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Darwin lamarck

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652382/a-historical-and-evolutionary-perspective-on-the-biological-significance-of-circulating-dna-and-extracellular-vesicles
#1
Janine Aucamp, Abel J Bronkhorst, Christoffel P S Badenhorst, Piet J Pretorius
The discovery of quantitative and qualitative differences of the circulating DNA (cirDNA) between healthy and diseased individuals inclined researchers to investigate these molecules as potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis of various pathologies. However, except for some prenatal tests, cirDNA analyses have not been readily translated to clinical practice due to a lack of knowledge regarding its composition, function, and biological and evolutionary origins. We believe that, to fully grasp the nature of cirDNA and the extracellular vesicles (EVs) and protein complexes with which it is associated, it is necessary to probe the early and badly neglected work that contributed to the discovery and development of these concepts...
September 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349126/-not-available
#2
Pierre L Thillaud
Although its title is not vey clear, René Larger's book, Théorie de la Contre-évolution, published in 1917, is a major contribution to paleopathology, and pathocoenosis, a concept coined by M. D. Grmek in 1969 ; it offers a good occasion to have a new look on Lamarck's and Darwin's theories.
January 2016: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26411613/lamarckian-illusions
#3
Adam Weiss
In recent years the term 'Lamarckian evolution' has become a household name for processes that do not follow classical Mendelian pattern of inheritance, and it is seen as a relevant complement to Darwinism. In this article I argue that bringing back Lamarck is unjustified and misleading.
October 2015: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26245006/the-coral-of-death-kunst-und-wunderkammern-between-temporality-and-allegory
#4
Alessandro Ottaviani
The aim of this essay is to show the existence of a substantial discontinuity between the Kunst- und Wunderkammern phenomenon and the practice of both eclectic and specialised collecting in the 18th century. A more detailed examination of the cases of fossils and corals, particularly the way they wove in and out of the differing rationales of collecting in the 17th and 18th centuries, brings to light how elusive their relationship was with the history of the notion of temporality. Subsequently, Lamarck and Darwin were to provide a conclusion to the temporality debate when they completed the historisation of nature...
2015: Nuncius
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26026157/epigenetics-darwin-and-lamarck
#5
David Penny
It is not really helpful to consider modern environmental epigenetics as neo-Lamarckian; and there is no evidence that Lamarck considered the idea original to himself. We must all keep learning about inheritance, but attributing modern ideas to early researchers is not helpful, and can be misleading.
June 2015: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26013644/william-keith-brooks-and-the-naturalist-s-defense-of-darwinism-in-the-late-nineteenth-century
#6
Richard Nash
William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis...
June 2015: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25998794/phrenology-heredity-and-progress-in-george-combe-s-constitution-of-man
#7
Bill Jenkins
The Constitution of Man by George Combe (1828) was probably the most influential phrenological work of the nineteenth century. It not only offered an exposition of the phrenological theory of the mind, but also presented Combe's vision of universal human progress through the inheritance of acquired mental attributes. In the decades before the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, the Constitution was probably the single most important vehicle for the dissemination of naturalistic progressivism in the English-speaking world...
September 2015: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25515147/a-soul-of-truth-in-things-erroneous-popper-s-amateurish-evolutionary-philosophy-in-light-of-contemporary-biology
#8
Davide Vecchi, Lorenzo Baravalle
This paper will critically assess Popper's evolutionary philosophy. There exists a rich literature on the topic with which we have many reservations. We believe that Popper's evolutionary philosophy should be assessed in light of the intriguing theoretical insights offered, during the last 10 years or so, by the philosophy of biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology. We will argue that, when analysed in this manner, Popper's ideas concerning the nature of selection, Lamarckism and the theoretical limits of neo-Darwinism can be appreciated in their full biological and philosophical value...
