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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145618/the-histone-variant-h2a-z-promotes-initiation-of-meiotic-recombination-in-fission-yeast
#1
Shintaro Yamada, Kazuto Kugou, Da-Qiao Ding, Yurika Fujita, Yasushi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Murakami, Kunihiro Ohta, Takatomi Yamada
Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are mainly formed at recombination hotspots. Meiotic DSBs require multiple proteins including the conserved protein Spo11 and its cofactors, and are influenced by chromatin structure. For example, local chromatin around hotspots directly impacts DSB formation. Moreover, DSB is proposed to occur in a higher-order chromatin architecture termed 'axis-loop', in which many loops protrude from cohesin-enriched axis...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141207/distinct-terb1-domains-regulate-different-protein-interactions-in-meiotic-telomere-movement
#2
Jingjing Zhang, Zhaowei Tu, Yoshinori Watanabe, Hiroki Shibuya
Meiotic telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope (NE) and drive the chromosome movement required for the pairing of homologous chromosomes. The meiosis-specific telomere proteins TERB1, TERB2, and MAJIN are required to regulate these events, but their assembly processes are largely unknown. Here, we developed a germ-cell-specific knockout mouse of the canonical telomere-binding protein TRF1 and revealed an essential role for TRF1 in directing the assembly of TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN. Further, we identified a TERB2 binding (T2B) domain in TERB1 that is dispensable for the TRF1-TERB1 interaction but is essential for the subsequent TERB1-TERB2 interaction and therefore for telomere attachment to the NE...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140466/transcription-induced-supercoiling-as-the-driving-force-of-chromatin-loop-extrusion-during-formation-of-tads-in-interphase-chromosomes
#3
Dusan Racko, Fabrizio Benedetti, Julien Dorier, Andrzej Stasiak
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show here that growing plectonemes resulting from transcription-induced supercoiling have the ability to actively push cohesin rings along chromatin fibres. The pushing direction is such that within each topologically associating domain (TAD) cohesin rings forming handcuffs move from the source of supercoiling, constituted by RNA polymerase with associated DNA topoisomerase TOP1, towards borders of TADs, where supercoiling is released by topoisomerase TOPIIB. Cohesin handcuffs are pushed by continuous flux of supercoiling that is generated by transcription and is then progressively released by action of TOPIIB located at TADs borders...
November 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138236/a-kinase-dependent-role-for-haspin-in-antagonizing-wapl-and-protecting-mitotic-centromere-cohesion
#4
Cai Liang, Qinfu Chen, Qi Yi, Miao Zhang, Haiyan Yan, Bo Zhang, Linli Zhou, Zhenlei Zhang, Feifei Qi, Sheng Ye, Fangwei Wang
Sister-chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is fundamental for precise chromosome segregation in mitosis. Through binding the cohesin subunit Pds5, Wapl releases the bulk of cohesin from chromosome arms in prophase, whereas centromeric cohesin is protected from Wapl until anaphase onset. Strong centromere cohesion requires centromeric localization of the mitotic histone kinase Haspin, which is dependent on the interaction of its non-catalytic N-terminus with Pds5B. It remains unclear how Haspin fully blocks the Wapl-Pds5B interaction at centromeres...
November 14, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133398/analysis-of-high-resolution-3d-intrachromosomal-interactions-aided-by-bayesian-network-modeling
#5
Xizhe Zhang, Sergio Branciamore, Grigoriy Gogoshin, Andrei S Rodin, Arthur D Riggs
Long-range intrachromosomal interactions play an important role in 3D chromosome structure and function, but our understanding of how various factors contribute to the strength of these interactions remains poor. In this study we used a recently developed analysis framework for Bayesian network (BN) modeling to analyze publicly available datasets for intrachromosomal interactions. We investigated how 106 variables affect the pairwise interactions of over 10 million 5-kb DNA segments in the B-lymphocyte cell line GB12878...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131302/highly-active-spore-biocatalyst-by-self-assembly-of-co-expressed-anchoring-scaffoldin-and-multimeric-enzyme
#6
Long Chen, Megan Holmes, Elise Schaefer, Ashok Mulchandani, Xin Ge
We report a spore-based biocatalysis platform capable of producing and self-assembling active multimeric enzymes on a spore surface with a high loading density. This was achieved by co-expressing both a spore surface-anchoring scaffoldin protein containing multiple cohesin domains and a dockerin-tagged enzyme of interest in the mother cell compartment during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. Using this method, tetrameric β-galactosidase was successfully displayed on the spore surface with a loading density of 1...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129641/cohesin-ubiquitylation-and-mobilization-facilitate-stalled-replication-fork-dynamics
#7
Camilla Frattini, Sara Villa-Hernández, Grazia Pellicanò, Rachel Jossen, Yuki Katou, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Rodrigo Bermejo
Replication fork integrity is challenged in conditions of stress and protected by the Mec1/ATR checkpoint to preserve genome stability. Still poorly understood in fork protection is the role played by the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) cohesin complex. We uncovered a role for the Rsp5(Bul2) ubiquitin ligase in promoting survival to replication stress by preserving stalled fork integrity. Rsp5(Bul2) physically interacts with cohesin and the Mec1 kinase, thus promoting checkpoint-dependent cohesin ubiquitylation and cohesin-mediated fork protection...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113287/cohesin-mutations-contributors-to-myeloid-malignancies
#8
EDITORIAL
Alison E Meyer, Sridhar Rao, Joseph B Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110030/the-emerging-roles-for-the-chromatin-structure-regulators-ctcf-and-cohesin-in-neurodevelopment-and-behavior
#9
REVIEW
Liron Davis, Itay Onn, Evan Elliott
Recent genetic and technological advances have determined a role for chromatin structure in neurodevelopment. In particular, compounding evidence has established roles for CTCF and cohesin, two elements that are central in the establishment of chromatin structure, in proper neurodevelopment and in regulation of behavior. Genetic aberrations in CTCF, and in subunits of the cohesin complex, have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in human genetic studies, and subsequent animal studies have established definitive, although sometime opposing roles, for these factors in neurodevelopment and behavior...
