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Free will volition brain

Eric Racine, Sebastian Sattler, Alice Escande
Free will has been the object of debate in the context of addiction given that addiction could compromise an individual's ability to choose freely between alternative courses of action. Proponents of the brain-disease model of addiction have argued that a neuroscience perspective on addiction reduces the attribution of free will because it relocates the cause of the disorder to the brain rather than to the person, thereby diminishing the blame attributed to the person with an addiction. Others have worried that such displacement of free will attribution would make the person with a drug addiction less responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Walter Glannon
OBJECTIVE: Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss...
April 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
J M Pierre
Belief in free will has been a mainstay in philosophy throughout history, grounded in large part in our intuitive sense that we consciously control our actions and could have done otherwise. However, psychology and psychiatry have long sought to uncover mechanistic explanations for human behavior that challenge the notion of free will. In recent years, neuroscientific discoveries have produced a model of volitional behavior that is at odds with the notion of contra-causal free will and our sense of conscious agency...
September 2014: Psychological Medicine
Han-Gue Jo, Thilo Hinterberger, Marc Wittmann, Tilmann Lhündrup Borghardt, Stefan Schmidt
It has been repeatedly shown that specific brain activity related to planning movement develops before the conscious intention to act. This empirical finding strongly challenges the notion of free will. Here, we demonstrate that in the Libet experiment, spontaneous fluctuations of the slow electro-cortical potentials (SCPs) account for a significant fraction of the readiness potential (RP). The individual potential shifts preceding self-initiated movements were classified as showing a negative or positive shift...
December 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Alexander Schlegel, Prescott Alexander, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Adina Roskies, Peter U Tse, Thalia Wheatley
In the early 1980s, Libet found that a readiness potential (RP) over central scalp locations begins on average several hundred milliseconds before the reported time of awareness of willing to move (W). Haggard and Eimer Exp Brain Res 126(1):128-133, (1999) later found no correlation between the timing of the RP and W, suggesting that the RP does not reflect processes causal of W. However, they did find a positive correlation between the onset of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and W, suggesting that the LRP might reflect processes causal of W...
September 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Stephan Schleim
Will neuroscience revolutionize forensic practice and our legal institutions? In the debate about the legal implications of brain research, free will and the neural bases of antisocial or criminal behavior are of central importance. By analyzing frequently quoted examples for the unconscious determinants of behavior and antisocial personality changes caused by brain lesions in a wider psychological and social context, the paper argues for a cautious middle position: Evidence for an impending normative "neuro-revolution" is scarce and neuroscience may instead gradually improve legal practice in the long run, particularly where normative questions directly pertain to brain-related questions...
March 2012: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Z H Rappaport
The issue of free will is at the heart of understanding ourselves, what it means to be a conscious, thinking, and responsibly acting human being. A position on this issue has profound implications on how we see ourselves as moral agents and on our place in the universe. The developments in neuroscience over the last half century have provided us with much data concerning the function of the brain and its relationship to the mind. In this article we shall review contributions of both neurosurgeons and other neuroscientists to our understanding of free will...
2011: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
Bauke M de Jong
Free will is classically attributed to the prefrontal cortex. In clinical neurology, prefrontal lesions have consistently been shown to cause impairment of internally driven action and increased reflex-like behaviour. Recently, parietal contributions to both free selection at early stages of sensorimotor transformations and perception of specifically self-intended movements were demonstrated in the healthy brain. Such findings generated the concept that 'free will' is not a function restricted to the prefrontal cortex but is more widely embedded in the brain, indeed including the parietal cortex...
November 2011: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Davide Rigoni, Simone Kühn, Giuseppe Sartori, Marcel Brass
The feeling of being in control of one's own actions is a strong subjective experience. However, discoveries in psychology and neuroscience challenge the validity of this experience and suggest that free will is just an illusion. This raises a question: What would happen if people started to disbelieve in free will? Previous research has shown that low control beliefs affect performance and motivation. Recently, it has been shown that undermining free-will beliefs influences social behavior. In the study reported here, we investigated whether undermining beliefs in free will affects brain correlates of voluntary motor preparation...
