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Gut health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431252/engineered-regulatory-systems-modulate-gene-expression-of-human-commensals-in-the-gut
#1
Bentley Lim, Michael Zimmermann, Natasha A Barry, Andrew L Goodman
The gut microbiota is implicated in numerous aspects of health and disease, but dissecting these connections is challenging because genetic tools for gut anaerobes are limited. Inducible promoters are particularly valuable tools because these platforms allow real-time analysis of the contribution of microbiome gene products to community assembly, host physiology, and disease. We developed a panel of tunable expression platforms for the prominent genus Bacteroides in which gene expression is controlled by a synthetic inducer...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431245/host-microbe-co-metabolism-dictates-cancer-drug-efficacy-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#2
Timothy A Scott, Leonor M Quintaneiro, Povilas Norvaisas, Prudence P Lui, Matthew P Wilson, Kit-Yi Leung, Lucia Herrera-Dominguez, Sonia Sudiwala, Alberto Pessia, Peter T Clayton, Kevin Bryson, Vidya Velagapudi, Philippa B Mills, Athanasios Typas, Nicholas D E Greene, Filipe Cabreiro
Fluoropyrimidines are the first-line treatment for colorectal cancer, but their efficacy is highly variable between patients. We queried whether gut microbes, a known source of inter-individual variability, impacted drug efficacy. Combining two tractable genetic models, the bacterium E. coli and the nematode C. elegans, we performed three-way high-throughput screens that unraveled the complexity underlying host-microbe-drug interactions. We report that microbes can bolster or suppress the effects of fluoropyrimidines through metabolic drug interconversion involving bacterial vitamin B6, B9, and ribonucleotide metabolism...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430946/forgotten-fungi-the-gut-mycobiome-in-human-health-and-disease
#3
Chloe E Huseyin, Paul W O'Toole, Paul D Cotter, Pauline D Scanlan
The human body is home to a complex and diverse microbial ecosystem that plays a central role in host health. This includes a diversity of fungal species that is collectively referred to as our 'mycobiome'. Although research into the mycobiome is still in its infancy, its potential role in human disease is increasingly recognised. Here we review the existing literature available on the human mycobiota with an emphasis on the gut mycobiome, including how fungi interact with the human host and other microbes...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429823/changes-in-the-gut-microbiome-of-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis-in-response-to-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-infection
#4
Z F Ding, M J Cao, X S Zhu, G H Xu, R L Wang
Intestinal microorganisms play important roles in maintaining host health, but their functions in aquatic animal hosts have yet to be fully elucidated. The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one such example. We attempted to identify the shift of gut microbiota that occurred in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an emerging viral pathogen in the crab aquaculture industry. The microbiota may exert some control over aspects of the viral pathogenesis. We investigated the changes in composition and structure of the crab gut microbiome during various WSSV infection stages of 6 h post-infection (hpi) and 48 hpi, using a 16S rRNA approach on the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428160/simulated-conversations-with-virtual-humans-to-improve-patient-provider-communication-and-reduce-unnecessary-prescriptions-for-antibiotics-a-repeated-measure-pilot-study
#5
Antoinette Schoenthaler, Glenn Albright, Judith Hibbard, Ron Goldman
BACKGROUND: Despite clear evidence that antibiotics do not cure viral infections, the problem of unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics in ambulatory care persists, and in some cases, prescribing patterns have increased. The overuse of antibiotics for treating viral infections has created numerous economic and clinical consequences including increased medical costs due to unnecessary hospitalizations, antibiotic resistance, disruption of gut bacteria, and obesity. Recent research has underscored the importance of collaborative patient-provider communication as a means to reduce the high rates of unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427536/health-risks-of-food-oxidation
#6
Mario Estévez, Zhuqing Li, Olugbenga P Soladoye, Thomas Van-Hecke