November 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100057/smc3-deacetylation-by-hos1-facilitates-efficient-dissolution-of-sister-chromatid-cohesion-during-early-anaphase
#10
Shuyu Li, Zuojun Yue, Tomoyuki U Tanaka
Cohesins establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase and are removed when cohesin Scc1 is cleaved by separase at anaphase onset. During this process, cohesin Smc3 undergoes a cycle of acetylation: Smc3 acetylation by Eco1 in S phase stabilizes cohesin association with chromosomes, and its deacetylation by Hos1 in anaphase allows re-use of Smc3 in the next cell cycle. Here we find that Smc3 deacetylation by Hos1 has a more immediate effect in the early anaphase of budding yeast. Hos1 depletion significantly delayed sister chromatid separation and segregation...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094699/two-independent-modes-of-chromatin-organization-revealed-by-cohesin-removal
#11
Wibke Schwarzer, Nezar Abdennur, Anton Goloborodko, Aleksandra Pekowska, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Yann Loe-Mie, Nuno A Fonseca, Wolfgang Huber, Christian H Haering, Leonid Mirny, Francois Spitz
Imaging and chromosome conformation capture studies have revealed several layers of chromosome organization, including segregation into megabase-sized active and inactive compartments, and partitioning into sub-megabase domains (TADs). It remains unclear, however, how these layers of organization form, interact with one another and influence genome function. Here we show that deletion of the cohesin-loading factor Nipbl in mouse liver leads to a marked reorganization of chromosomal folding. TADs and associated Hi-C peaks vanish globally, even in the absence of transcriptional changes...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079134/impact-of-chromosome-alterations-genetic-mutations-and-clonal-hematopoiesis-of-indeterminate-potential-chip-on-the-classification-and-risk-stratification-of-mds
#12
REVIEW
Bani Bandana Ganguly, Debasis Banerjee, Mohan B Agarwal
The advent of technological development has undoubtedly advanced biological and molecular inputs for better understanding the heterogeneous hematopoietic pre-malignant disorder of the stem cells known as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Chromosomal rearrangements, including del(3q/5q/7q/11q/12p/20q), loss of 5/7/Y, trisomy 8/19, i(17q), etc. frequently detected in MDS with variable frequencies and combinations, are the integral components of the 5-tier risk-stratification and WHO-2016 classification. Observations on mutations in genes involved in RNA-splicing, DNA methylation, chromatin modification, transcription factor, signal transduction/kinases, RAS pathway, cohesin complex, DNA repair and other pathways have given insights in independent effects and biological interaction of co-occurrence on disease-phenotype and treatment outcome...
October 16, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077530/recent-evidence-that-tads-and-chromatin-loops-are-dynamic-structures
#13
Anders S Hansen, Claudia Cattoglio, Xavier Darzacq, Robert Tjian
Mammalian genomes are folded into spatial domains, which regulate gene expression by modulating enhancer-promoter contacts. Here, we review recent studies on the structure and function of Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) and chromatin loops. We discuss how loop extrusion models can explain TAD formation and evidence that TADs are formed by the ring-shaped protein complex, cohesin, and that TAD boundaries are established by the DNA-binding protein, CTCF. We discuss our recent genomic, biochemical and single-molecule imaging studies on CTCF and cohesin, which suggest that TADs and chromatin loops are dynamic structures...
