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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453966/gamma-irradiation-inactivates-honey-bee-fungal-microsporidian-and-viral-pathogens-and-parasites
#1
Michael Simone-Finstrom, Kate Aronstein, Michael Goblirsch, Frank Rinkevich, Lilia de Guzman
Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations are currently facing unsustainable losses due to a variety of factors. Colonies are challenged with brood pathogens, such as the fungal agent of chalkbrood disease, the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema sp., and several viruses. These pathogens may be transmitted horizontally from worker to worker, vertically from queen to egg and via vectors like the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Despite the fact that these pathogens are widespread and often harbored in wax comb that is reused from year to year and transferred across beekeeping operations, few, if any, universal treatments exist for their control...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453726/advances-in-probiotic-regulation-of-bone-and-mineral-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Probiotics have been consumed by humans for thousands of years because they are beneficial for long-term storage of foods and promote the health of their host. Ingested probiotics reside in the gastrointestinal tract where they have many effects including modifying the microbiota composition, intestinal barrier function, and the immune system which result in systemic benefits to the host, including bone health. Probiotics benefit bone growth, density, and structure under conditions of dysbiosis, intestinal permeability, and inflammation (recognized mediators of bone loss and osteoporosis)...
February 16, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453253/assembly-of-synthetic-functional-cellulosomal-structures-onto-the-lactobacillus-plantarum-cell-surface-a-potent-member-of-the-gut-microbiome
#3
Johanna Stern, Sarah Moraïs, Yonit Ben-David, Rachel Salama, Melina Shamshoum, Raphael Lamed, Yuval Shoham, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
Heterologous display of enzymes on microbial cell surfaces is an extremely desirable approach, since it enables the engineered microbe to interact directly with the plant-wall extracellular polysaccharide matrix. In recent years, attempts have been made to endow non-cellulolytic microbes with genetically engineered cellulolytic capabilities for improved hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and for advanced probiotics. Thus far, however, owing to the hurdles of secreting and assembling large, intricate complexes on the bacterial cell wall, only free cellulases or relatively simple cellulosome assemblies have been introduced into live bacteria...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451681/verification-of-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-of-ritonavir-to-estimate-drug-drug-interaction-potential-of-cyp3a4-substrates
#4
Ken-Ichi Umehara, Felix Huth, Christina S Won, Tycho Heimbach, Handan He
Ritonavir is one of several ketoconazole alternatives used to evaluate strong CYP3A4 inhibition potential in clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. In this study, four physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of ritonavir as an in vivo time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4 were created and verified for the oral doses of 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg using fraction absorbed (Fa) and oral clearance (CLoral) values reported in the literature, as transporter and CYP enzyme reaction phenotyping data were not available...
February 16, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448209/metagenomic-analysis-revealed-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-gut-and-living-environment-of-freshwater-shrimp
#5
Yanting Zhao, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Zhonghua Zhao, Cuilan Duan, Huangen Chen, Miaomiao Wang, Hongqiang Ren, Ying Yin, Lin Ye
Antibiotic resistance disseminating from animals and their environments is a public issue that poses significant threats to human health. In the present study, the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in 15 samples from the guts and related aquaculture environments (water and sediment) of shrimp were investigated. In total, 60 ARGs, 102 ARGs and 67 ARGs primarily belonging to 13, 15 and 15 different types were detected in the shrimp gut, pond water and sediment samples, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447847/perinatal-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-ssri-effects-on-body-weight-at-birth-and-beyond-a-review-of-animal-and-human-studies
#6
REVIEW
Sarah M Hutchison, Louise C Mâsse, Jodi L Pawluski, Tim F Oberlander
The long-term impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment during pregnancy and postpartum on offspring outcomes is still not clear. Specifically, perinatal SSRI exposure may have long-term consequences for body weight and related health outcomes in the newborn period and beyond. This review focuses on the impact of perinatal SSRI exposure on weight using human and animal findings. The impact of maternal mood is also explored. We propose potential mechanisms for weight changes, including how early alterations in serotonin signaling may have implications for weight via changes in metabolism and motor development...