May 2011: Psychological Science
Frank Urbaniok, Arja Laubacher, Judith Hardegger, Astrid Rossegger, Jérôme Endrass, Konstantin Moskvitin
Several authors have argued that criminal behavior is generally caused by neurobiological deficits. This assumption not only questions the concept of free will and a person's responsibility for his or her own actions but also the principle of guilt in criminal law. When critically examining the current state of research, it becomes apparent that the results are not sufficient to support the existence of a universally valid neurobiological causality of criminal behavior. Moreover, the assumption of total neurobiological determination of human behavior and the impossibility of individual responsibility are characterized by both faulty empiricism and methodical misconceptions...
April 2012: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Susanne Karch, Christoph Mulert, Tobias Thalmeier, Jürgen Lutz, Gregor Leicht, Thomas Meindl, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Lorenz Jäger, Oliver Pogarell
The concept of 'willed' actions has attracted attention during the last few years. Free choices have been associated with activations on the medial frontal surface, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal lobe. Self-paced movements and free selection between various motor responses were typically used to investigate voluntary behavior. The aim of the present study was to determine neural correlates of voluntary motor responses and the voluntary inhibition of motor responses in a group of healthy subjects...
September 2009: Human Brain Mapping
Marcel Brass, Patrick Haggard
Voluntary action is fundamental to human existence. Recent research suggests that volition involves a specific network of brain activity, centered on the fronto-median cortex. An important but neglected aspect of intentional action involves the decision whether to act or not. This decision process is crucial in daily life because it allows us to form intentions without necessarily implementing them. In the present study, we investigate the neural correlates of intentionally inhibiting actions using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 22, 2007: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Katrin Linser, Thomas Goschke
How does the brain generate our experience of being in control over our actions and their effects? Here, we argue that the perception of events as self-caused emerges from a comparison between anticipated and actual action-effects: if the representation of an event that follows an action is activated before the action, the event is experienced as caused by one's own action, whereas in the case of a mismatch it will be attributed to an external cause rather than to the self. In a subliminal priming paradigm we show that participants overestimated how much control they had over objectively uncontrollable stimuli, which appeared after free- or forced-choice actions, when a masked prime activated a representation of the stimuli immediately before each action...
September 2007: Cognition
K Brücher, U Gonther
Whether or not the neurobiological basis of mental processes is compatible with the philosophical postulate of free will is a matter of committed debating in our days. What is the meaning of those frequently-quoted experiments concerning voluntary action? Both convictions, being autonomous subjects and exercising a strong influence on the world by applying sciences, have become most important for modern human self-conception. Now these two views are growing apart and appear contradictory because neurobiology tries to reveal the illusionary character of free will...
April 2006: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
M Pauen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2006: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Adina Roskies
Increasingly, scientists are observing and recording human emotions through neuroimaging. Such capability is causing widespread uneasiness, writes Adina Roskies, for it has the potential to result in a sort of demystification of the mental that makes freedom of the will seem impossible and threatens to leave us open to manipulation as never before. Relax, the author argues: Moral responsibility is fundamentally social, and self-control is what makes us free. Understanding cognitive function may cause us to revise, but will not force us to abandon, common notions of moral responsibility and control...
2004: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
A G Karczmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2001: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
A Kertesz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2000: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
C M Fisher
The nature of the human mind is addressed from a neurological viewpoint. First from reported observations on subjects born blind with congenital cataract, who acquired vision after surgery, the concept of the primacy of somatosensation is developed. Therefrom some principles of the organization of higher sensory functions in the dominant parietal, occipital and temporal lobes are deduced. Sentience is traced to somatosensation. Some characteristics of the mind and of thinking are described. The non-existence of the unconscious is inferred...
August 1993: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
V Siomopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1972: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
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