October 27, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067760/hot-debate-in-hot-springs-report-on-the-second-international-meeting-on-smc-proteins
#14
Tatsuya Hirano, Tomoko Nishiyama, Katsuhiko Shirahige
The second international meeting on "SMC proteins: Chromosomal Organizers from Bacteria to Human" (SMC2017) was held in Nanyo City, Yamagata, Japan, from 13 to 16 June 2017. The meeting was attended by 134 participants (among them, 76 from outside of Japan) who were interested in one of the highly conserved classes of chromosomal proteins regulating large-scale chromosome structure and function. A keynote lecture was followed by 41 oral presentations and 71 poster presentations in the four-day meeting. Diverse topics surrounding eukaryotic SMC protein complexes (cohesins, condensins and SMC5/6) and prokaryotic SMCs, and a wide range of cutting-edge approaches (from polymer physics through medical genetics) were presented...
October 25, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058668/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-bre1-couples-sister-chromatid-cohesion-establishment-to-dna-replication-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Wei Zhang, Clarence Hue Lok Yeung, Liwen Wu, Karen Wing Yee Yuen
Bre1, a conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, together with its interacting partner Lge1, are responsible for histone H2B monoubiquitination, which regulates transcription, DNA replication, DNA damage response and repair, ensuring the structural integrity of the genome. Deletion of BRE1 or LGE1 also results in whole chromosome instability. We discovered a novel role for Bre1, Lge1 and H2Bub1 in chromosome segregation and sister chromatid cohesion. Bre1's function in G1 and S phases contributes to cohesion establishment, but it is not required for cohesion maintenance in G2 phase...
October 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058444/combining-in-vitro-and-in-silico-single-molecule-force-spectroscopy-to-characterize-and-tune-cellulosomal-scaffoldin-mechanics
#16
Tobias Verdorfer, Rafael C Bernardi, Aylin Meinhold, Wolfgang Ott, Zaida Luthey-Schulten, Michael A Nash, Hermann E Gaub
Cellulosomes are polyprotein machineries that efficiently degrade cellulosic material. Crucial to their function are scaffolds consisting of highly homologous cohesin domains, which serve a dual role by coordinating a multiplicity of enzymes as well as anchoring the microbe to its substrate. Here we combined two approaches to elucidate the mechanical properties of the main scaffold ScaA of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. A newly developed parallelized one-pot in vitro transcription-translation and protein pull-down protocol enabled high-throughput atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) measurements of all cohesins from ScaA with a single cantilever, thus promising improved relative force comparability...
November 3, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032424/not-just-gene-expression-3d-implications-of-chromatin-modifications-during-sexual-plant-reproduction
#17
Stefanie Dukowic-Schulze, Chang Liu, Changbin Chen
DNA methylation and histone modifications are epigenetic changes on a DNA molecule that alter the three-dimensional (3D) structure locally as well as globally, impacting chromatin looping and packaging on a larger scale. Epigenetic marks thus inform higher-order chromosome organization and placement in the nucleus. Conventional epigenetic marks are joined by chromatin modifiers like cohesins, condensins and membrane-anchoring complexes to support particularly 3D chromosome organization. The most popular consequences of epigenetic modifications are gene expression changes, but chromatin modifications have implications beyond this, particularly in actively dividing cells and during sexual reproduction...
October 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991264/architectural-alterations-of-the-fission-yeast-genome-during-the-cell-cycle
#18
Hideki Tanizawa, Kyoung-Dong Kim, Osamu Iwasaki, Ken-Ichi Noma
Eukaryotic genomes are highly ordered through various mechanisms, including topologically associating domain (TAD) organization. We employed an in situ Hi-C approach to follow the 3D organization of the fission yeast genome during the cell cycle. We demonstrate that during mitosis, large domains of 300 kb-1 Mb are formed by condensin. This mitotic domain organization does not suddenly dissolve, but gradually diminishes until the next mitosis. By contrast, small domains of 30-40 kb that are formed by cohesin are relatively stable across the cell cycle...
November 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989172/genome-organization-compartmentalizing-chromatin-without-cohesin
#19
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987049/downregulation-of-cohesin-loading-factor-nipped-b-like-protein-nipbl-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-apoptosis-and-autophagy-of-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#20
Huanhuan Zhou, Lei Zheng, Kongbeng Lu, Yun Gao, Liwei Guo, Weizhen Xu, Xiaojia Wang
BACKGROUND The cohesin loading factor, nipped-B-like protein (NIPBL), is also known as the sister chromatid cohesion 2 (SCC2) human homolog. Recently, we have studied the role of expression levels of NIPBL in cell proliferation and chemotherapy resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of expression of the cohesin loading factor, NIPBL, on the cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy of breast cancer cell lines in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression levels of the NIPBL in the breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, Bcap37, MDA-MB 453 and MDA-MB 231, were measured using Western blot and flow cytometry...
October 7, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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