February 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447695/cervicovaginal-microbiota-and-reproductive-health-the-virtue-of-simplicity
#7
REVIEW
Melis N Anahtar, David B Gootenberg, Caroline M Mitchell, Douglas S Kwon
Cervicovaginal microbiota play a critical role in women's health and reproductive outcomes. Despite being one of the simplest commensal bacterial communities in the human body, we are only beginning to appreciate its complex dynamic nature and important role in host immune modulation. In this review, we discuss the "optimal" cervicovaginal bacterial community composition, the impact of microbiota on gynecologic and obstetric outcomes, and the hurdles to developing a deeper mechanistic understanding of the function of the cervicovaginal microbiome...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446342/effects-of-oral-supplementation-with-spirulina-and-chlorella-on-growth-and-digestive-health-in-piglets-around-weaning
#8
H Furbeyre, J van Milgen, T Mener, M Gloaguen, E Labussière
Weaning of piglets is associated with important changes in gut structure and function resulting from stressful events such as separation from the sow, moving to a new facility and dietary transition from a liquid to a solid feed. This may result in post-weaning diarrhoea and a decrease in feed intake and growth. In humans, the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) and the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris (CV) are known for their beneficial health effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of early oral administration of Spirulina and Chlorella in piglets on mucosal architecture and cytokine expression in the intestine around weaning, and consequences on growth performance and diarrhoea incidence...
February 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446158/a-neuroscience-perspective-of-the-gut-theory-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Lisa M Smith, Louise C Parr-Brownlie
Parkinson's disease is caused by complex interactions between environmental factors and a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors include exposure to pesticides and toxins, heavy metals and accumulation of iron and/or manganese in the brain. However, accumulating evidence indicates that gut-brain health and function is impaired in Parkinson's disease, often a decade before motor symptoms are diagnosed. We present the gut-brain theory of Parkinson's disease and summarise the peripheral and central nervous system pathology, gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by many Parkinson's patients, the route by which gut-brain dysfunction may occur, and changes in gut microbiota that are associated with disease expression...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445360/the-dynamic-distribution-of-small-tail-han-sheep-microbiota-across-different-intestinal-segments
#10
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444134/effect-of-antibiotic-withdrawal-in-feed-on-chicken-gut-microbial-dynamics-immunity-growth-performance-and-prevalence-of-foodborne-pathogens
#11
Sanjay Kumar, Chongxiao Chen, Nagaraju Indugu, Gabriela Orosco Werlang, Manpreet Singh, Woo Kyun Kim, Harshavardhan Thippareddi
Development of antibiotic resistance in foodborne pathogens, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter, is a public health concern. Public demand to reduce the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feeding has resulted in greater adoption of antibiotic-free poultry production systems. There is a need to understand the effects of AGP removal from poultry feed on gut microbiota and its impact on prevalence of foodborne pathogens. The effect of antibiotic withdrawal from poultry feed on gut microbial community, host performance and immunity, and prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter was evaluated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443403/proceedings-of-the-2017-aspen-research-workshop-gastric-bypass-role-of-the-gut
#12
REVIEW
Ajay Kumar Jain, Carel W le Roux, Puneet Puri, Ali Tavakkoli, Nana Gletsu-Miller, Blandine Laferrère, Richard Kellermayer, John K DiBaise, Robert G Martindale, Bruce M Wolfe
The goal of the National Institutes of Health-funded American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2017 research workshop (RW) "Gastric Bypass: Role of the Gut" was to focus on the exciting research evaluating gut-derived signals in modulating outcomes after bariatric surgery. Although gastric bypass surgery has undoubted positive effects, the mechanistic basis of improved outcomes cannot be solely explained by caloric restriction. Emerging data suggest that bile acid metabolic pathways, luminal contents, energy balance, gut mucosal integrity, as well as the gut microbiota are significantly modulated after bariatric surgery and may be responsible for the variable outcomes, each of which was rigorously evaluated...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440265/causal-effects-of-the-microbiota-on-immune-mediated-diseases
#13
REVIEW
June L Round, Noah W Palm
The mammalian immune system has evolved in the presence of a complex community of indigenous microorganisms that constitutively colonize all barrier surfaces. This intimate relationship has resulted in the development of a vast array of reciprocal interactions between the microbiota and the host immune system, particularly in the intestine, where the density and diversity of indigenous microbes are greatest. Alterations in the gut microbiota have been correlated with almost every known immunological disease, but in most cases, it remains unclear whether these changes are a cause or effect of the disease or merely a reflection of epidemiological differences between groups...
