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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339726/effect-of-feeding-soybean-meal-and-differently-processed-peas-on-the-gut-mucosal-immune-system-of-broilers
#1
I Röhe, T W Göbel, F Goodarzi Boroojeni, J Zentek
Peas are traditionally used as a protein source for poultry. However, peas contain antinutritional factors (ANF), which are associated with the initiation of local and systemic immune reactions. The current study examined the effect of feeding raw or differently processed peas in comparison with feeding a soybean meal (SBM) based control diet (C) on the gut mucosal immune system of broilers in a 35 day feeding trial. In six replicates, a total of 360 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to four different groups receiving C, or three treatment diets containing raw, fermented, and enzymatically pre-digested peas, each supplying 30% of required crude protein...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339527/microbial-community-mapping-in-intestinal-tract-of-broiler-chicken
#2
Yingping Xiao, Yun Xiang, Weidong Zhou, Jinggang Chen, Kaifeng Li, Hua Yang
Domestic chickens are valuable sources of protein associated with producing meat and eggs for humans. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) houses a large microbial community, and these microbiota play an important role in growth and health of chickens, contributing to the enhancement of nutrient absorption and improvement of the birds' immune systems. To improve our understanding of the chicken intestinal microbial composition, microbiota inhabiting 5 different intestinal locations (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of 42-day-old broiler chickens were detected based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339214/muscle-protein-signaling-in-c2c12-cells-is-stimulated-to-a-similar-degree-by-diverse-commercial-food-protein-sources-and-experimental-soy-protein-hydrolysates
#3
David A Roeseler, Nancy J McGraw, Dustie N Butteiger, Naina Shah, Janine Hall-Porter, Ratna Mukherjea, Elaine Susan Krul
Dietary protein stimulates muscle protein synthesis and is essential for muscle health. We developed a screening assay using C2C12 mouse muscle cells to assess the relative abilities of diverse commercial proteins sources and experimental soy protein hydrolysates (ESH), after simulated gut digestion (SGD), to activate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) muscle protein synthesis signaling pathway (p70S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation). Activation of mTORC1 was expressed as a percentage of a maximal insulin response...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339172/maternal-high-fat-diet-consumption-enhances-offspring-susceptibility-to-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#4
Shima Bibi, Yifei Kang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) may alter the offspring intestinal immune system, thereby enhancing susceptibility toward inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of maternal HFD on offspring intestinal health using a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Dams were provided with either HFD (60%) or control diet. After weaning, female offspring from both groups were kept on 45% HFD...
March 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338639/beyond-the-cholesterol-lowering-effect-of-soy-protein-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-soy-and-its-constituents-on-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
D Dan Ramdath, Emily M T Padhi, Sidra Sarfaraz, Simone Renwick, Alison M Duncan
The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that may improve cardiovascular health through independent mechanisms. This review summarizes the evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of non-protein soy components in relation to known CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, and obesity beyond cholesterol lowering...
March 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338444/the-role-of-diet-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#6
Sabrina Esposito, Simona Bonavita, Maddalena Sparaco, Antonio Gallo, Gioacchino Tedeschi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, where environmental factors interact with genetic susceptibility. The role of diet on MS has not been comprehensively elucidated; therefore, through an extensive search of relevant literature, this review reports the most significant evidence regarding nutrition as a possible co-factor influencing the inflammatory cascade by acting on both its molecular pathways and gut microbiota. Since nutritional status and dietary habits in MS patients have not been extensively reported, the lack of a scientific-based consensus on dietary recommendation in MS could encourage many patients to experiment alternative dietetic regimens, increasing the risk of malnutrition...