2015: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25438251/nonequilibrium-population-dynamics-of-phenotype-conversion-of-cancer-cells
#9
Joseph Xu Zhou, Angela Oliveira Pisco, Hong Qian, Sui Huang
Tumorigenesis is a dynamic biological process that involves distinct cancer cell subpopulations proliferating at different rates and interconverting between them. In this paper we proposed a mathematical framework of population dynamics that considers both distinctive growth rates and intercellular transitions between cancer cell populations. Our mathematical framework showed that both growth and transition influence the ratio of cancer cell subpopulations but the latter is more significant. We derived the condition that different cancer cell types can maintain distinctive subpopulations and we also explain why there always exists a stable fixed ratio after cell sorting based on putative surface markers...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25430522/microbiome-holobiont-and-the-net-of-life
#10
Emiliano Salvucci
Holistic emerging approaches allow us to understand that every organism is the result of integration mechanisms observed at every level of nature: integration of DNA from virus and bacteria in metazoans, endosymbiotic relationships and holobionts. Horizontal gene transfer events in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes have resulted in the chimeric nature of genomes. As a continuity of this genomic landscape, the human body contains more bacterial than human cells. Human microbiome has co-evolved with the human being as a unity called holobiont...
May 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25220743/an-introduction-to-epigenetics-as-the-link-between-genotype-and-environment-a-personal-view
#11
REVIEW
A Van Soom, L Peelman, W V Holt, A Fazeli
Lamarck was one of the first scientists who attempted to explain evolution, and he is especially well known for formulating the concept that acquired characteristics can be transmitted to future generations and may therefore steer evolution. Although Lamarckism fell out of favour soon after the publication of Darwin's work on natural selection and evolution, the concept of transmission of acquired characteristics has recently gained renewed attention and has led to some rethinking of the standard evolutionary model...
September 2014: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25214419/against-revolution-and-evolution
#12
Jonathan Hodge
Those standard historiographic themes of "evolution" and "revolution" need replacing. They perpetuate mid-Victorian scientists' history of science. Historians' history of science does well to take in the long run from the Greek and Hebrew heritages on, and to work at avoiding misleading anachronism and teleology. As an alternative to the usual "evo-revo" themes, a historiography of origins and species, of cosmologies (including microcosmogonies and macrocosmogonies) and ontologies, is developed here. The advantages of such a historiography are illustrated by looking briefly at a number of transitions the transition from Greek and Hebrew doctrines to their integrations by medieval authors; the transition from the Platonist, Aristotelian, Christian Aquinas to the Newtonian Buffon and to the no less Newtonian Lamarck; the departures the early Darwin made away from Lamarck's and from Lyell's views...
2005: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25214417/before-darwin-transformist-concepts-in-european-natural-history
#13
Pietro Corsi
Lack of consideration of the complex European scientific scene from the late 18th century to the mid-decades of the 19th century has produced partial and often biased reconstructions of priorities, worries, implicit and explicit philosophical and at times political agendas characterizing the early debates on species. It is the purpose of this paper firstly to critically assess some significant attempts at broadening the historiographic horizon concerning the immediate context to Darwin's intellectual enterprise, and to devote the second part to arguing that a multi-faceted European debate on the transformation of life forms had already occurred in Europe around 1800...
2005: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24859459/hunting-for-darwin-s-gemmules-and-lamarck-s-fluid-transgenerational-signaling-and-histone-methylation
#14
REVIEW
Youngeun Choi, Susan E Mango
Recent studies have discovered phenotypes induced by a transient treatment or mutation that persist for multiple generations without mutations in DNA. Both invertebrates and vertebrates exhibit such inheritance, and a range of environmental factors can act as a trigger. Now referred to as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance or TEI, this emerging field faces a big challenge-what molecular mechanisms account for inheritance of TEI phenotypes? This review describes examples of TEI and focuses on the possible role of histone methylation and small RNAs in mediating TEI...
