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Lara Hassan, Manfred J Reppke, Nils Thieme, Steffen A Schweizer, Carsten W Mueller, J Philipp Benz
Background: The industrial applications of cellulases are mostly limited by the costs associated with their production. Optimized production pathways are therefore desirable. Based on their enzyme inducing capacity, celluloses are commonly used in fermentation media. However, the influence of their physiochemical characteristics on the production process is not well understood. In this study, we examined how physical, structural and chemical properties of celluloses influence cellulase and hemicellulase production in an industrially-optimized and a non-engineered filamentous fungus: Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and Neurospora crassa...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Daniel P Kiesenhofer, Robert L Mach, Astrid R Mach-Aigner
Trichoderma reesei can produce up to 100 g/l of extracellular proteins. The major and industrially relevant products are the cellobiohydrolase CBHI and the hemicellulase XYNI. Both encoding genes are transcriptionally activated by the regulatory protein Xyr1. The first 850 nucleotides of the cbh1 promoter contain fourteen Xyr1-binding sites (XBS), in the xyn1 promoter are eight XBS present. Some of these XBS are arranged in tandem, others as inverted repeats. One such cis element, an inverted repeat, plays a crucial role for the inducibility of the xyn1 promoter...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yujia Jiang, Tianpeng Chen, Weiliang Dong, Min Zhang, Wenming Zhang, Hao Wu, Jiangfeng Ma, Min Jiang, Fengxue Xin
A wild type solventogenic Clostridium beijerinckii NJP7 capable of converting polysaccharides, such as hemicellulose, into butanol and isopropanol via a unique acetone-isopropanol-butanol (AIB) pathway was isolated and characterized. This represents the first wild type isopropanol-butanol generating bacterium which could achieve butanol production directly from lignocellulose through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Strain NJP7 was isolated from decomposite soil from Laoshan Nature Park, China, and its genome shows 98...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ronglin He, Xue Bai, Penglin Cai, Cheng Sun, Dongyuan Zhang, Shulin Chen
Many species of Penicillium have exhibited great potential for lignocellulose hydrolysis. The filamentous fungus Talaromyces piceus 9-3 (anamorph: Penicillium piceum), which was isolated from compost wastes in China, was sequenced in this study. Compared with the cellulase producer T. reesei, T. piceus 9-3 processes a lignocellulolytic enzyme system comprising more diverse enzymatic components, especially hemicellulases. This report will facilitate the use of this strain for biomass degradation.
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Chengcheng Li, Fengming Lin, Le Zhou, Lei Qin, Bingzhi Li, Zhihua Zhou, Mingjie Jin, Zhan Chen
BACKGROUND: The induction of cellulase production by insoluble carbon source cellulose was a common and efficient strategy, but has some drawbacks, such as difficult fermentation operation, substantial cellulase loss, long fermentation time, and high energy-consumption, resulting in high cost of cellulase production in industry. These drawbacks can be overcome if soluble carbon sources are utilized as the inducers for cellulase production. However, until now the induction efficiency of most soluble carbon sources, especially lactose and glucose, is still inferior to cellulose despite extensive efforts have been made by either optimizing the fermentation process or constructing the recombinant strains...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Virginia D Dimaki, Gregoris Iatrou, Fotini N Lamari
A number of beneficial medicinal properties are attributed to the extract and essential oil of the aerial parts of Sideritis species (Lamiaceae). Hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of wild Sideritis clandestina ssp. peloponnesiaca (an endemic taxon in northern Peloponnesus, Greece) gave a low essential oil yield (<0.12%); about 65 components, mainly α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, β-pinene, globulol, caryophyllene oxide, were identified via GC-MS. Internal and external standards were used for quantification...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
A Gallo, G Giuberti, S Bruschi, P Fortunati, F Masoero
The study was performed on forages ( = 8), nonforage fibrous feeds ( = 10), and crop residues ( = 2). Samples were characterized for in situ NDF degradability (NDFD) at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 240 h of ruminal incubation. Then, samples were characterized for enzymatic NDFD by adopting a multistep enzymatic method consisting of a preincubation (PreInc) phase followed by enzymatic incubation (EnzInc) steps. In the PreInc phase, samples were incubated in a NaOH solution for 0, 30, 60, or 90 min...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Hirak Saxena, Bryan Hsu, Marc de Asis, Mirko Zierke, Lyann Sim, Stephen G Withers, Warren Wakarchuk
Bacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are well known as secretors of a variety of mesophilic carbohydrate degrading enzymes (e.g. cellulases and hemicellulases), active against plant cell wall polysaccharides. Recent proteomic analysis of the mesophilic bacterium <i>Cellulomonas fimi</i> ATCC484 revealed uncharacterized enzymes for the hydrolysis of plant cell wall biomass. Celf_1230 (CfCel6C), a secreted protein of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC484, is a novel member of the GH6 family of cellulases which could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli...
October 5, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Damhan S Scully, Amit K Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam
Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs) rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose in SEGs following a hydrothermal pretreatment...
