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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728934/beyond-body-mass-index-obesity-and-lung-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Benjamin T Suratt, Jason H T Bates, Anne E Dixon
The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly in the last three decades, and this has led to important changes in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of many common diseases. This review article examines the relationship between obesity and lung disease, highlighting some of the major findings that have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to this relationship. Changes in pulmonary function related to fat mass are important, but obesity is much more than simply a state of mass loading, and body mass index is only a very indirect measure of metabolic health...
July 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727498/new-perspectives-regarding-the-antiviral-effect-of-vitamin-a-on-norovirus-using-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#2
Heetae Lee, GwangPyo Ko
Gut microbiota has been revealed to play an important role in various health conditions, and recent studies have suggested the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy. There is no effective treatment for norovirus infection, though vitamin A has been suggested to have an antiviral effect in an epidemiological study. We demonstrated that vitamin A significantly inhibited murine norovirus replication. Vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus sp. during norovirus infection, which played a crucial role in antiviral efficacy, inhibiting murine norovirus...
July 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#3
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727105/analysis-of-the-gut-bacterial-communities-in-beef-cattle-and-their-association-with-feed-intake-growth-and-efficiency
#4
P R Myer, H C Freetly, J E Wells, T P L Smith, L A Kuehn
The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723186/ingestible-sensors
#5
Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Nam Ha, Jian Zhen Ou, Kyle J Berean
Ingestible sensing capsules are fast emerging as a critical technology that has the ability to greatly impact health, nutrition, and clinical areas. These ingestible devices are noninvasive and hence are very attractive for customers. With widespread access to smart phones connected to the Internet, the data produced by this technology can be readily seen and reviewed online, and accessed by both users and physicians. The outputs provide invaluable information to reveal the state of gut health and disorders as well as the impact of food, medical supplements, and environmental changes on the gastrointestinal tract...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721546/health-benefits-observed-after-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-ccm-7421-application-in-dogs
#6
REVIEW
Viola Strompfová, Ivana Kubašová, Andrea Lauková
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders...
July 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720797/commensal-gut-microbiota-immunomodulatory-actions-in-bone-marrow-and-liver-have-catabolic-effects-on-skeletal-homeostasis-in-health
#7
Chad M Novince, Carolyn R Whittow, Johannes D Aartun, Jessica D Hathaway, Nicole Poulides, Michael B Chavez, Heidi M Steinkamp, Kaeleigh A Kirkwood, Emily Huang, Caroline Westwater, Keith L Kirkwood
Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota's osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota's immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbiota has anti-anabolic effects suppressing osteoblastogenesis and pro-catabolic effects enhancing osteoclastogenesis, which drive bone loss in health...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720731/an-in-vitro-chicken-gut-model-demonstrates-transfer-of-a-multidrug-resistance-plasmid-from-salmonella-to-commensal-escherichia-coli
#8
Roderick M Card, Shaun A Cawthraw, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Richard J Ellis, Gemma Kay, Mark J Pallen, Martin J Woodward, Muna F Anjum
The chicken gastrointestinal tract is richly populated by commensal bacteria that fulfill various beneficial roles for the host, including helping to resist colonization by pathogens. It can also facilitate the conjugative transfer of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids between commensal and pathogenic bacteria which is a significant public and animal health concern as it may affect our ability to treat bacterial infections. We used an in vitro chemostat system to approximate the chicken cecal microbiota, simulate colonization by an MDR Salmonella pathogen, and examine the dynamics of transfer of its MDR plasmid harboring several genes, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase blaCTX-M1 We also evaluated the impact of cefotaxime administration on plasmid transfer and microbial diversity...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#9
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#10
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719392/intestinal-microbiome-in-scleroderma-recent-progress
#11
