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Takahiro Maekawa, Riki Ogasawara, Arata Tsutaki, Kihyuk Lee, Satoshi Nakada, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
High-intensity exercise has recently been shown to cause an increase in brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Some studies have suggested that myokines secreted from contracting skeletal muscle, such as irisin (one of the truncated form of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)), play important roles in this process. Thus, we hypothesized that locally evoked muscle contractions may cause an increase of BDNF in the hippocampus through some afferent mechanisms. Under anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed on a custom-made dynamometer and their triceps surae muscles were made to maximally contract via delivery of electric stimulations of the sciatic nerve (100 Hz with 1-ms pulse and 3-s duration)...
March 20, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Aline Siteneski, Mauricio P Cunha, Vicente Lieberknecht, Francis L Pazini, Karen Gruhn, Patricia S Brocardo, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Evidence has indicated that the practice of physical exercise has antidepressant effects that might be associated with irisin release and BDNF signaling. In this study we investigated the effects of the central administration of irisin or BDNF in predictive tests of antidepressant properties paralleled with the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC1-α), fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Diler Us Altay, Esref Edip Keha, Ersagun Karagüzel, Ahmet Menteşe, Serap Ozer Yaman, Ahmet Alver
PURPOSES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic significance of fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/Irisin levels in the sera of patients with renal cell cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the study, 48 individuals were evaluated. The patient group included 23 subjects diagnosed with renal tumor, and the control group of 25 healthy individuals. Patients diagnosed with renal tumor received surgical treatment consisting of radical or partial nephrectomy...
March 9, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Somayeh Tanhaei, Parvaneh Nikpour, Kamran Ghaedi, Farzaneh Rabiee, Farshad Homayouni Moghadam, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 protein (Fndc5) is responsible for producing a secretory protein termed, "irisin." A modified expression of Fndc5 has been reported in different tissues during development, differentiation processes, as well as in metabolic events such as exercise. One of the important issues to be fixed is whether Fndc5 RNA level and protein content are concerted and modified hand in hand. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess Fndc5 RNA and protein levels in various tissues of mouse and rat with emphasis on brain...
February 20, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Minhui Pang, Jianwei Yang, Jiaming Rao, Haiqing Wang, Jiayi Zhang, Shengyong Wang, Xiongfei Chen, Xiaomei Dong
Exercise induces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle, which promotes the cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) to irisin. To explore the relationship between irisin and its regulators, we analyzed the plasma irisin levels and the muscle levels of FNDC5 and PGC-1α after exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent a treadmill exercise (60% of VO 2max ) for 30 min or one hour (h), and blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise, and during 24-h recovery after 1-h exercise...
February 2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Ivan Luiz Padilha Bonfante, Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil, Diego Trevisan Brunelli, Arthur Fernandes Gáspari, Renata Garbellini Duft, Alexandre Gabarra Oliveira, Tiago Gomes Araujo, Mario Jose Abdalla Saad, Cláudia Regina Cavaglieri
OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of this study was to compare if higher or smaller fibronectin type 3 domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin levels are associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers, caloric/macronutrient intake, physical fitness and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in obese middle-aged men, and also to correlate all variables analyzed with FNDC5/irisin. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: On the basis of a cluster study, middle-aged obese men (IMC: 31.01 ± 1...
December 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hagit Salem, Yekaterina Yatchenko, Mariana Anosov, Talya Rosenfeld, Gheona Altarescu, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Ruth Birk
Irisin is a novel secreted myokine, encoded by the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) precursor gene. Irisin plays a role in the female reproductive system in pregnancy and in embryonic development, and is associated with fetal size. It is expressed in the ovary, placenta and neonatal cord serum. We studied whether maternal and neonatal FNDC5 genetic polymorphisms are associated with preterm birth (PTB). Blood for DNA analysis was collected from Israeli mothers (n = 315) and from umbilical veins of their respected idiopathic preterm (24-36 weeks) and control term (>37 weeks) newborns (n = 161)...
January 30, 2018: Gene
Xiao-Qing Xiong, Zhi Geng, Bing Zhou, Feng Zhang, Ying Han, Ye-Bo Zhou, Jue-Jin Wang, Xing-Ya Gao, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
BACKGROUND: Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and the recruitment and proinflammatory activation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) is important for the development of this process. Here, we examined the effects of fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) on inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male wild-type (WT) and FNDC5-/- mice were fed with standard chow (Ctrl) or high fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance...
January 25, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Fatemeh Kazeminasab, Sayed Mohammad Marandi, Kamran Ghaedi, Zahra Safaeinejad, Fahimeh Esfarjani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
The present study was performed to clarify how a combined exercise/diet treatment could affect the expression level of the muscle Fndc5 with respect to the body fat mass. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 2 groups including low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets for 12 weeks. Then, LF fed (non-obese) and HF fed mice (obese), were divided into 4 groups: HF-Exercise, HF-Sedentary, LF-Exercise and LF-Sedentary. The exercise group received exercise, on a motor-driven treadmill for 45 min/day, 5 days/week during 8 weeks...
January 24, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Naoyuki Kawao, Akihiro Moritake, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
Mechanical unloading induces disuse muscle atrophy and bone loss, but the details in mechanism involved in those pathophysiological conditions are not fully understood. Interaction between muscle and bone has been recently noted. Here, we investigated the roles of humoral factors linking muscle to bone during mechanical unloading using mice with hindlimb unloading (HU) and sciatic neurectomy (SNX). HU and SNX reduced muscle volume surrounding the tibia, tissue weights of soleus and gastrocnemius muscle, and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the tibia of mice...