The impact of dietary habits on our health is indisputable. Consumer's concern on aging and age-related diseases challenges scientists to underline the potential role of food on the extension and guarantee of lifespan and healthspan. While some dietary components and habits are generally regarded as beneficial for our health, some others are being found to exert potential toxic effects and hence, contribute to the onset of particular health disorders. Among the latter, lipid and protein oxidation products formed during food production, storage, processing, and culinary preparation have been recently identified as potentially harmful to humans...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#7
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424669/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut-of-the-hong-kong-whipping-frog-polypedates-megacephalus-and-a-validation-using-probiotics
#8
Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Chieh-Yin Weng, Yi-Ju Yang, Daryi Wang
The concerted activity of intestinal microbes is crucial to the health and development of their host organisms. Investigation of microbial interactions in the gut should deepen our understanding of how these micro-ecosystems function. Due to advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, various bioinformatic strategies have been proposed to investigate these microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal microbial community and difficulties in monitoring their interactions, at present there is a gap between the theory and biological application...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422965/diet-and-condition-of-mesopredators-on-coral-reefs-in-relation-to-shark-abundance
#9
Shanta C Barley, Mark G Meekan, Jessica J Meeuwig
Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421185/changes-in-composition-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiome-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pediatric-heart-transplant-patient
#10
Kyle L Flannigan, Taylor Rajbar, Andrew Moffat, Leanna S McKenzie, Frank Dicke, Kevin Rioux, Matthew L Workentine, Thomas J Louie, Simon A Hirota, Steven C Greenway
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421183/organ-to-organ-communication-a-drosophila-gastrointestinal-tract-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
The long-term maintenance of an organism's homeostasis and health relies on the accurate regulation of organ-organ communication. Recently, there has been growing interest in using the Drosophila gastrointestinal tract to elucidate the regulatory programs that underlie the complex interactions between organs. Data obtained in this field have dramatically improved our understanding of how organ-organ communication contributes to the regulation of various aspects of the intestine, including its metabolic and physiological status...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421061/comparative-analysis-of-the-gut-microbial-communities-in-forest-and-alpine-musk-deer-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#12
Xiaolong Hu, Gang Liu, Aaron B A Shafer, Yuting Wei, Juntong Zhou, Shaobi Lin, Haibin Wu, Mi Zhou, Defu Hu, Shuqiang Liu
The gut ecosystem is characterized by dynamic and reciprocal interactions between the host and bacteria. Although characterizing microbiota for herbivores has become recognized as important tool for gauging species health, no study to date has investigated the bacterial communities and evaluated the age-related bacterial dynamics of musk deer. Moreover, gastrointestinal diseases have been hypothesized to be a limiting factor of population growth in captive musk deer. Here, high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was used to profile the fecal bacterial communities in juvenile and adult alpine and forest musk deer...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421057/gut-microbiota-modulation-and-its-relationship-with-obesity-using-prebiotic-fibers-and-probiotics-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Dinesh K Dahiya, Renuka, Monica Puniya, Umesh K Shandilya, Tejpal Dhewa, Nikhil Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil K Puniya, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420945/controversies-and-recent-developments-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#14
Peta Hill, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
The low-fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a 2-phased intervention, with strict reduction of all slowly absorbed or indigestible short-chain carbohydrates (ie, FODMAPs) followed by reintroduction of specific FODMAPs according to tolerance. The efficacy of the elimination phase of the FODMAP diet is well established, but the success of maintaining this diet has been shown in only a few observational studies. How the efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet compares with that of other therapies has received limited attention, but recent studies have shown this diet to be comparable or superior to diets that address eating style and choice of food as well as to gut hypnotherapy...
