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M C Gouveia, J P Vella, F R Cafeo, F L Affonso Fonseca, M R Bacci
OBJECTIVE: Irisin is a muscle-secreted protein released into the circulation by cleavage of fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5(FNDC5). Since its discovery in 2012, it has been the subject of many researches due to its physiological role. It is believed that understanding irisin's function may be the key to comprehend many diseases and their development. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review in order to establish whether there is an association of irisin's levels with obesity, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic kidney disease and cancer in terms of prognosis...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Anji Lian, Xin Li, Quan Jiang
Irisin, the product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene, is well-documented to be a regulator of energy metabolism. At present, not much is known about its biological function in non-mammalian species. In this study, a full-length tilapia FDNC5 was cloned and its tissue expression pattern has been confirmed. Based on the sequence obtained, we produced and purified recombinant irisin which could induce uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene expression in tilapia hepatocytes. Further, the rabbit polyclonal irisin antiserum was produced and its specificity was confirmed by antiserum preabsorption...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Alexandra M Gouveia, Inês O Gonçalves, Sara Becerril, Beatriz Ramírez, Jorge Beleza, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
AIMS: Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets...
September 27, 2016: Life Sciences
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Chiara Di Nisio, Rugia Shohreh, Fabio Manippa, Adriana Ricciuti, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti
Irisin, the soluble secreted form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)-cleaved product, is a recently identified adipo-myokine that has been indicated as a possible link between physical exercise and energetic homeostasis. The co-localization of irisin with neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic sections of paraventricular nucleus, which receives NPY/AgRP projections from the arcuate nucleus, suggests a possible role of irisin in the central regulation of energy balance. In this context, in the present work we studied the effects of intra-hypothalamic irisin (1μl, 50-200nmol/l) administration on feeding and orexigenic [agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin-A] and anorexigenic [cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] peptides in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Tong-Yan Liu, Xiao-Qing Xiong, Xing-Sheng Ren, Ming-Xia Zhao, Chang-Xiang Shi, Jue-Jin Wang, Ye-Bo Zhou, Feng Zhang, Ying Han, Xing-Ya Gao, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein induces browning of subcutaneous fat, and mediates beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. However, whether FNDC5 is associated with hepatic steatosis, autophagy, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and lipogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we show the roles and mechanisms of FNDC5 in hepatic steatosis, autophagy and lipid metabolism. Fasted FNDC5(-/-) mice exhibited severe steatosis, reduced autophagy and FAO, and enhanced lipogenesis in liver compared with WT mice...
August 8, 2016: Diabetes
Tiffany L Morton, Kornelia Galior, Cody McGrath, Xin Wu, Gunes Uzer, Guniz Bas Uzer, Buer Sen, Zhihui Xie, David Tyson, Janet Rubin, Maya Styner
Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete's paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yuan Zhang, Chao Xie, Hai Wang, Robin M Foss, Morgan Clare, Eva Vertes George, Shiwu Li, Adam Katz, Henrique Cheng, Yousong Ding, Dongqi Tang, Westley H Reeves, Li-Jun Yang
To better understand the role of irisin in humans, we examined the effects of irisin in human primary adipocytes and fresh human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Human primary adipocytes derived from 28 female donors' fresh scWAT were used to examine the effects of irisin on browning and mitochondrial respiration, and preadipocytes were used to examine the effects of irisin on adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Cultured fragments of scWAT and perirenal brown fat were used for investigating signal transduction pathways that mediate irisin's browning effect by Western blotting to detect phosphorylated forms of p38, ERK, and STAT3 as well as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
B M Varela-Rodríguez, L Pena-Bello, P Juiz-Valiña, B Vidal-Bretal, F Cordido, S Sangiao-Alvarellos
Irisin is processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function. To elucidate the relationship between serum irisin and FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, we evaluated plasma irisin levels and FNDC5 gene expression in the hypothalamus, gastrocnemius muscle and different depots of adipose tissue in models of altered metabolism. In normal rats, blood irisin levels diminished after 48-h fast and with leptin, insulin and alloxan treatments, and serum irisin concentrations increased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment and acute treatments of irisin increased blood insulin levels...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alessandro Ieraci, Alessandro I Madaio, Alessandra Mallei, Francis S Lee, Maurizio Popoli
Several studies have shown that exercise improves cognitive functions and emotional behaviors. Positive effects of exercise have been associated with enhanced brain plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, a substantial variability of individual response to exercise has been described, which may be accounted for by individual genetic variants. Here, we have assessed whether and how the common human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the neurobiological effects modulated by exercise in BDNF Val66Met knock-in male mice...