March 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337589/colonization-by-non-pathogenic-bacteria-alters-mrna-expression-of-cytochromes-p450-in-originally-germ-free-mice
#7
L Jourová, P Anzenbacher, B Lišková, Z Matušková, P Hermanová, T Hudcovic, H Kozáková, L Hrnčířová, E Anzenbacherová
Gut microbiota provides a wide range of beneficial function for the host and has an immense effect on the host's health state. It has also been shown that gut microbiome is often involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics; however, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the gut bacteria and the metabolism of drugs by the host are still unclear. To investigate the effect of microbial colonization on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of liver cytochromes P450 (CYPs), the main drug-metabolizing enzymes, we used germ-free (GF) mice, lacking the intestinal flora and mice monocolonized by non-pathogenic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (NIZO2877) or probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice...
March 23, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337150/alteration-in-taste-perception-in-cancer-causes-and-strategies-of-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Babar Murtaza, Aziz Hichami, Amira S Khan, François Ghiringhelli, Naim A Khan
The sense of taste is responsible for the detection and ingestion of food to cover energetic requirements in health and disease. The change in taste perception might lead to malnutrition that is usually one of the frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of taste perception and how they are altered in cancer. We also address the question of the implication of inflammation, responsible for the alterations in taste modalities. We highlight the role of radio- and chemotherapy in the modulation of taste physiology...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336550/the-effect-of-intravenous-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-on-esophageal-sensitivity-and-motility-in-health
#9
Charlotte Broers, Chloé Melchior, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Tim Vanuytsel, Brecht Van Houtte, Charlotte Scheerens, Nathalie Rommel, Jan F Tack, Ans Pauwels
BACKGROUND: Esophageal hypersensitivity is important in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients refractory to acid-suppressive therapy. Stress affects visceral sensitivity and exacerbates heartburn in GERD. Peripheral CRH is a key mediator of the gut stress response. We hypothesize that CRH increases esophageal sensitivity and alters esophageal motility in health. METHODS: Esophageal sensitivity to thermal, mechanical, electrical and chemical stimuli was assessed in 14 healthy subjects after placebo or CRH (100μg IV)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335507/hydroxytyrosol-in-the-prevention-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-related-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Julien Peyrol, Catherine Riva, Marie Josèphe Amiot
Virgin olive oil (VOO) constitutes the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet. VOO is rich in oleic acid, displaying health-promoting properties, but also contains minor bioactive components, especially phenolic compounds. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main polyphenol of olive oil, has been reported to be the most bioactive component. This review aims to compile the results of clinical, animal and cell culture studies evaluating the effects of HT on the features of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (body weight/adiposity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance) and associated complications (oxidative stress and inflammation)...
March 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335485/intra-amniotic-administration-of-raffinose-and-stachyose-affects-the-intestinal-brush-border-functionality-and-alters-gut-microflora-populations
#11
Sarina Pacifici, Jaehong Song, Cathy Zhang, Qiaoye Wang, Raymond P Glahn, Nikolai Kolba, Elad Tako
This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics-stachyose and raffinose-which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal functionality, and increase health-promoting bacterial populations in vivo (Gallus gallus). By using the intra-amniotic administration procedure, prebiotic treatment solutions were injected in ovo (day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of a 1...
March 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333199/effect-of-butyrate-and-lactobacillus-gg-on-a-butyrate-receptor-and-transporter-during-campylobacter-jejuni-exposure
#12
Gail A M Cresci, Paul C Mayer, Stuart A Thompson
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) frequently infects humans causing many gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, fatigue and several long-term debilitating diseases. Current treatment for campylobacteriosis includes rehydration and in some cases, antibiotic therapy. Probiotics are used to treat several gastrointestinal diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid known to promote intestinal health. Interaction of butyrate with its respective receptor (HCAR2) and transporter (SLC5A8), both expressed in the intestine, is associated with water and electrolyte absorption as well as providing defense against colon cancer and inflammation...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328896/microbiota-and-reproducibility-of-rodent-models
#13
REVIEW
Craig L Franklin, Aaron C Ericsson
The gut microbiota (GM) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Likewise, it is becoming increasingly evident that changes or disruptions to the GM can have significant effects on animal models and their expressed phenotypes, adding a complex and important variable into basic research and preclinical studies. In this article, we review some of the most common sources of GM variability in rodent models, and discuss measures to address this variability for improved reproducibility.
