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Neha Basotra, Baljit Kaur, Marcos Di Falco, Adrian Tsang, Bhupinder Singh Chadha
Mycothermus thermophilus (Syn. Scytalidium thermophilum/Humicola insolens), a thermophilic fungus, is being reported to produce appreciable titers of cellulases and hemicellulases during shake flask culturing on cellulose/wheat-bran/rice straw based production medium. The sequential and differential expression profile of endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases using zymography was studied. Mass spectrometry analysis of secretome (Q-TOF LC/MS) revealed a total of 240 proteins with 92 CAZymes of which 62 glycosyl hydrolases belonging to 30 different families were present...
October 8, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Sietske Grijseels, Jens Christian Nielsen, Milica Randelovic, Jens Nielsen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Mhairi Workman, Jens Christian Frisvad
A new soil-borne species belonging to the Penicillium section Canescentia is described, Penicillium arizonense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 141311(T) = IBT 12289(T)). The genome was sequenced and assembled into 33.7 Mb containing 12,502 predicted genes. A phylogenetic assessment based on marker genes confirmed the grouping of P. arizonense within section Canescentia. Compared to related species, P. arizonense proved to encode a high number of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, in particular hemicellulases...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Joanna Berłowska, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska, Maria Balcerek, Urszula Dziekońska-Kubczak, Piotr Patelski, Piotr Dziugan, Dorota Kręgiel
Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jiwei Zhang, Gerald N Presley, Kenneth E Hammel, Jae-San Ryu, Jon R Menke, Melania Figueroa, Dehong Hu, Galya Orr, Jonathan S Schilling
Wood-degrading brown rot fungi are essential recyclers of plant biomass in forest ecosystems. Their efficient cellulolytic systems, which have potential biotechnological applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: lignocellulose oxidation (LOX) by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polysaccharide hydrolysis by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Given that ROS are strongly oxidizing and nonselective, these two steps are likely segregated. A common hypothesis has been that brown rot fungi use a concentration gradient of chelated metal ions to confine ROS generation inside wood cell walls before enzymes can infiltrate...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Prakriti Sharma Ghimire, Haomiao Ouyang, Qian Wang, Yuanming Luo, Bo Shi, Jinghua Yang, Yang Lü, Cheng Jin
Lignocelluloses contained in animal forage cannot be digested by pigs or poultry with 100% efficiency. On contrary, Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic filamentous fungus, is known to harbor 263 glycoside hydrolase encoding genes, suggesting that A. fumigatus is an efficient lignocellulose degrader. Hence the present study uses corn, wheat, or soybean as a sole carbon source to culture A. fumigatus under animal physiological condition to understand how cellulolytic enzymes work together to achieve an efficient degradation of lignocellulose...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Chunliang Xie, Li Yan, Wenbing Gong, Zuohua Zhu, Senwei Tan, Du Chen, Zhenxiu Hu, Yuande Peng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most valued and delicious mushrooms which are commercially cultivated on various agro-wastes. How different substrates affect lignocellulosic biomass degradation, lignocellulosic enzyme production and biological efficiency in Pleurotus eryngii was unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this report, Pleurotus eryngii was cultivated in substrates including ramie stalks, kenaf stalks, cottonseed hulls and bulrush stalks. The results showed that ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were found to best suitable to cultivate Pleurotus eryngii with the biological efficiency achieved at 55% and 57%, respectively...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ian P Wood, Huong-Giang Cao, Long Tran, Nicola Cook, Peter Ryden, David R Wilson, Graham K Moates, Samuel R A Collins, Adam Elliston, Keith W Waldron
BACKGROUND: Rice cultivation produces two waste streams, straw and husk, which could be exploited more effectively. Chemical pretreatment studies using rice residues have largely focussed on straw exploitation alone, and often at low substrate concentrations. Moreover, it is currently not known how rice husk, the more recalcitrant residue, responds to steam explosion without the addition of chemicals. RESULTS: The aim of this study has been to systematically compare the effects of steam explosion severity on the enzymatic saccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice straw and husk produced from a variety widely grown in Vietnam (Oryza sativa, cv...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Nuo Li, Emi Kunitake, Miki Aoyama, Masahiro Ogawa, Kyoko Kanamaru, Makoto Kimura, Yasuji Koyama, Tetsuo Kobayashi
Fungal cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes are promising tools for industrial hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass; however, the regulatory network underlying their production is not well understood. The recent discovery of the transcriptional activators ClrB and McmA in Aspergillus nidulans implied a novel regulatory mechanism driven by their interaction, experimental evidence for which was obtained from transcriptional and DNA-binding analyses in this study. We found that ClrB was essential for induced expression of all the genes examined in this study, while McmA dependency of their expression was gene-dependent...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Jianmei Che, Shaowen Ye, Bo Liu, Yuanyuan Deng, Qianqian Chen, Cibin Ge, Guohong Liu, Jieping Wang
A feeding expriment was performed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation on the growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets. A total of 150 weaned piglets were randomly assigned to different treatments groups, which were fed the same basic diet supplemented with 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation. The results showed that a diet supplemented with 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation could significantly increase the final body weight (P < 0...