December 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24343361/cancer-as-a-metabolic-disease-implications-for-novel-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Thomas N Seyfried, Roberto E Flores, Angela M Poff, Dominic P D'Agostino
Emerging evidence indicates that cancer is primarily a metabolic disease involving disturbances in energy production through respiration and fermentation. The genomic instability observed in tumor cells and all other recognized hallmarks of cancer are considered downstream epiphenomena of the initial disturbance of cellular energy metabolism. The disturbances in tumor cell energy metabolism can be linked to abnormalities in the structure and function of the mitochondria. When viewed as a mitochondrial metabolic disease, the evolutionary theory of Lamarck can better explain cancer progression than can the evolutionary theory of Darwin...
March 2014: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24317755/-stand-up-straight-notes-toward-a-history-of-posture
#16
Sander L Gilman
The essay presents a set of interlinked claims about posture in modern culture. Over the past two centuries it has come to define a wide range of assumptions in the West from what makes human beings human (from Lamarck to Darwin and beyond) to the efficacy of the body in warfare (from Dutch drill manuals in the 17th century to German military medical studies of soldiers in the 19th century). Dance and sport both are forms of posture training in terms of their own claims. Posture separates 'primitive' from 'advanced' peoples and the 'ill' from the 'healthy...
March 2014: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24103340/-darwin-or-lamarck-understanding-the-ocular-surface-and-its-normal-or-abnormal-differentiation-in-order-to-cure-ocular-surface-destruction-with-corneal-opacification
#17
REVIEW
François Majo, Michael Nicolas
According to the World Health Organization, 5.1% of blindnesses or visual impairments are related to corneal opacification. Cornea is a transparent tissue placed in front of the color of the eye. Its transparency is mandatory for vision. The ocular surface is a functional unit including the cornea and all the elements involved in maintaining its transparency i.e., the eyelids, the conjunctiva, the lymphoid tissue of the conjunctiva, the limbus, the lacrymal glands and the tear film. The destruction of the ocular surface is a disease caused by : traumatisms, infections, chronic inflammations, cancers, toxics, unknown causes or congenital abnormalities...
2013: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23975642/the-prominent-absence-of-alfred-russel-wallace-at-the-darwin-anniversaries-in-germany-in-1909-1959-and-2009
#18
Uwe Hossfeld, Lennart Olsson
It is well known that the contribution of Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the "Darwinian" principle of natural selection has often been neglected. Here we focus on how the three anniversaries to celebrate the origin of the Darwin-Wallace theory in Germany in 1909, in 1959 in the divided country, as well as in 2009, have represented Charles Robert Darwin's and Alfred Russell Wallace's contributions. We have analyzed books and proceedings volumes related to these anniversaries, and the main result is that Wallace was almost always ignored, or only mentioned in passing...
December 2013: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23684729/optimality-in-evolution-new-insights-from-synthetic-biology
#19
Marjon G J de Vos, Frank J Poelwijk, Sander J Tans
Whether organisms evolve to perform tasks optimally has intrigued biologists since Lamarck and Darwin. Optimality models have been used to study diverse properties such as shape, locomotion, and behavior. However, without access to the genetic underpinnings or the ability to manipulate biological functions, it has been difficult to understand an organism's intrinsic potential and limitations. Now, novel experiments are overcoming these technical obstacles and have begun to test optimality in more quantitative terms...
August 2013: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23594812/-hip-joint-phylogenesis-phenotypic-plasticity-lamarckian-or-darwinian-paradigm-part-ii
#20
F Canillas del Rey, M J Delgado-Martos, D Muñoz-Valverde, B Quintana-Villamandos, A Martos-Rodríguez, E Delgado-Baeza
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to analyse the origin of phenotypic plastic changes into a biologic structure, in this case the hip. As a hypothesis of the work, the possibility that changes could be explained following the Lamarckian paradigm, opposed to the Darwinian paradigm, is shown. The section material and methods of this work have been published in part I. Studies in plants and fish have been added. DISCUSSION: Results showed that the ball-and-socket design of the hip joint remains unchanged...
May 2012: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
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