January 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420791/adult-enteric-nervous-system-in-health-is-maintained-by-a-dynamic-balance-between-neuronal-apoptosis-and-neurogenesis
#15
Subhash Kulkarni, Maria-Adelaide Micci, Jenna Leser, Changsik Shin, Shiue-Cheng Tang, Ya-Yuan Fu, Liansheng Liu, Qian Li, Monalee Saha, Cuiping Li, Grigori Enikolopov, Laren Becker, Nikolai Rakhilin, Michael Anderson, Xiling Shen, Xinzhong Dong, Manish J Butte, Hongjun Song, E Michelle Southard-Smith, Raj P Kapur, Milena Bogunovic, Pankaj J Pasricha
According to current dogma, there is little or no ongoing neurogenesis in the fully developed adult enteric nervous system. This lack of neurogenesis leaves unanswered the question of how enteric neuronal populations are maintained in adult guts, given previous reports of ongoing neuronal death. Here, we confirm that despite ongoing neuronal cell loss because of apoptosis in the myenteric ganglia of the adult small intestine, total myenteric neuronal numbers remain constant. This observed neuronal homeostasis is maintained by new neurons formed in vivo from dividing precursor cells that are located within myenteric ganglia and express both Nestin and p75NTR, but not the pan-glial marker Sox10...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420790/honeybee-gut-microbiota-promotes-host-weight-gain-via-bacterial-metabolism-and-hormonal-signaling
#16
Hao Zheng, J Elijah Powell, Margaret I Steele, Carsten Dietrich, Nancy A Moran
Social bees harbor a simple and specialized microbiota that is spatially organized into different gut compartments. Recent results on the potential involvement of bee gut communities in pathogen protection and nutritional function have drawn attention to the impact of the microbiota on bee health. However, the contributions of gut microbiota to host physiology have yet to be investigated. Here we show that the gut microbiota promotes weight gain of both whole body and the gut in individual honey bees. This effect is likely mediated by changes in host vitellogenin, insulin signaling, and gustatory response...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419637/self-reported-prevalence-description-and-management-of-pain-in-adults-with-haemophilia-methods-demographics-and-results-from-the-pain-functional-impairment-and-quality-of-life-p-fiq-study
#17
M Witkop, A Neff, T W Buckner, M Wang, K Batt, C M Kessler, D Quon, L Boggio, M Recht, K Baumann, R Z Gut, D L Cooper, C L Kempton
INTRODUCTION: Haemophilia is characterized by frequent haemarthrosis, leading to acute/chronic joint pain. AIM: To assess self-reported prevalence, description and management of pain in adult males with mild-to-severe haemophilia and history of joint pain/bleeding. METHODS: Participants completed a pain survey and five patient-reported outcome instruments assessing pain, functional impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). RESULTS: Of 381 participants enrolled, median age was 34 years; 77% had haemophilia A, 71% had severe disease and 65% were overweight/obese...
April 16, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415978/bacterial-communities-and-metabolic-activity-of-faecal-cultures-from-equol-producer-and-non-producer-menopausal-women-under-treatment-with-soy-isoflavones
#18
Lucía Guadamuro, Anja B Dohrmann, Christoph C Tebbe, Baltasar Mayo, Susana Delgado
BACKGROUND: Isoflavones are polyphenols with estrogenic activity found mainly in soy and soy-derived products that need to be metabolised in the intestine by the gut bacteria to be fully active. There is little knowledge about isoflavone bioconversion and equol production in the human intestine. In this work, we developed an in vitro anaerobic culture model based on faecal slurries to assess the impact of isoflavone supplementation on the overall intestinal bacterial composition changes and associated metabolic transformations...
April 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414739/an-in-silico-pan-genomic-probe-for-the-molecular-traits-behind-lactobacillus-ruminis-gut-autochthony
#19
Ravi Kant, Airi Palva, Ingemar von Ossowski
As an ecological niche, the mammalian intestine provides the ideal habitat for a variety of bacterial microorganisms. Purportedly, some commensal genera and species offer a beneficial mix of metabolic, protective, and structural processes that help sustain the natural digestive health of the host. Among these sort of gut inhabitants is the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus ruminis, a strict anaerobe with both pili and flagella on its cell surface, but also known for being autochthonous (indigenous) to the intestinal environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414448/substrate-profiling-and-high-resolution-co-complex-crystal-structure-of-a-secreted-c11-protease-conserved-across-commensal-bacteria
#20
Emily J Roncase, Clara Moon, Sandip Chatterjee, Gonzalo E González-Páez, Charles S Craik, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Dennis W Wolan
Cysteine proteases are among the most abundant hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteria, and this diverse family of proteins have significant biological roles in bacterial viability and environmental interactions. Members of the clostripain-like (C11) family of cysteine proteases from distal gut commensal strains have recently been shown to mediate immune responses by inducing neutrophil phagocytosis and activating bacterial pathogenic toxins. Development of substrates, inhibitors, and probes that target C11 proteases from enteric bacteria will help to establish the role of these proteins at the interface of the host and microbiome in health and disease...
April 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
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