August 24, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Xinxin Xu, Jinyang Li, Pengjun Shi, Wangli Ji, Bo Liu, Yuhong Zhang, Bin Yao, Yunliu Fan, Wei Zhang
Humicola insolens is an excellent producer of pH-neutral active, thermostable cellulases that find many industrial applications. In the present study, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system for H. insolens. We transformed plasmids carrying the promoter of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of H. insolens driving the transcription of genes encoding neomycin phosphotransferase, hygromycin B phosphotransferase, and enhanced green fluorescent protein. We optimized transformation efficiency to obtain over 300 transformants/10(6) conidia...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carolyn A Zeiner, Samuel O Purvine, Erika M Zink, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Dominique L Chaput, Sajeet Haridas, Si Wu, Kurt LaButti, Igor V Grigoriev, Bernard Henrissat, Cara M Santelli, Colleen M Hansel
Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species...
2016: PloS One
Camila Florencio, Fernanda M Cunha, Alberto C Badino, Cristiane S Farinas, Eduardo Ximenes, Michael R Ladisch
The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Hao-Xun Chang, Craig R Yendrek, Gustavo Caetano-Anolles, Glen L Hartman
BACKGROUND: Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are a subset of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) produced by plant pathogens to degrade plant cell walls. To counteract PCWDEs, plants release PCWDEs inhibitor proteins (PIPs) to reduce their impact. Several transgenic plants expressing exogenous PIPs that interact with fungal glycoside hydrolase (GH)11-type xylanases or GH28-type polygalacturonase (PG) have been shown to enhance disease resistance. However, many plant pathogenic Fusarium species were reported to escape PIPs inhibition...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Mikael Gudmundsson, Henrik Hansson, Saeid Karkehabadi, Anna Larsson, Ingeborg Stals, Steve Kim, Sergio Sunux, Meredith Fujdala, Edmund Larenas, Thijs Kaper, Mats Sandgren
The filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina produces a number of cellulases and hemicellulases that act in a concerted fashion on biomass and degrade it into monomeric or oligomeric sugars. β-Glucosidases are involved in the last step of the degradation of cellulosic biomass and hydrolyse the β-glycosidic linkage between two adjacent molecules in dimers and oligomers of glucose. In this study, it is shown that substituting the β-glucosidase from H. jecorina (HjCel3A) with the β-glucosidase Cel3A from the thermophilic fungus Rasamsonia emersonii (ReCel3A) in enzyme mixtures results in increased efficiency in the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials...
July 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Tiina M Pakula, Heli Nygren, Dorothee Barth, Markus Heinonen, Sandra Castillo, Merja Penttilä, Mikko Arvas
BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is a widely used industrial host organism for protein production. In industrial cultivations, it can produce over 100 g/l of extracellular protein, mostly constituting of cellulases and hemicellulases. In order to improve protein production of T. reesei the transcriptional regulation of cellulases and secretory pathway factors have been extensively studied. However, the metabolism of T. reesei under protein production conditions has not received much attention...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
J García, S Davies, R Villa, D M Gomes, F Coulon, S T Wagland
The objectives of this study were to assess the biogas potential of landfilled materials and to further validate the suitability of the enzymatic hydrolysis test EHT as a valuable alternative to substitute the standardised test currently in use (BMP). Both tests were applied to a range of landfill waste samples. The waste composition and volatile solids content (VS) profile together with the BMP test results showed that the biogas potential of the waste samples was directly related to their VS content, as expected...
September 2016: Waste Management
Daehwan Kim, Eduardo A Ximenes, Nancy N Nichols, Guangli Cao, Sarah E Frazer, Michael R Ladisch
Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616...
September 2016: Bioresource Technology
I S Druzhinina, C P Kubicek
The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) has properties of an efficient cell factory for protein production that is exploited by the enzyme industry, particularly with respect to cellulase and hemicellulase formation. Under conditions of industrial fermentations it yields more than 100g secreted protein L(-1). Consequently, T. reesei has been intensively studied in the 20th century. Most of these investigations focused on the biochemical characteristics of its cellulases and hemicellulases, on the improvement of their properties by protein engineering, and on enhanced enzyme production by recombinant strategies...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Camila Florencio, Fernanda M Cunha, Alberto C Badino, Cristiane S Farinas, Eduardo Ximenes, Michael R Ladisch
Cellulases and hemicellulases from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger have been shown to be powerful enzymes for biomass conversion to sugars, but the production costs are still relatively high for commercial application. The choice of an effective microbial cultivation process employed for enzyme production is important, since it may affect titers and the profile of protein secretion. We used proteomic analysis to characterize the secretome of T. reesei and A. niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation processes...
August 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Ákos Tóth, Terézia Barna, Erna Szabó, Rita Elek, Ágnes Hubert, István Nagy, István Nagy, Balázs Kriszt, András Táncsics, József Kukolya
Thermobifidas are thermotolerant, compost inhabiting actinomycetes which have complex polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzyme systems. The best characterized enzymes of these hydrolases are cellulases from T. fusca, while other important enzymes especially hemicellulases are not deeply explored. To fill this gap we cloned and investigated endomannanases from those reference strains of the Thermobifida genus, which have published data on other hydrolases (T. fusca TM51, T. alba CECT3323, T. cellulosilytica TB100T and T...
2016: PloS One
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