of thrombolytic required and the associated risks. This study aimed to identify factors associated with CDI failure and to describe anticipated complications. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent CDI for massive or submassive PE between 2009 and 2015 were identified; outcomes and complications were retrospectively collected...
May 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397261/validity-and-reliability-of-administrative-coded-data-for-the-identification-of-hospital-acquired-infections-an-updated-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis
#10
Olga Redondo-González, José María Tenías, Ángel Arias, Alfredo J Lucendo
OBJECTIVE: To conduct an updated assessment of the validity and reliability of administrative coded data (ACD) in identifying hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). METHODS: We systematically searched three libraries for studies on ACD detecting HAIs compared to manual chart review. Meta-analyses were conducted for prosthetic and nonprosthetic surgical site infections (SSIs), Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias/events (VAPs/VAEs) and non-VAPs/VAEs, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)...
April 11, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396027/risk-factors-for-community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children
#11
Daniel J Adams, Matthew D Eberly, Michael Rajnik, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the medication and other exposures associated with pediatric community-associated Clostridium difficile infections (CA-CDIs). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a case-control study using billing records from the US military health system database. CA-CDI cases included children 1-18 years of age with an outpatient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) from 2001 to 2013...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386820/oral-teicoplanin-as-an-alternative-first-line-regimen-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-elderly-patients-a-case-series
#12
Benjamin Davido, Céline Leplay, Frédérique Bouchand, Aurélien Dinh, Maryvonne Villart, Jean-Laurent Le Quintrec, Laurent Teillet, Jérôme Salomon, Hugues Michelon
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients are more susceptible to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Despite existing guidelines, there is no specific treatment for CDI in geriatrics. Vancomycin is commonly used in the treatment of CDI. Teicoplanin is an alternative glycopeptide which recently received marketing authorization approval for CDI in Europe. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the potential interest of oral teicoplanin and assess whether such treatment could potentially become an alternative treatment in mild to severe CDIs in elderly patients...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385299/kick-the-bucket-one-hospital-system-s-journey-to-reduce-clostridium-difficile
#13
Molly Bridget Delaney
PROBLEM: Albert Einstein defines insanity as doing the same thing over again but expecting different results. Although the United States claims to reduce antibiotic abuse, practice strict isolation, and clean meticulously, the burden of Clostridium difficile outpaces goals. Unless innovative approaches are tried, we risk culling elderly, immunosuppressed, and otherwise debilitated populations. Emergency departments are a primary access point for patients who are unable to wait for primary care...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332133/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-six-antimicrobials-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-three-czech-hospitals-in-eastern-bohemia-in-2011-2012
#14
V Beran, E J Kuijper, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S M van Dorp, C W Knetsch, J Janeckova, A Seidelova, L Barekova, J Tvrdik, D Chmelar, I Ciznar
In 2011-2012, a survey was performed in three regional hospitals in the Czech Republic to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and to characterize bacterial isolates. C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping, toxin genes detection, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fidaxomicin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, LFF571, and moxifloxacin using agar dilution method. The incidence of CDI in three studied hospitals was 145, 146, and 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 and 177, 258, and 67 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012...
March 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321156/current-knowledge-on-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
REVIEW
Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Elvira Garza-González
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164522/detection-of-clostridium-difficile-in-fecal-specimens-a-comparative-evaluation-of-nucleic-acid-amplification-test-and-toxigenic-culture
#16
Shima Lotfian, Masoumeh Douraghi, Amir Aliramezani, Sedighe Ghourchian, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad, Hojjat Zeraati
BACKGROUND: The available data regarding Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in developing countries are scarce. This may be related in part to the complexity of anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays of C. difficile. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of PCR in comparison with toxigenic culture for direct detection of conserved genes as well as toxin genes of C. difficile in fecal specimens of patients with clinical symptoms of CDI. METHODS: Loose or soft feces from 171 patients suspected of having C...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153556/use-of-tigecycline-for-the-management-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-in-oncology-patients-and-case-series-of-breakthrough-infections
#17
B J Brinda, Y Pasikhova, R E Quilitz, C M Thai, J N Greene
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in adults. Cancer patients, in particular, are at a higher risk for CDI. Limited clinical data exist regarding the use of tigecycline for the treatment of CDI, especially in patients with oncologic and haematologic malignancies. AIM: To characterize the use of tigecycline for treatment of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-centre, single-arm, chart review evaluating the use of tigecycline for the management of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre...
April 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116533/negative-d-dimer-testing-excludes-pulmonary-embolism-in-non-high-risk-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#18
John B Harringa, Rebecca L Bracken, Scott K Nagle, Mark L Schiebler, Michael S Pulia, James E Svenson, Michael D Repplinger
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of d-dimer testing to obviate the need for cross-sectional imaging for patients at "non-high risk" for pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: This is a retrospective study of emergency department patients at an academic medical center who underwent cross-sectional imaging (MRA or CTA) to evaluate for PE from 2008 to 2013. The primary outcome was the NPV of d-dimer testing when used in conjunction with clinical decision instruments (CDIs = Wells', Revised Geneva, and Simplified Revised Geneva Scores)...
June 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096487/a-clostridium-difficile-specific-gel-forming-protein-required-for-optimal-spore-germination
#19
M Lauren Donnelly, William Li, Yong-Qing Li, Lauren Hinkel, Peter Setlow, Aimee Shen
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002482/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-by-pcr-ribotype-017-and-018-strains
#20
Jieun Kim, Yeonjae Kim, Hyunjoo Pai
The objective of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) caused by toxin A-negative/toxin B-positive (A-B+) PCR ribotype 017 (R017) and A+B+ ribotype 018 (R018) strains, prevalent in Asian countries. From February 2010 through January 2013, all CDI patients in our hospital were enrolled; their medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and the isolates were characterized by toxigenic culture and PCR ribotyping. Based on the ribotypes, a total of 510 cases were categorized as R017 (139, 27...
2016: PloS One
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