August 10, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Brianne L Guilford, Jake C Parson, Stephanie N Vick, Caleb W Grote, Janelle M Ryals, Douglas E Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Alexandra M Gouveia, Inês O Gonçalves, Emanuel Passos, António A Ascensão, José Magalhães
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jing Zhang, Weizhen Zhang
Irisin was initially discovered as a novel hormone-like myokine released from skeletal muscle during exercise to improve obesity and glucose dysfunction by stimulating the browning of white adipose tissue. Emerging evidence have indicated that irisin also affects brain function. FNDC5 mRNA and FNDC5/irisin immunoreactivity are present in various regions of the brain. Central irisin is involved in the regulation of neural differentiation and proliferation, neurobehavior, energy expenditure and cardiac function...
August 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
X Ge, D Sathiakumar, B J G Lua, H Kukreti, M Lee, C McFarlane
Background/ObjectivesMyostatin (Mstn) plays a pivotal role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Mstn deficiency leads to increased browning of white adipose tissue, which results in increased energy expenditure and protection against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism(s) through which Mstn regulates browning of white adipocytes.MethodsQuantitative molecular analyses were performed to assess Mstn regulation of miR-34a and Fndc5 expression. miR-34a was overexpressed and repressed to investigate miR-34a regulation of Fndc5...
June 14, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Diler Us Altay, E Edip Keha, Serap Ozer Yaman, Imran Ince, Ahmet Alver, Bahattin Erdogan, Sinan Canpolat, Umit Cobanoglu, Ahmet Mentese
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether irisin is secreted by gastric tumor cells experimentally induced in mice, and also if it has any effect on cancer cachexia. DESIGN AND METHODS: 12 out of 60 BALB/c mice were used as a control group, while N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) was administered orally to the remaining 48. After 150 days, the surviving mice were sacrificed by decapitation, blood and stomach, skeletal muscle, brown and white adipose tissue specimens were collected...
June 1, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Madeleen Bosma, Marco Gerling, Jenny Pasto, Anastasia Georgiadi, Evan Graham, Olga Shilkova, Yasunori Iwata, Sven Almer, Jan Söderman, Rune Toftgård, Fredrik Wermeling, Elisabeth Almer Boström, Pontus Almer Boström
FNDC4 is a secreted factor sharing high homology with the exercise-associated myokine irisin (FNDC5). Here we report that Fndc4 is robustly upregulated in several mouse models of inflammation as well as in human inflammatory conditions. Specifically, FNDC4 levels are increased locally at inflamed sites of the intestine of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Interestingly, administration of recombinant FNDC4 in the mouse model of induced colitis markedly reduces disease severity compared with mice injected with a control protein...
2016: Nature Communications
Judit Zsuga, Gabor Tajti, Csaba Papp, Bela Juhasz, Rudolf Gesztelyi
Interventions focusing on the prevention and treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases are on rise. In the current article, we propose that dysfunction of the mesocortico-limbic reward system contributes to the emergence of the WHO-identified risk behaviors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol), behaviors that underlie the evolution of major non-communicable diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases). Given that dopaminergic neurons of the mesocortico-limbic system are tightly associated with reward-related processes and motivation, their dysfunction may fundamentally influence behavior...
May 2016: Medical Hypotheses
M Zügel, S Qiu, R Laszlo, E Bosnyák, C Weigt, D Müller, P Diel, J M Steinacker, U Schumann
A sexual dimorphism has been reported for the adipo-myokine irisin at rest and in response to exercise. The effects of male and female sex, adiposity, and gonadectomy on irisin secretion have not been investigated before. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of sex, adiposity, and gonadectomy in the regulation of irisin secretion as well as PGC-1α/FNDC5 mRNA and protein expression. We hypothesized that a lack of female sex hormones by ovariectomy reduces irisin levels and inhibits skeletal muscle expression of PGC-1α and FNDC5...
April 7, 2016: Endocrine
Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Silvia Ezquerro, Leire Méndez-Giménez, Gema Frühbeck
Skeletal muscle is the largest organ determining whole-body insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis. Adaptive changes of skeletal muscle in response to physical activity include adjustments in the production and secretion of muscle-derived bioactive factors, known as myokines, such as myostatin, IL-4, 6, 7 and 15, myonectin, follistatin-like 1 or LIF. These myokines not only act locally in the muscle in an autocrine/paracrine manner, but also are released to the bloodstream as endocrine factors to regulate physiological processes in other tissues...
April 4, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Li Mo, Jing Shen, Qinhui Liu, Yuwei Zhang, Jiangying Kuang, Shiyun Pu, Shihai Cheng, Min Zou, Wei Jiang, Changtao Jiang, Aijuan Qu, Jinhan He
Irisin, a hormone proteolytically processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), has been reported to induce the browning of sc adipocytes by increasing the level of uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we showed that activation of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor induced FNDC5 mRNA expression in the liver and increased the circulating level of irisin in mice. FNDC5/irisin is a direct transcriptional target of constitutive androstane receptor. Hepatic-released irisin functioned as a paracrine/autocrine factor that inhibited lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis via the Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase pathway...
May 2016: Molecular Endocrinology
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