Elizabeth R Volkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our evolving understanding of how gut microbiota affects immune function and homeostasis has led many investigators to explore the potentially pathologic role of gut microbiota in autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the rapidly advancing field of microbiome research in systemic sclerosis (SSc), an incurable autoimmune disease with significant gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have identified common perturbations in gut microbiota across different SSc cohorts...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#12
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717305/efficacy-of-early-chick-nutrition-with-aloe-vera-and-azadirachta-indica-on-gut-health-and-histomorphometry-in-chicks
#13
Tamilvanan Sujatha, Sivasankar Abhinaya, Jai Sunder, Marudhai Thangapandian, Anandamoy Kundu
AIM: This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717159/the-essential-genomic-landscape-of-the-commensal-bifidobacterium-breve-ucc2003
#14
Lorena Ruiz, Francesca Bottacini, Christine J Boinett, Amy K Cain, Mary O'Connell-Motherway, Trevor D Lawley, Douwe van Sinderen
Bifidobacteria are common gut commensals with purported health-promoting effects. This has encouraged scientific research into bifidobacteria, though recalcitrance to genetic manipulation and scarcity of molecular tools has hampered our knowledge on the precise molecular determinants of their health-promoting attributes and gut adaptation. To overcome this problem and facilitate functional genomic analyses in bifidobacteria, we created a large Tn5 transposon mutant library of the commensal Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 that was further characterized by means of a Transposon Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) approach...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716445/feeding-systems-and-the-gut-microbiome-gut-brain-interactions-with-relevance-to-psychiatric-conditions
#15
REVIEW
Brittany L Mason
BACKGROUND: Physical and mental health is dependent on the environment, and feeding is a prime example of this environmental exchange. While the hypothalamus controls both feeding behavior and the stress response, the integration of the neural control centers and the peripheral gut allows for disruption in the gastrointestinal systems and dysfunctional communication to the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to familiarize clinicians with the physiology controlling feeding behavior and its implications for psychiatric conditions, such as anorexia nervosa and depression...
June 8, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715993/metabolic-effects-of-intermittent-fasting
#16
Ruth E Patterson, Dorothy D Sears
The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715471/habitat-and-indigenous-gut-microbes-contribute-to-the-plasticity-of-gut-microbiome-in-oriental-river-prawn-during-rapid-environmental-change
#17
Cheng-Yu Chen, Po-Cheng Chen, Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Daryi Wang
Growing evidence points out that the capacity of organisms to acclimate or adapt to new habitat conditions basically depends on their phenomic plasticity attributes, of which their gut commensal microbiota might be an essential impact factor. Especially in aquatic organisms, which are in direct and continual contact with the aquatic environment, the complex and dynamic microbiota have significant effects on health and development. However, an understanding of the relative contribution of internal sorting (host genetic) and colonization (environmental) processes is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713266/significance-of-microbiota-in-obesity-and-metabolic-diseases-and-the-modulatory-potential-by-medicinal-plant-and-food-ingredients
#18
REVIEW
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712163/molecular-characterization-of-fecal-microbiota-of-healthy-chinese-tobacco-smoker-subjects-in-shaanxi-province-xi-an-china
#19
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaokang Wu, Chaofeng Ma, Jiru Xu
BACKGROUND: Tobacco Smoking, most commonly, can cause the diseases affecting the lungs and heart. Human gut microbiota plays a key role to decide the health status of the host. Current study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chinese tobacco smokers and to study the alteration in diversity and similarity of gut microbiota, with comparison of healthy non-smokers. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from fourteen healthy tobacco smokers and six from healthy non-smoker individuals...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710833/effect-of-cellobiose-supplementation-on-in-vitro-fermentation-activity-and-bacterial-numbers-of-porcine-inocula
#20
S N Heinritz, E Weiss, J Seifert, R Mosenthin, S Kuß, A G Degenhardt, T J Koch
In this in vitro study, the modified Hohenheim gas test (HGT) was applied to determine fermentation activity and bacterial composition of pig's faecal microbial inoculum using different concentrations of cellobiose. Incubation procedures included normal buffered and osmotic stress conditions (elevated medium salinity). After 24 hr of fermentation, production of gas, ammonia and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) was measured, and the gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Roseburia spp...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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