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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934466/cohesin-acetyltransferase-esco2-regulates-sac-and-kinetochore-functions-via-maintaining-h4k16-acetylation-during-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#1
Yajuan Lu, Xiaoxin Dai, Mianqun Zhang, Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Bo Xiong
Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by cohesin complex and established by the acetyltransferases Esco1 and Esco2, is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mutations in Esco2 cause Roberts syndrome, a developmental disease characterized by severe prenatal retardation as well as limb and facial abnormalities. However, its exact roles during oocyte meiosis have not clearly defined. Here, we report that Esco2 localizes to the chromosomes during oocyte meiotic maturation. Depletion of Esco2 by morpholino microinjection leads to the precocious polar body extrusion, the escape of metaphase I arrest induced by nocodazole treatment and the loss of BubR1 from kinetochores, indicative of inactivated SAC...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930671/cohesin-can-remain-associated-with-chromosomes-during-dna-replication
#2
James D P Rhodes, Judith H I Haarhuis, Jonathan B Grimm, Benjamin D Rowland, Luke D Lavis, Kim A Nasmyth
To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1) subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924389/structural-maintenance-of-chromosomes-protein-1-role-in-genome-stability-and-tumorigenesis
#3
REVIEW
Fei Yi, Zhuo Wang, Jingwei Liu, Ying Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Hongde Xu, Xiaoman Li, Ning Bai, Liu Cao, Xiaoyu Song
SMC1 (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes protein 1), well known as one of the SMC superfamily members, has been explored to function in many activities including chromosome dynamics, cell cycle checkpoint, DNA damage repair and genome stability. Upon being properly assembled as part of cohesin, SMC1 can be phosphorylated by ATM and mediate downstream DNA damage repair after ionizing irradiation. Abnormal gene expression or mutation of SMC1 can cause defect in the DNA damage repair pathway, which has been strongly associated with tumorigenesis...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918948/firing-of-replication-origins-frees-dbf4-cdc7-to-target-eco1-for-destruction
#4
Agustin I Seoane, David O Morgan
Robust progression through the cell-division cycle depends on the precisely ordered phosphorylation of hundreds of different proteins by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other kinases. The order of CDK substrate phosphorylation depends on rising CDK activity, coupled with variations in substrate affinities for different CDK-cyclin complexes and the opposing phosphatases [1-4]. Here, we address the ordering of substrate phosphorylation by a second major cell-cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 or Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK)...
September 12, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915745/non-local-effects-of-point-mutations-on-the-stability-of-a-protein-module
#5
Mateusz Chwastyk, Andrés M Vera, Albert Galera-Prat, Melissabye Gunnoo, Damien Thompson, Mariano Carrión-Vázquez, Marek Cieplak
We combine experimental and theoretical methods to assess the effect of a set of point mutations on c7A, a highly mechanostable type I cohesin module from scaffoldin CipA from Clostridium thermocellum. We propose a novel robust and computationally expedient theoretical method to determine the effects of point mutations on protein structure and stability. We use all-atom simulations to predict structural shifts with respect to the native protein and then analyze the mutants using a coarse-grained model. We examine transitions in contacts between residues and find that changes in the contact map usually involve a non-local component that can extend up to 50 Å...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914604/scc2-nipbl-hops-between-chromosomal-cohesin-rings-after-loading
#6
James Dp Rhodes, Davide Mazza, Kim A Nasmyth, Stephan Uphoff
The cohesin complex mediates DNA-DNA interactions both between (sister chromatid cohesion) and within chromosomes (DNA looping). It has been suggested that intra-chromosome loops are generated by extrusion of DNAs through the lumen of cohesin's ring. Scc2 (Nipbl) stimulates cohesin's ABC-like ATPase and is essential for loading cohesin onto chromosomes. However, it is possible that the stimulation of cohesin's ATPase by Scc2 also has a post-loading function, for example driving loop extrusion. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single- molecule tracking, we show that Scc2 binds dynamically to chromatin, principally through an association with cohesin...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912832/unique-organization-and-unprecedented-diversity-of-the-bacteroides-pseudobacteroides-cellulosolvens-cellulosome-system
#7
Olga Zhivin, Bareket Dassa, Sarah Moraïs, Sagar M Utturkar, Steven D Brown, Bernard Henrissat, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer
BACKGROUND: (Pseudo) Bacteroides cellulosolvens is an anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic, cellulosome-producing clostridial bacterium capable of utilizing cellulose and cellobiose as carbon sources. Recently, we sequenced the B. cellulosolvens genome, and subsequent comprehensive bioinformatic analysis, herein reported, revealed an unprecedented number of cellulosome-related components, including 78 cohesin modules scattered among 31 scaffoldins and more than 200 dockerin-bearing ORFs...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901714/modular-organization-of-the-thermobifida-fusca-exoglucanase-cel6b-impacts-cellulose-hydrolysis-and-designer-cellulosome-efficiency
#8
Eva Setter-Lamed, Sarah Moraïs, Johanna Stern, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer
Cellulose deconstruction can be achieved by three distinct enzymatic paradigms: free enzymes, multifunctional enzymes and self-assembled, multi-enzyme complexes (cellulosomes). To study their comparative efficiency, the simple and efficient cellulolytic system of the aerobic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, was developed as an enzymatic model. In previous studies, most of its cellulases were successfully converted to the cellulosomal mode and exhibited high cellulolytic activities, except for Cel6B, a key exoglucanase of the T...