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328083/oral-iron-supplementation-potential-implications-for-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-patients-with-ckd
#14
Guus A M Kortman, Dorien Reijnders, Dorine W Swinkels
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and loss of kidney function are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. The risks of CKD are attributed to "uremia," an increased concentration of uremic retention solutes (toxins) in the plasma. Recently, a colo-renal axis became clearly apparent and uremia has been associated with an altered gut microbiome composition and metabolism. There is a high prevalence of anemia in patients with CKD, for which patients are often treated with oral or intravenous iron...
March 22, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327177/intestinal-t-lymphocyte-homing-is-associated-with-gastric-emptying-and-epithelial-barrier-function-in-critically-ill-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Christian Greis, Zohal Rasuly, Rolf A Janosi, Lambros Kordelas, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Impaired gastric emptying is common in critically ill patients. Intestinal dysmotility, a major cause of feed intolerance, may foster infectious complications due to mucosal barrier disruption. However, little is known about gut-directed immune activation, intestinal barrier function and its association with impaired gastric emptying in critically ill patients at ICU admission. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at two tertiary care medical ICUs...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326063/lactobacillus-reuteri-surface-mucus-adhesins-upregulate-inflammatory-responses-through-interactions-with-innate-c-type-lectin-receptors
#16
Krisztián P Bene, Devon W Kavanaugh, Charlotte Leclaire, Allan P Gunning, Donald A MacKenzie, Alexandra Wittmann, Ian D Young, Norihito Kawasaki, Eva Rajnavolgyi, Nathalie Juge
The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri exhibits strain-specific adhesion and health-promoting properties. Here, we investigated the role of the mucus adhesins, CmbA and MUB, upon interaction of L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 strains with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We showed that mucus adhesins increased the capacity of L. reuteri strains to interact with moDCs and promoted phagocytosis. Our data also indicated that mucus adhesins mediate anti- and pro-inflammatory effects by the induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 cytokines...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322134/reproductive-microbiomes
#17
Michael L Power, Caroline Quaglieri, Jay Schulkin
Almost every part of our body has a coevolved microbial community. The expressed microbial genes comprise the various microbiomes that play important roles in normal physiology and development. The various microbiomes are separate, yet often connected, with the species composition of one affecting others. The female reproductive system microbiomes (eg, vaginal, placental, and mammary/milk) remain less well explored than the gut microbiome although they comprise a large proportion of the female microbial network...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321211/first-foods-and-gut-microbes
#18
Martin F Laursen, Martin I Bahl, Kim F Michaelsen, Tine R Licht
The establishment of the human gut microbiota in early life has been associated with later health and disease. During the 1st months after birth, the microbial composition in the gut is known to be affected by the mode of delivery, use of antibiotics, geographical location and type of feeding (breast/formula). Consequently, the neonatal period and early infancy has attracted much attention. However, after this first period the gut microbial composition continues to develop until the age of 3 years, and these 1st years have been designated "a window of opportunity" for microbial modulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319897/dialysis-membrane-enforced-microelectrode-array-measurement-of-diverse-gut-electrical-activity
#19
Naoko Iwata, Takumi Fujimura, Chiho Takai, Kei Odani, Shin Kawano, Shinsuke Nakayama
A variety of electrical activities occur depending on the functional state in each section of the gut, but the application of microelectrode array (MEA) is rather limited. We thus developed a dialysis membranes-enforced technique to investigate diverse and complex spatio-temporal electrical activity in the gut. Muscle sheets isolated from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mice along with a piece of dialysis membrane were woven over and under the strings to fix them to the anchor rig, and mounted on an 8×8 MEA (inter-electrode distance=150µm)...
March 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318588/comparative-composition-diversity-and-abundance-of-oligosaccharides-in-early-lactation-milk-from-commercial-dairy-and-beef-cows
#20
William M Sischo, Diana M Short, Mareen Geissler, Apichaya Bunyatratchata, Daniela Barile
Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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