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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058217/data-analysis-for-gut-microbiota-and-health
#1
Xingpeng Jiang, Xiaohua Hu
In recent years, data mining and analysis of high-throughput sequencing of microbiomes and metagenomic data enable researchers to discover biological knowledge by characterizing the composition and variation of species across environmental samples and to accumulate a huge amount of data, making it feasible to infer the complex principle of species interactions. The interactions of microbes in a microbial community play an important role in microbial ecological system. Data mining provides diverse approachs to identify the correlations between disease and microbes and how microbial species coexist and interact in a host-associated or natural environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058056/gut-microbiota-contribute-to-age-related-changes-in-skeletal-muscle-size-composition-and-function-biological-basis-for-a-gut-muscle-axis
#2
REVIEW
Gregory J Grosicki, Roger A Fielding, Michael S Lustgarten
Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that plays a central role in human health and disease. Aging is associated with a decrease in muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) that is associated with a loss of independence and reduced quality of life. Gut microbiota, the bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryotic microbes residing in the gastrointestinal tract are emerging as a potential contributor to age-associated muscle decline. Specifically, advancing age is characterized by a dysbiosis of gut microbiota that is associated with increased intestinal permeability, facilitating the passage of endotoxin and other microbial products (e...
October 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057986/hippurate-as-a-metabolomic-marker-of-gut-microbiome-diversity-modulation-by-diet-and-relationship-to-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Tess Pallister, Matthew A Jackson, Tiphaine C Martin, Jonas Zierer, Amy Jennings, Robert P Mohney, Alexander MacGregor, Claire J Steves, Aedin Cassidy, Tim D Spector, Cristina Menni
Reduced gut microbiome diversity is associated with multiple disorders including metabolic syndrome (MetS) features, though metabolomic markers have not been investigated. Our objective was to identify blood metabolite markers of gut microbiome diversity, and explore their relationship with dietary intake and MetS. We examined associations between Shannon diversity and 292 metabolites profiled by the untargeted metabolomics provider Metabolon Inc. in 1529 females from TwinsUK using linear regressions adjusting for confounders and multiple testing (Bonferroni: P < 1...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057716/safety-assessment-on-microbial-and-heavy-metal-concentration-in-clarias-gariepinus-african-catfish-cultured-in-treated-wastewater-pond-in-kumasi-ghana
#4
Yeboah-Agyepong Mark, Amoah Philip, Agbo W Nelson, Ashley Muspratt, Samuel Aikins
This study assesses the microbial and heavy metal distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in waste stabilization pond, and their subsequent suitability for human consumption. Treated wastewater-fed pond (WFP) was used in the culture of the fish with a non-wastewater fed pond (NWFP), fed with ground and rain water as control. Pond water, sediments and fish tissue (gill, liver, gut and skin) samples from both sources were analyzed for pathogens and heavy metal levels. Escherichia coli populations in the sediments and water from the WFP exceeded the maximum permissible limit by 2-3 log units as expected...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056933/linking-the-gut-microbial-ecosystem-with-the-environment-does-gut-health-depend-on-where-we-live
#5
Nishat Tasnim, Nijiati Abulizi, Jason Pither, Miranda M Hart, Deanna L Gibson
Global comparisons reveal a decrease in gut microbiota diversity attributed to Western diets, lifestyle practices such as caesarian section, antibiotic use and formula-feeding of infants, and sanitation of the living environment. While gut microbial diversity is decreasing, the prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity, allergies and asthma is on the rise in Westernized societies. Since the immune system development is influenced by microbial components, early microbial colonization may be a key factor in determining disease susceptibility patterns later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056887/dietary-coconut-water-vinegar-for-improvement-of-obesity-associated-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#6
Nurul Elyani Mohamad, Swee Keong Yeap, Huynh Ky, Wan Yong Ho, Sook Yee Boo, Joelle Chua, Boon-Kee Beh, Shaiful Adzni Sharifuddin, Kamariah Long, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen
Obesity has become a serious health problem worldwide. Various types of healthy food, including vinegar, have been proposed to manage obesity. However, different types of vinegar may have different bioactivities. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of coconut water vinegar on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Changes in the gut microbiota of the mice were also evaluated. To induce obesity, C57/BL mice were continuously fed an HFD for 33 weeks. Coconut water vinegar (0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055387/the-colon-revisited-or-the-key-to-wellness-health-and-disease