September 13, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898712/inhibition-of-the-lytic-cycle-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-by-cohesin-factors-following-de-novo-infection
#9
Zsolt Toth, Richard J Smindak, Bernadett Papp
Establishment of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency following infection is a multistep process, during which polycomb proteins are recruited onto the KSHV genome, which is crucial for the genome-wide repression of lytic genes during latency. Strikingly, only a subset of lytic genes are expressed transiently in the early phase of infection prior to the binding of polycomb proteins onto the KSHV genome, which raises the question what restricts lytic gene expression in the first hours of infection...
September 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855971/the-effect-of-nipped-b-like-nipbl-haploinsufficiency-on-genome-wide-cohesin-binding-and-target-gene-expression-modeling-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#10
Daniel A Newkirk, Yen-Yun Chen, Richard Chien, Weihua Zeng, Jacob Biesinger, Ebony Flowers, Shimako Kawauchi, Rosaysela Santos, Anne L Calof, Arthur D Lander, Xiaohui Xie, Kyoko Yokomori
BACKGROUND: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem developmental disorder frequently associated with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of Nipped-B-like (NIPBL), the human homolog of Drosophila Nipped-B. NIPBL loads cohesin onto chromatin. Cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion important for mitosis but is also increasingly recognized as a regulator of gene expression. In CdLS patient cells and animal models, expression changes of multiple genes with little or no sister chromatid cohesion defect suggests that disruption of gene regulation underlies this disorder...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854249/deregulation-of-kshv-latency-conformation-by-er-stress-and-caspase-dependent-rad21-cleavage
#11
Alessandra De Leo, Horng-Shen Chen, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, Paul M Lieberman
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human gammaherpesvirus recognized as the principal causative agent of KS and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). KSHV establishes persistent latent infection in B lymphocytes where viral gene expression is restricted, in part, by a cohesin-dependent chromosome conformation. Here, we show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces a rapid, caspase-dependent cleavage of cohesin subunit RAD21. ER stress-induced cleavage of RAD21 correlated with a rapid and strong viral lytic transcriptional activation...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853923/the-yeast-genomes-in-three-dimensions-mechanisms-and-functions
#12
Ken-Ichi Noma
The three-dimensional (3D) genome structure is highly ordered by a hierarchy of organizing events ranging from enhancer-promoter or gene-gene contacts to chromosomal territorial arrangement. It is becoming clear that the cohesin and condensin complexes are key molecular machines that organize the 3D genome structure. These complexes are highly conserved from simple systems, e.g., yeast cells, to the much more complex human system. Therefore, knowledge from the budding and fission yeast systems illuminates highly conserved molecular mechanisms of how cohesin and condensin establish the functional 3D genome structures...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852222/chromosome-biology-different-turfs-for-cohesin-and-condensin
#13
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840251/centromere-structure-and-function
#14
Kerry Bloom, Vincenzo Costanzo
The centromere is the genetic locus that specifies the site of kinetochore assembly, where the chromosome will attach to the kinetochore microtubule. The pericentromere is the physical region responsible for the geometry of bi-oriented sister kinetochores in metaphase. In budding yeast the 125 bp point centromere is sufficient to specify kinetochore assembly. The flanking region is enriched (3X) in cohesin and condensin relative to the remaining chromosome arms. The enrichment spans about 30-50 kb around each centromere...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840250/centromeric-cohesin-molecular-glue-and-much-more
#15
Mihailo Mirkovic, Raquel A Oliveira
Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by the cohesin complex, is a prerequisite for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis. Premature release of sister chromatid cohesion leads to random segregation of the genetic material and consequent aneuploidy. Multiple regulatory mechanisms ensure proper timing for cohesion establishment, concomitant with DNA replication, and cohesion release during the subsequent mitosis. Here we summarize the most important phases of the cohesin cycle and the coordination of cohesion release with the progression through mitosis...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831204/chromosome-biology-different-turfs-for-cohesin-and-condensin
#16
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825700/smc-complexes-differentially-compact-mitotic-chromosomes-according-to-genomic-context
#17
Stephanie Andrea Schalbetter, Anton Goloborodko, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Jon-Matthew Belton, Catrina Miles, Miao Yu, Job Dekker, Leonid Mirny, Jonathan Baxter
Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes are key determinants of chromosome conformation. Using Hi-C and polymer modelling, we study how cohesin and condensin, two deeply conserved SMC complexes, organize chromosomes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The canonical role of cohesin is to co-align sister chromatids, while condensin generally compacts mitotic chromosomes. We find strikingly different roles for the two complexes in budding yeast mitosis. First, cohesin is responsible for compacting mitotic chromosome arms, independently of sister chromatid cohesion...
September 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820333/protease-dead-separase-inhibits-chromosome-segregation-and-rab-11-vesicle-trafficking
#18
Xiaofei Bai, Joshua N Bembenek
Separase cleaves cohesin to allow chromosome segregation. Separase also regulates cortical granule exocytosis and vesicle trafficking during cytokinesis, both of which involve RAB-11. We investigated whether separase regulates exocytosis through a proteolytic or non-proteolytic mechanism. In C. elegans, protease-dead separase (SEP-1(PD)::GFP) is dominant negative. Consistent with its role in cohesin cleavage, SEP-1(PD)::GFP causes chromosome segregation defects. As expected, partial depletion of cohesin rescues this defect, confirming that SEP-1(PD)::GFP acts through a substrate trapping mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819029/loss-of-the-tumor-suppressor-stag2-promotes-telomere-recombination-and-extends-the-replicative-lifespan-of-normal-human-cells
#19
Zharko Daniloski, Susan Smith
Sister chromatids are held together by cohesin, a tripartite ring with a peripheral SA1/2 subunit, where SA1 is required for telomere cohesion and SA2 for centromere cohesion. The STAG2 gene encoding SA2 is often inactivated in human cancer, but not in in a manner associated with aneuploidy. Thus, how these tumors maintain chromosomal cohesion and how STAG2 loss contributes to tumorigenesis remain open questions. Here we show that, despite a loss in centromere cohesion, sister chromatids in STAG2 mutant tumor cells maintain cohesion in mitosis at chromosome arms and telomeres...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805829/lineage-specific-dynamic-and-pre-established-enhancer-promoter-contacts-cooperate-in-terminal-differentiation
#20
Adam J Rubin, Brook C Barajas, Mayra Furlan-Magaril, Vanessa Lopez-Pajares, Maxwell R Mumbach, Imani Howard, Daniel S Kim, Lisa D Boxer, Jonathan Cairns, Mikhail Spivakov, Steven W Wingett, Minyi Shi, Zhixin Zhao, William J Greenleaf, Anshul Kundaje, Michael Snyder, Howard Y Chang, Peter Fraser, Paul A Khavari
Chromosome conformation is an important feature of metazoan gene regulation; however, enhancer-promoter contact remodeling during cellular differentiation remains poorly understood. To address this, genome-wide promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C) was performed during epidermal differentiation. Two classes of enhancer-promoter contacts associated with differentiation-induced genes were identified. The first class ('gained') increased in contact strength during differentiation in concert with enhancer acquisition of the H3K27ac activation mark...
August 14, 2017: Nature Genetics
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