February 9, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438462/butyrate-a-double-edged-sword-for-health
#14
Hu Liu, Ji Wang, Ting He, Sage Becker, Guolong Zhang, Defa Li, Xi Ma
Butyrate, a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid, is produced through microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the lower intestinal tract. Endogenous butyrate production, delivery, and absorption by colonocytes have been well documented. Butyrate exerts its functions by acting as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor or signaling through several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, butyrate has received particular attention for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438458/the-problem-of-curcumin-and-its-bioavailability-could-its-gastrointestinal-influence-contribute-to-its-overall-health-enhancing-effects
#15
Adrian L Lopresti
Curcumin, from the spice turmeric, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and neurotrophic activity and therefore holds promise as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat several disorders. However, a major barrier to curcumin's clinical efficacy is its poor bioavailability. Efforts have therefore been dedicated to developing curcumin formulations with greater bioavailability and systemic tissue distribution. However, it is proposed in this review that curcumin's potential as a therapeutic agent may not solely rely on its bioavailability, but rather its medicinal benefits may also arise from its positive influence on gastrointestinal health and function...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437163/starter-formula-enriched-in-prebiotics-and-probiotics-ensures-normal-growth-of-infants-and-promotes-gut-health-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Michael Radke, Jean-Charles Picaud, Andrea Loui, Gilles Cambonie, Dirk Faas, Harry N Lafeber, Nanda de Groot, Sophie S Pecquet, Philippe G Steenhout, Jean-Michel Hascoet
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/pr.2016.270.
January 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436350/a-longitudinal-study-of-household-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-characteristics-and-environmental-enteropathy-markers-in-children-less-than-24-months-in-iquitos-peru
#17
Natalie G Exum, Gwenyth O Lee, Maribel Paredes Olórtegui, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Josh Colston, Kellogg J Schwab, Benjamin J J McCormick, Margaret N Kosek
Poor child gut health, resulting from a lack of access to an improved toilet or clean water, has been proposed as a biological mechanism underlying child stunting and oral vaccine failure. Characteristics related to household sanitation, water use, and hygiene were measured among a birth cohort of 270 children from peri-urban Iquitos Peru. These children had monthly stool samples and urine samples at four time points and serum samples at (2-4) time points analyzed for biomarkers related to intestinal inflammation and permeability...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434391/gut-bioreactor-and-human-health-in-future
#18
Hemant J Purohit
Gut-microbiome provides the complementary metabolic potential to the human system. To understand the active participation and the performance of the microbial community in human health, the concept of gut as a plug-flow reactor with the fed-batch mode of operation can provide better insight. The concept suggests the virtual compartmentalized gut with sequential stratification of the microbial community in response to a typical host genotype. It also provides the analysis plan for gut microbiome; and its relevance in developing health management options under the identified clinical conditions...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433995/precision-nutrition-for-prevention-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Precision nutrition aims to prevent and manage chronic diseases by tailoring dietary interventions or recommendations to one or a combination of an individual's genetic background, metabolic profile, and environmental exposures. Recent advances in genomics, metabolomics, and gut microbiome technologies have offered opportunities as well as challenges in the use of precision nutrition to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes. Nutrigenomics studies have identified genetic variants that influence intake and metabolism of specific nutrients and predict individuals' variability in response to dietary interventions...
February 9, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432297/should-fecal-microbial-transplantation-be-used-in-the-icu
#20
Stephen A McClave, Jayshil Patel, Neal Bhutiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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