#7
C A Gonzalez-Correa, E Mulett-Vásquez, D A Miranda, C H Gonzalez-Correa, P A Gómez-Buitrago
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054657/feed-additives-shift-gut-microbiota-and-enrich-antibiotic-resistance-in-swine-gut
#8
Yi Zhao, Jian-Qiang Su, Xin-Li An, Fu-Yi Huang, Christopher Rensing, Kristian Koefoed Brandt, Yong-Guan Zhu
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants posing a threat to public health. Antibiotics and metals are widely used as feed additives and could consequently affect ARGs in swine gut. In this study, high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR) based ARG chip and next-generation 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data were analyzed using multiple statistical approaches to profile the antibiotic resistome and investigate its linkages to antibiotics and metals used as feed additives and to the microbial community composition in freshly collected swine manure samples from three large-scale Chinese pig farms...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053819/changes-in-immune-and-metabolic-gut-response-in-broilers-fed-%C3%AE-mannanase-in-%C3%AE-mannan-containing-diets
#9
R J Arsenault, J T Lee, R Latham, B Carter, M H Kogut
β-galactomannans found in soy-based broiler feed are known to cause physiological effects that are hypothesized to be related to gut inflammation. Previous studies have shown that the incorporation of β-mannanase in the diet or as a supplement results in improvements to certain performance parameters related to gut health and feed conversion. Using kinome analysis, we characterized the mechanism of β-galactomannan activity and supplementation with β-mannanase on the gut of commercial broilers to understand the mode of action...
September 14, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053599/gut-fermentation-of-dietary-fibres-physico-chemistry-of-plant-cell-walls-and-implications-for-health
#10
REVIEW
Barbara A Williams, Lucas J Grant, Michael J Gidley, Deirdre Mikkelsen
The majority of dietary fibre (DF) originates from plant cell walls. Chemically, DF mostly comprise carbohydrate polymers, which resist hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the mammalian small intestine, but can be fermented by large intestinal bacteria. One of the main benefits of DF relate to its fermentability, which affects microbial diversity and function within the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), as well as the by-products of the fermentation process. Much work examining DF tends to focus on various purified ingredients, which have been extracted from plants...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052511/q-a-what-are-pathogens-and-what-have-they-done-to-and-for-us
#11
Francois Balloux, Lucy van Dorp
Microbes are found on us, within us and around us. They inhabit virtually every environment on the planet and the bacteria carried by an average human, mostly in their gut, outnumber human cells. The vast majority of microbes are harmless to us, and many play essential roles in plant, animal and human health. Others, however, are either obligate or facultative pathogens exerting a spectrum of deleterious effects on their hosts. Infectious diseases have historically represented the most common cause of death in humans until recently, exceeding by far the toll taken by wars or famines...
October 19, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051379/ectopic-colonization-of-oral-bacteria-in-the-intestine-drives-th1-cell-induction-and-inflammation
#12
Koji Atarashi, Wataru Suda, Chengwei Luo, Takaaki Kawaguchi, Iori Motoo, Seiko Narushima, Yuya Kiguchi, Keiko Yasuma, Eiichiro Watanabe, Takeshi Tanoue, Christoph A Thaiss, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Heba S Said, Hirokazu Yamagami, Scott A Rice, Dirk Gevers, Ryan C Johnson, Julia A Segre, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls, Eran Elinav, Hidetoshi Morita, Ramnik J Xavier, Masahira Hattori, Kenya Honda
Intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been correlated with several negative health outcomes, including inflammatory bowel disease. However, a causal role of oral bacteria ectopically colonizing the intestine remains unclear. Using gnotobiotic techniques, we show that strains of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the salivary microbiota are strong inducers of T helper 1 (TH1) cells when they colonize in the gut. These Klebsiella strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics, tend to colonize when the intestinal microbiota is dysbiotic, and elicit a severe gut inflammation in the context of a genetically susceptible host...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050443/microbial-endocrinology-why-the-intersection-of-microbiology-and-neurobiology-matters-to-poultry-health
#13
Daniel N Villageliu, Mark Lyte
The union of microbiology and neurobiology has led to a revolution in the way we view the microbiome. Now recognized as important symbionts, the microorganisms which inhabit multiple niches in mammalian and avian (chicken) hosts, such as the intestinal tract and skin, serve and influence many important physiological functions. The realization that the gut microbiome serves as a kind of "microbial organ" has important implications for many areas of biology. In this paper advances in the field of microbial endocrinology which may hold relevance for the poultry industry are examined...