November 21, 2016: Bioengineering
Huyen Thi Do, Khoa Trong Dao, Viet Khanh Hoang Nguyen, Giang Ngoc Le, Phuong Thi Mai Nguyen, Lam Tung Le, Nguyet Thu Phung, Nico van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Hai Nam Truong
Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. Methods: The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (NR) sequence database...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Christa Ivanova, Jonas Ramoni, Thiziri Aouam, Alexa Frischmann, Bernhard Seiboth, Scott E Baker, Stéphane Le Crom, Sophie Lemoine, Antoine Margeot, Frédérique Bidard
BACKGROUND: The hydrolysis of biomass to simple sugars used for the production of biofuels in biorefineries requires the action of cellulolytic enzyme mixtures. During the last 50 years, the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei, the main source of industrial cellulase and hemicellulase cocktails, has been subjected to several rounds of classical mutagenesis with the aim to obtain higher production levels. During these random genetic events, strains unable to produce cellulases were generated...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chunliang Xie, Wenbing Gong, Li Yan, Zuohua Zhu, Zhenxiu Hu, Yuande Peng
In the textile industry, ramie stalk is byproducts with a low economic value. The potential use of this leftover as a substrate ingredient for Flammulina velutipes (F. velutipe) cultivation was evaluated. The degradation and utilization of ramie stalk by F. velutipes was evaluated through mushroom production, lignocelluloses degradation and lignocellulolytic enzymes activity. The best substrate mixture for F. velutipes cultivation comprised 50% ramie stalk, 20% cottonseed hulls, 25% wheat bran, 4% cornstarch and 2% CaCO3...
September 12, 2017: AMB Express
Yingjie Shu, Liyan Huang, Ming Chen, Yuan Tao, Zhankui Wang, Hao Ma
Young leaves of Kabuli chickpea as well as soybean Xiangdou No.3, which are the current plants that studied in our laboratory were selected as materials. Effects on protoplasts yield and survival rate of different enzyme combination, concentration of D-Mannitol in enzyme combinations, pH of enzyme combinations and enzymolysis time are detected. The results showed that, the best condition for Xiangdou No.3 leaf protoplasts isolation is to rotate the cut materials for 6 hours in enyzme solution under temperature of 27 ℃ and rotate speed of 45 r/min for 6 h...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Yan Hong Shen, Bing Guo Lu, Li Feng, Fei Ying Yang, Jiao Jiao Geng, Ray Ming, Xiao Jing Chen
BACKGROUND: Since papaya is a typical climacteric fruit, exogenous ethylene (ETH) applications can induce premature and quicker ripening, while 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) slows down the ripening processes. Differential gene expression in ETH or 1-MCP-treated papaya fruits accounts for the ripening processes. To isolate the key ripening-related genes and better understand fruit ripening mechanisms, transcriptomes of ETH or 1-MCP-treated, and non-treated (Control Group, CG) papaya fruits were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq2500...
August 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
Weng Chan Vong, Xin Ying Lim, Shao-Quan Liu
Okara (soybean residue) is a highly perishable food processing by-product from soymilk and tofu manufacture. It contains a large proportion of insoluble dietary fibre (40-60% on a dry basis), as well as digestion-resistant proteins, trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid. These factors contribute lead to the under-utilisation of okara. To improve the overall nutritional quality of okara, sequential saccharification of okara by Celluclast® 1.5L (cellulase) or Viscozyme® L (cellulase and hemicellulase) and fermentation by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica were performed...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Alejandra Cerda, Laura Mejías, Teresa Gea, Antoni Sánchez
Solid state fermentation is a promising technology however rising concerns related to scale up and reproducibility in a productive process. Coffee husk and a specialized inoculum were used in a 4.5L and then in 50L reactors to assess the reproducibility of a cellulase and hemicellulase production system. Fermentations were consistent in terms of cellulase production and microbial communities. The higher temperatures achieved when operating at 50L generated a shift on the microbial communities and a reduction of nearly 50% on cellulase production at pilot scale...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Liwei Gao, Chengqiang Xia, Jiadi Xu, Zhonghai Li, Lele Yu, Guodong Liu, Xin Song, Yinbo Qu
Industrial production of cellulase by filamentous fungi is largely dependent on cellulose, which serves as a natural inducer of cellulase expression. However, insoluble cellulose is unfavorable to submerged fermentation and thus limits the production level of cellulase. The possibility of cellulase production under non-inducing conditions is explored in Penicillium oxalicum by overexpressing two chimeric transcription factors. The chimeric transcription factors contain the DNA binding domain of cellulase transcriptional activator ClrB linked to the C-terminal sequences of XlnR(A871V) , a constitutively active mutant of hemicellulase transcriptional activator...
July 29, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Paolina K Lukova, Diana P Karcheva-Bahchevanska, Veselin P Bivolarski, Rumen D Mladenov, Ilia N Iliev, Mariana M Nikolova
BACKGROUND: Plantago major L. leaves have been used for centuries by the traditional medicine in the treatment of infectious disorders of the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. Researchers have reported that hot water extracts of Plantago major possess a broad-spectrum of anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Their beneficial properties may be due to the significant content of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides that have been isolated from the leaves of Plantago major L...
June 1, 2017: Folia Medica
Mingming Guo, Tony Jin, Nhuan P Nghiem, Xuetong Fan, Phoebe X Qi, Chan Ho Jang, Lingxiao Shao, Changqing Wu
Lignin accounts for 15-35% of dry biomass materials. Therefore, developing value-added co-products from lignin residues is increasingly important to improve the economic viability of biofuel production from biomass resources. The main objective of this work was to study the lignin extracts from corn stover residue obtained from a new and improved process for bioethanol production. Extraction conditions that favored high lignin yield were optimized, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the resulting lignin were investigated...
July 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jiwei Zhang, Jonathan S Schilling
Brown rot fungi initiate wood decay using oxidative pretreatments to improve access for cellulolytic enzymes. These pretreatments are incompatible with enzymes, and we recently showed that Postia placenta overcomes this issue by delaying glycoside hydrolase (GH) gene upregulation briefly (<48h) until expression of oxidoreductases (ORs) is repressed. This implies an inducible cellulase system rather than a constitutive system, as often reported, and it remains unclear what cues this transition. To address this, we grew P...
June 27, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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