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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070911/effects-of-exercise-training-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-skeletal-muscle-and-heart-of-rats-post-myocardial-infarction
#1
Heow Won Lee, Monir Ahmad, Hong-Wei Wang, Frans H H Leenen
Exercise training post myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates progressive left ventricle (LV) remodeling and dysfunction, but the peripheral stimuli induced by exercise which trigger these beneficial effects are still unclear. We investigated as possible mediators fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the skeletal muscle and heart. Male Wistar rats underwent either sham surgery or ligation of left descending coronary artery, and surviving MI rats were allocated to either sedentary (Sed-MI) or exercise group (ExT-MI)...
January 9, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-gaba-release
#2
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivator1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers; an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012856/increased-fndc5-irisin-expression-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Melania Gaggini, Manuela Cabiati, Serena Del Turco, Teresa Navarra, Paolo De Simone, Franco Filipponi, Silvia Del Ry, Amalia Gastaldelli, Giuseppina Basta
The fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)/Irisin, a novel energy-regulating hormone, is associated with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It is produced in low amounts by normal hepatic tissue, while in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which aberrant de novo lipogenesis (DNL) occurs, the hepatic expression of FNDC5/Irisin is still unknown. The gene expression of FNDC5/Irisin, associated to key regulators of DNL, inflammation and cancer progression was evaluated in liver tissue of 18 patients with HCC undergoing liver transplantation and of 18 deceased donors...
December 21, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775791/association-between-irisin-and-major-chronic-diseases-a-review
#4
M C Gouveia, J P Vella, F R Cafeo, F L Affonso Fonseca, M R Bacci
OBJECTIVE: Irisin is a muscle-secreted protein released into the circulation by cleavage of fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5(FNDC5). Since its discovery in 2012, it has been the subject of many researches due to its physiological role. It is believed that understanding irisin's function may be the key to comprehend many diseases and their development. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review in order to establish whether there is an association of irisin's levels with obesity, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic kidney disease and cancer in terms of prognosis...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693813/irisin-inhibition-of-growth-hormone-secretion-in-cultured-tilapia-pituitary-cells
#5
Anji Lian, Xin Li, Quan Jiang
Irisin, the product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene, is well-documented to be a regulator of energy metabolism. At present, not much is known about its biological function in non-mammalian species. In this study, a full-length tilapia FDNC5 was cloned and its tissue expression pattern has been confirmed. Based on the sequence obtained, we produced and purified recombinant irisin which could induce uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene expression in tilapia hepatocytes. Further, the rabbit polyclonal irisin antiserum was produced and its specificity was confirmed by antiserum preabsorption...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693382/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-myokines-expression-and-brown-adipose-like-phenotype-modulation-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Alexandra M Gouveia, Inês O Gonçalves, Sara Becerril, Beatriz Ramírez, Jorge Beleza, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
AIMS: Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets...
November 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692156/hypothesis-irisin-is-a-metabolic-trigger-for-the-activation-of-the-neurohormonal-axis-governing-puberty-onset
#7
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614130/central-inhibitory-effects-on-feeding-induced-by-the-adipo-myokine-irisin
#8
Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Chiara Di Nisio, Rugia Shohreh, Fabio Manippa, Adriana Ricciuti, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti
Irisin, the soluble secreted form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)-cleaved product, is a recently identified adipo-myokine that has been indicated as a possible link between physical exercise and energetic homeostasis. The co-localization of irisin with neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic sections of paraventricular nucleus, which receives NPY/AgRP projections from the arcuate nucleus, suggests a possible role of irisin in the central regulation of energy balance. In this context, in the present work we studied the effects of intra-hypothalamic irisin (1μl, 50-200nmol/l) administration on feeding and orexigenic [agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin-A] and anorexigenic [cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] peptides in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504012/fndc5-alleviates-hepatosteatosis-by-restoring-ampk-mtor-mediated-autophagy-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-lipogenesis-in-mice
#9
Tong-Yan Liu, Xiao-Qing Xiong, Xing-Sheng Ren, Ming-Xia Zhao, Chang-Xiang Shi, Jue-Jin Wang, Ye-Bo Zhou, Feng Zhang, Ying Han, Xing-Ya Gao, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein induces browning of subcutaneous fat and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. However, whether FNDC5 is associated with hepatic steatosis, autophagy, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and lipogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we show the roles and mechanisms of FNDC5 in hepatic steatosis, autophagy, and lipid metabolism. Fasted FNDC5(-/-) mice exhibited severe steatosis, reduced autophagy, and FAO, and enhanced lipogenesis in the liver compared with wild-type mice...