August 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050410/effect-of-feeding-soybean-meal-and-differently-processed-peas-on-intestinal-morphology-and-functional-glucose-transport-in-the-small-intestine-of-broilers
#14
I Röhe, F Goodarzi Boroojeni, J Zentek
Peas are locally grown legumes being rich in protein and starch. However, the broad usage of peas as a feed component in poultry nutrition is limited to anti-nutritional factors, which might impair gut morphology and function. This study investigated the effect of feeding raw or differently processed peas compared with feeding a soybean meal-based control diet (C) on intestinal morphology and nutrient transport in broilers. A total of 360 day-old broiler chicks were fed with one of the following diets: The C diet, and 3 diets containing raw peas (RP), fermented peas (FP) and enzymatically pre-digested peas (EP), each supplying 30% of dietary crude protein...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049360/the-bacterial-virulence-factor-caga-induces-microbial-dysbiosis-that-contributes-to-excessive-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-the-drosophila-gut
#15
Tiffani Alvey Jones, Diane Z Hernandez, Zoë C Wong, Anica M Wandler, Karen Guillemin
Gut microbiota facilitate many aspects of human health and development, but dysbiotic microbiota can promote hyperplasia and inflammation and contribute to human diseases such as cancer. Human patients infected with the gastric cancer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori have altered microbiota; however, whether dysbiosis contributes to disease in this case is unknown. Many H. pylori human disease phenotypes are associated with a potent virulence protein, CagA, which is translocated into host epithelial cells where it alters cell polarity and manipulates host-signaling pathways to promote disease...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049057/the-postpartum-maternal-and-newborn-microbiomes
#16
Abby D Mutic, Sheila Jordan, Sara M Edwards, Erin P Ferranti, Taylor A Thul, Irene Yang
Biological and environmental changes to maternal and newborn microbiomes in the postnatal period can affect health outcomes for the mother-baby dyad. Postpartum sleep deprivation and unmet dietary needs can alter commensal bacteria within the body and disrupt gut-brain communication. Perineal injury and breast infections also change microbial community composition, potentiating an environment favoring pathogen growth. The gut microbiome refers to the collection of microorganisms working in harmony. Disruptions within the gut microbiome and gut-brain communication may lead to postpartum depression, a potentially devastating sequela...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048537/group-living-and-male-dispersal-predict-the-core-gut-microbiome-in-wild-baboons
#17
Laura E Grieneisen, Josh Livermore, Susan Alberts, Jenny Tung, Elizabeth A Archie
The mammalian gut microbiome plays a profound role in the physiology, metabolism, and overall health of its host. However, biologists have only a nascent understanding of the forces that drive inter-individual heterogeneity in gut microbial composition, especially the role of host social environment. Here we used 178 samples from 78 wild yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in two social groups to test how host social context, including group living, social interactions within groups, and transfer between social groups (e...
October 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047329/genome-sequencing-of-39-akkermansia-muciniphila-isolates-reveals-its-population-structure-genomic-and-functional-diverisity-and-global-distribution-in-mammalian-gut-microbiotas
#18
Xianfeng Guo, Shenghui Li, Jiachun Zhang, Feifan Wu, Xiangchun Li, Dan Wu, Min Zhang, Zihao Ou, Zhuye Jie, Qiulong Yan, Peng Li, Jiangfeng Yi, Yongzheng Peng
BACKGROUND: Akkermansia muciniphila is one of the most dominant bacteria that resides on the mucus layer of intestinal tract and plays key role in human health, however, little is known about its genomic content. RESULTS: Herein, we for the first time characterized the genomic architecture of A. muciniphila based on whole-genome sequencing, assembling, and annotating of 39 isolates derived from human and mouse feces. We revealed a flexible open pangenome of A. muciniphila currently consisting of 5644 unique proteins...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046155/impact-of-dietary-fats-on-brain-functions
#19
Rosanna Chianese, Roberto Coccurello, Andrea Viggiano, Marika Scafuro, Marco Fiore, Giangennaro Coppola, Francesca Felicia Operto, Silvia Fasano, Sophie Layé, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello
Adequate dietary intake and nutritional status have important effects on brain functions and on brain health. Energy intake and specific nutrients excess or deficiency from diet differently affect cognitive processes, emotions, behaviour, neuroendocrine functions and synaptic plasticity with possible protective or detrimental effects on neuronal physiology. Lipids, in particular, play structural and functional roles in neurons. Here the importance of dietary fats and the need to understand the brain mechanisms activated by peripheral and central metabolic sensors...
October 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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