January 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenols and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation, and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice are fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Li Ling, Dan Chen, Ying Tong, Ying-Hao Zang, Xing-Sheng Ren, Hong Zhou, Xiao-Hong Qi, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Phenotypic transformation of adventitial fibroblasts is important in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) alleviates the phenotypic transformation of adventitial fibroblasts in hypertension and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experiments were carried out in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and primary aortic adventitial fibroblasts...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Shima Nazem, Farzaneh Rabiee, Kamran Ghaedi, Sadegh Babashah, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 protein (Fndc5) is a glycosylated protein with elevated expression in high energy demanded tissues as heart, brain, and muscle. It has been shown that upregulation of Fndc5 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), which is known as a master regulator of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Also, our group indicated that Fndc5 expression increases gradually during cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mona F Schaalan, Basma K Ramadan, Azza H Abd Elwahab
The recent appreciation of the energy burning capacity of brown adipose tissue turns it to an attractive target for anti-obesity therapy. We sought to evaluate the effect of L-carnosine on browning of white adipose tissue in exercised obese rats. Sixty adult male Wistar albino rats, 7-8 week-old weighing 130-150 g, were allocated into six groups; with 10 rats in each, for an experimentation period of 12 weeks: (i) normal control rats fed a standard fat diet (SFD/control), (ii) normal control rats fed a standard diet and injected with L-carnosine (250 mg/kg, i...
June 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Natalia Gomes Gonçalves, Stephanie Heffer Cavaletti, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Milton Arruda Martins, Chin Jia Lin
Background: The inverse relationship between exercise capacity and its variation over time and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality suggests the existence of an etiological nexus between cardiometabolic diseases and the molecular regulators of exercise capacity. Coordinated adaptive responses elicited by physical training enhance exercise performance and metabolic efficiency and possibly mediate the health benefits of physical exercise. In contrast, impaired expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or protein turnover in skeletal muscle-key biological processes involved in adaptation to physical training-leads to insulin resistance and obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
Ariadna Zybek-Kocik, Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Mirosław Andrusiewicz, Joanna Waligórska-Stachura, Piotr Białas, Tomasz Krauze, Przemysław Guzik, Jerzy Skrobisz, Marek Ruchała
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a new adipo-myokine, encoded by the FNDC5 gene. Currently, there is a discussion regarding the relation between thyroid function and irisin concentration. This prospective study assesses the influence of thyrometabolic changes on serum irisin concentration in association with altered muscle metabolism. This is performed on a large cohort of patients affected by severe hypo- or hyperthyroidism, as well as by the expression of the FNDC5 gene in thyroid tissue affected by different pathologies...
March 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Ken Chen, Zaicheng Xu, Yukai Liu, Zhen Wang, Yu Li, Xuefei Xu, Caiyu Chen, Tianyang Xia, Qiao Liao, Yonggang Yao, Cindy Zeng, Duofen He, Yongjian Yang, Tao Tan, Jianxun Yi, Jingsong Zhou, Hua Zhu, Jianjie Ma, Chunyu Zeng
Limb remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an effective means of protection against ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced injury to multiple organs. Many studies are focused on identifying endocrine mechanisms that underlie the cross-talk between muscle and RIPC-mediated organ protection. We report that RIPC releases irisin, a myokine derived from the extracellular portion of fibronectin domain-containing 5 protein (FNDC5) in skeletal muscle, to protect against injury to the lung. Human patients with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome show reduced concentrations of irisin in the serum and increased irisin concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suggesting transfer of irisin from circulation to the lung under physiologic stress...
November 29, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
D Pérez-Sotelo, A Roca-Rivada, I Baamonde, J Baltar, A I Castro, E Domínguez, M Collado, F F Casanueva, M Pardo
Irisin is a browning-stimulating molecule secreted from the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 precursor (FNDC5) by muscle tissue upon exercise stimulation. Despite its beneficial role, there is an unmet and clamorous need to discern many essential aspects of this protein and its mechanism of action not only as a myokine but also as an adipokine. Here we contribute to address this topic by revealing the nature and role of FNDC5/irisin in adipose tissue. First, we show that FNDC5/irisin expression and secretion are induced by adipocyte differentiation and confirm its over-secretion by human obese visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Noriyuki Fuku, Roberto Díaz-Peña, Yasumichi Arai, Yukiko Abe, Hirofumi Zempo, Hisashi Naito, Haruka Murakami, Motohiko Miyachi, Carlos Spuch, José A Serra-Rexach, Enzo Emanuele, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Alejandro Lucia
BACKGROUND: Forkhead box O3A (FOXOA3) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) are arguably the strongest gene candidates to influence human exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., being a centenarian), but inconsistency exists among cohorts. Epistasis, defined as the effect of one locus being dependent on the presence of 'modifier genes', may contribute to explain the missing heritability of complex phenotypes such as EL. We assessed the potential association of epistasis among candidate polymorphisms related to physical capacity, as well as antioxidant defense and cardiometabolic traits, and EL in the Japanese population...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
Ioannis G Fatouros
Irisin is produced by a proteolytic cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and has emerged as a potential mediator of exercise-induced energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to review the results of studies that investigated irisin responses to acute and chronic exercise and provide an update. A comprehensive search in the databases of MEDLINE was performed (74 exercise studies). The focus of the analysis was on data concerning FNDC5 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and circulating irisin concentration relatively to exercise mode, intensity, frequency and duration and the characteristics of the sample used...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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