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Gut health

Lanfang Tian, Siyuan Chen, Haiyan Liu, Mingzhang Guo, Wentao Xu, Xiaoyun He, Yunbo Luo, Xiaozhe Qi, Hongxia Luo, Kunlun Huang
Hepcidin, one kind of antimicrobial peptides, is one of the promising alternatives to antibiotics with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Hepcidins cloned from different kinds of fishes have been produced using exogenous expression systems, and their in vitro antimicrobial effects have been verified. However their in vivo effects on gut microbiota and gut health of hosts remain unclear. Here we performed a safety study of hepcidin so that it can be used to reduce microbial contaminations in the food and feed...
2016: PloS One
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shuai Wei, Deog H Oh, Byong H Lee
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract has co-developed with a large number of microbes in a symbiotic relationship over millions of years. Recent studies indicate that indigenous bacteria are intimate with the intestine and play essential roles in health and disease. In the quest to maintain a stable niche, these prokaryotes influence multiple host metabolic pathways, resulting from an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling and impacting strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Since dysbiosis of the gut bacteria result in alteration in the levels of certain microbial and host co-metabolites, identifying these markers could enhance early detection of diseases...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health- promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviors such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioral and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Aziz Homayouni Rad, Farnaz Sahhaf, Tohid Hassanalilou, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Negar Motayagheni, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Mina Javadi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. OBJECTIVE: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Feng Chen, Jun Jiang, Dan-Dan Tian, Qi Wen, Yong-Hui Li, Jun-Qing Zhang, Chen Cheng, Tengfei Wang
Cardiovascular disease still remains the primary cause of death worldwide and the obesity is becoming recognized as one of the most critical contributing risk factors. The increased prevalence of obesity casts a cloud over the global health and the whole societies will still be burdened in the future. Therefore, prevention and therapy of obesity is a beneficial strategy for the prevention of chronic cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota takes part in human health and disease including obesity...
October 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Dongyan Zhang, Haifeng Ji, Hui Liu, Sixin Wang, Jing Wang, Yamin Wang
The gut microbiota plays important roles in the health and well-being of animals, and high-throughput sequencing facilitates exploration of microbial populations in the animal gut. However, previous studies have focused on fecal samples instead of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we compared the microbiota diversity and composition of intestinal contents of weaned piglets treated with Lactobacillus reuteri or chlortetracycline (aureomycin) using high-throughput sequencing. Nine weaned piglets were randomly divided into three groups and supplemented with L...
October 19, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Claudio Fukumori, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira
The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Raphael Jose Ferreira Felizardo, Angela Castoldi, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
Recent findings regarding the influence of the microbiota in many inflammatory processes have provided a new way to treat diseases. Now, one may hypothesize that the origin of a plethora of diseases is related to the health of the gut microbiota and its delicate, although complex, interface with the epithelial and immune systems. The 'westernization' of diets, for example, is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota. Such alterations have been found to correlate directly with the increased incidence of diabetes and hypertension, the main causes of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), which, in turn, have a high estimated prevalence...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Evgeny Vinogradov, Irina Sadovskaya, Thierry Grard, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Lactobacillus casei is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium used in dairy fermentations and present in the normal human gut microbiota. Certain strains are recognized as probiotics with beneficial effects on human and animal health. L. casei BL23 is a potential probiotic strain endowed with anti-inflammatory properties and a model strain widely used in genetic, physiological and biochemical studies. A number of bacterial cell surface polysaccharides have been shown to play a role in the immune modulation activities observed for probiotic lactic acid bacteria...
October 8, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
W Wu, J Xie, H Zhang
Dietary fibers (DFs), widely used as food additives to replace fat, can benefit metabolic disorders. Soluble and highly fermentable inulin (INU) and insoluble and less fermentable microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have hypolipidemic or cholesterol-lowering effects, respectively. The current study was aimed at identifying plasma metabolite signatures and metabolic pathways associated with inclusion of DFs with different physiochemical properties, which will lead to a better understanding of functional pathways for DFs to improve metabolic health...
October 18, 2016: Food & Function
John J B Anderson, David C Nieman
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds that are high in polyphenols. The majority of polyphenols arrive in the colon where bacteria degrade them into smaller phenolics that can be translocated via the portal vein to the liver...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
GwangPyo Ko
Recently, there were dramatically increased interests on human microbiome research worldwide. Human microbiome has been considered as the second genome in addition to our own genome and played very crucial roles in maintaining human health. Human microbiota typically reside on the surface of epithelial cells and play various biological roles ranging from metabolism, immune development, mental health, and to organ development. Since 2008, we have determined the diversity of Korean microbiome and determined the genes and pathways of gut microbiome using Korean Twin Cohort...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bernadene A Magnuson, Michael C Carakostas, Nadia H Moore, Sylvia P Poulos, Andrew G Renwick
With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Drew D Kiraly, Deena M Walker, Erin S Calipari, Benoit Labonte, Orna Issler, Catherine J Pena, Efrain A Ribeiro, Scott J Russo, Eric J Nestler
Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Juan Gea-Banacloche, Krishna Komanduri, Paul Carpenter, Sophie Paczesny, Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Jo-Anne Young, Nahed El Kassar, Robert Q Le, Kirk Schultz, Linda M Griffith, Bipin Savani, John R Wingard
Immune reconstitution following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) beyond one year is not completely understood. Many transplant recipients who are free of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and not receiving any immunosuppression more than a year after transplant seem to be able to mount appropriate immune responses to common pathogens and respond adequately to immunizations. However, two large registry studies over the last two decades seem to indicate that infection is a significant cause of late mortality in some patients, even in the absence of concomitant GVHD...
October 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Kei Nakajima, Kaname Suwa
BACKGROUND: Numerous etiologies are implicated in the complications of diabetes. A link between diabetes and the predisposition to certain cancers, including colon cancer, has been established during the last decade. However, the relationship between fecal occult blood test (FOBT), a screening method used principally for detection of colon cancer, and diabetes has not been explored. METHODS: We investigated the association of positive FOBT with HbA1c of 5.70-6.49% (prediabetes) and HbA1c of ≥6...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
S A Sarker, B Berger, Y Deng, S Kieser, F Foata, D Moine, P Descombes, S Sultana, S Huq, P K Bardhan, V Vuillet, F Praplan, H Brüssow
A T4-like coliphage cocktail was given with different oral doses to healthy Bangladeshi children in a placebo-controlled randomized phase I safety trial. Fecal phage detection was oral dose dependent suggesting passive gut transit of coliphages through the gut. No adverse effects of phage application were seen clinically and by clinical chemistry. Similar results were obtained for a commercial phage preparation (Coliproteus from Microgen/Russia). By 16S rRNA gene sequencing only a low degree of fecal microbiota conservation was seen in healthy children from Bangladesh who were sampled over a time interval of 7 days suggesting a substantial temporal fluctuation of the fecal microbiota composition...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Chun Chen, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
This study investigated the in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from Morus alba L., the contribution of its carbohydrates to the fermentation, and the effect on the composition of gut microbiota. Over 48 h of fermentation, the pH value in the fecal culture decreased from 7.12 to 6.14, and the total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased. After 48 h of fermentation, 45.36 ± 1.36% of the total carbohydrates in the polysaccharide, including 35...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
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