November 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445983/exercise-increases-and-browns-muscle-lipid-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#10
Tiffany L Morton, Kornelia Galior, Cody McGrath, Xin Wu, Gunes Uzer, Guniz Bas Uzer, Buer Sen, Zhihui Xie, David Tyson, Janet Rubin, Maya Styner
Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete's paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436609/irisin-exerts-dual-effects-on-browning-and-adipogenesis-of-human-white-adipocytes
#11
Yuan Zhang, Chao Xie, Hai Wang, Robin M Foss, Morgan Clare, Eva Vertes George, Shiwu Li, Adam Katz, Henrique Cheng, Yousong Ding, Dongqi Tang, Westley H Reeves, Li-Jun Yang
To better understand the role of irisin in humans, we examined the effects of irisin in human primary adipocytes and fresh human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Human primary adipocytes derived from 28 female donors' fresh scWAT were used to examine the effects of irisin on browning and mitochondrial respiration, and preadipocytes were used to examine the effects of irisin on adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Cultured fragments of scWAT and perirenal brown fat were used for investigating signal transduction pathways that mediate irisin's browning effect by Western blotting to detect phosphorylated forms of p38, ERK, and STAT3 as well as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432282/fndc5-expression-and-circulating-irisin-levels-are-modified-by-diet-and-hormonal-conditions-in-hypothalamus-adipose-tissue-and-muscle
#12
B M Varela-Rodríguez, L Pena-Bello, P Juiz-Valiña, B Vidal-Bretal, F Cordido, S Sangiao-Alvarellos
Irisin is processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function. To elucidate the relationship between serum irisin and FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, we evaluated plasma irisin levels and FNDC5 gene expression in the hypothalamus, gastrocnemius muscle and different depots of adipose tissue in models of altered metabolism. In normal rats, blood irisin levels diminished after 48-h fast and with leptin, insulin and alloxan treatments, and serum irisin concentrations increased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment and acute treatments of irisin increased blood insulin levels...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388329/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-human-polymorphism-impairs-the-beneficial-exercise-induced-neurobiological-changes-in-mice
#13
Alessandro Ieraci, Alessandro I Madaio, Alessandra Mallei, Francis S Lee, Maurizio Popoli
Several studies have shown that exercise improves cognitive functions and emotional behaviors. Positive effects of exercise have been associated with enhanced brain plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, a substantial variability of individual response to exercise has been described, which may be accounted for by individual genetic variants. Here, we have assessed whether and how the common human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the neurobiological effects modulated by exercise in BDNF Val66Met knock-in male mice...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360793/the-effects-of-a-high-fat-diet-and-exercise-on-the-pgc-1%C3%AE-fndc5-irisin-pathway-in-c57bl-6-mice-1968-board-120-june-2-3-30-pm-5-00-pm
#14
Brianne L Guilford, Jake C Parson, Stephanie N Vick, Caleb W Grote, Janelle M Ryals, Douglas E Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360786/exercise-induced-fndc5-irisin-activation-drives-brown-like-adipocyte-phenotype-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-obese-rats-1961-board-113-june-2-3-30-pm-5-00-pm
#15
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Alexandra M Gouveia, Inês O Gonçalves, Emanuel Passos, António A Ascensão, José Magalhães
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356237/can-irisin-be-a-linker-between-physical-activity-and-brain-function
#16
Jing Zhang, Weizhen Zhang
Irisin was initially discovered as a novel hormone-like myokine released from skeletal muscle during exercise to improve obesity and glucose dysfunction by stimulating the browning of white adipose tissue. Emerging evidence have indicated that irisin also affects brain function. FNDC5 mRNA and FNDC5/irisin immunoreactivity are present in various regions of the brain. Central irisin is involved in the regulation of neural differentiation and proliferation, neurobehavior, energy expenditure and cardiac function...
August 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297797/myostatin-signals-through-mir-34a-to-regulate-fndc5-expression-and-browning-of-white-adipocytes
#17
X Ge, D Sathiakumar, B J G Lua, H Kukreti, M Lee, C McFarlane
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Myostatin (Mstn) has a pivotal role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Mstn deficiency leads to the increased browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), which results in the increased energy expenditure and protection against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism(s) through which Mstn regulates browning of white adipocytes. METHODS: Quantitative molecular analyses were performed to assess Mstn regulation of miR-34a and Fndc5 expression...
January 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256459/investigation-of-the-expression-of-irisin-and-some-cachectic-factors-in-mice-with-experimentally-induced-gastric-cancer
#18
Diler Us Altay, E Edip Keha, Serap Ozer Yaman, Imran Ince, Ahmet Alver, Bahattin Erdogan, Sinan Canpolat, Umit Cobanoglu, Ahmet Mentese
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether irisin is secreted by gastric tumor cells experimentally induced in mice, and also if it has any effect on cancer cachexia. DESIGN AND METHODS: 12 out of 60 BALB/c mice were used as a control group, while N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) was administered orally to the remaining 48. After 150 days, the surviving mice were sacrificed by decapitation, blood and stomach, skeletal muscle, brown and white adipose tissue specimens were collected...
December 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066907/fndc4-acts-as-an-anti-inflammatory-factor-on-macrophages-and-improves-colitis-in-mice
#19
Madeleen Bosma, Marco Gerling, Jenny Pasto, Anastasia Georgiadi, Evan Graham, Olga Shilkova, Yasunori Iwata, Sven Almer, Jan Söderman, Rune Toftgård, Fredrik Wermeling, Elisabeth Almer Boström, Pontus Almer Boström
FNDC4 is a secreted factor sharing high homology with the exercise-associated myokine irisin (FNDC5). Here we report that Fndc4 is robustly upregulated in several mouse models of inflammation as well as in human inflammatory conditions. Specifically, FNDC4 levels are increased locally at inflamed sites of the intestine of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Interestingly, administration of recombinant FNDC4 in the mouse model of induced colitis markedly reduces disease severity compared with mice injected with a control protein...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063080/fndc5-irisin-a-molecular-target-for-boosting-reward-related-learning-and-motivation
#20
Judit Zsuga, Gabor Tajti, Csaba Papp, Bela Juhasz, Rudolf Gesztelyi
Interventions focusing on the prevention and treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases are on rise. In the current article, we propose that dysfunction of the mesocortico-limbic reward system contributes to the emergence of the WHO-identified risk behaviors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol), behaviors that underlie the evolution of major non-communicable diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases). Given that dopaminergic neurons of the mesocortico-limbic system are tightly associated with reward-related processes and motivation, their dysfunction may fundamentally influence behavior...
May 2016: Medical Hypotheses
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