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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768545/hcmv-ul97-phosphotransferase-gene-mutations-may-be-associated-with-antiviral-resistance-in-immunocompromised-patients-in-bel%C3%A3-m-pa-northern-brazil
#1
Dorotéa de Fátima Lobato da Silva, Jedson Ferreira Cardoso, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Leda Mani França Arruda, Renato Lopes Fernandes de Medeiros, Marluce Matos Moraes, Rita Catarina Medeiros Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus is one of the causes of opportunist infections in immunocompromised patients, and is triggered by factors such as state of viral latency, weakened immune responses, and development of antiviral resistance to ganciclovir, the only drug offered by the public health system in Brazil to treat the infection. The goal of this study was to identify mutations that may be associated with antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Molecular analysis was performed in 82 blood samples and subjected to genomic DNA extraction by a silica-based method...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753839/platelet-transfusion-refractoriness-in-single-unit-cord-blood-transplantation-for-adults-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes
#2
Susumu Tanoue, Takaaki Konuma, Seiko Kato, Maki Oiwa-Monna, Masamichi Isobe, Koji Jimbo, Satoshi Takahashi, Arinobu Tojo
Platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) is frequently observed after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the incidence of and risk factors for PTR, and impact of PTR on transplant outcomes after cord blood transplantation (CBT) have not been fully investigated. We retrospectively analyzed 185 adult patients who received single-unit CBT in our institute. The mean 16-hour corrected count increment (CCI) for the 5,840 platelet transfusions was 3.68×109 /l. Among them, 3,196 transfusions (54...
May 10, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753836/a-modified-intensive-strategy-to-prevent-cmv-disease-in-seropositive-umbilical-cord-blood-transplant-recipients
#3
Joshua A Hill, Steven A Pergam, Emily Cox, Hu Xie, Wendy M Leisenring, Michael Boeckh, Colleen Delaney, Filippo Milano
We previously demonstrated a lower rate of CMV reactivation and disease among seropositive umbilical cord blood transplant (CBT) recipients receiving an intensive prophylaxis strategy consisting of ganciclovir on days -8 to -2 pre-transplant, high-dose valacyclovir post-transplant, and twice-weekly serum CMV PCR testing. We hypothesized that a modified intensive strategy excluding pre-transplant ganciclovir would be similarly effective. We compared the risk of CMV reactivation, occurrence of CMV disease, and duration of anti-CMV therapy by day 100 post-CBT in patients receiving the modified intensive and intensive strategies...
May 10, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747535/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-in-a-diabetic-immunocompetent-patient-after-intravitreal-ranibizumab-injection
#4
Paraskevas Zafeiropoulos, Polykseni Tamboura, Maria Dimou, Eleni Cristodoulou, Maria Stefaniotou
We here report a case of cytomegalovirus retinitis in a diabetic patient that occurred after intravitreal ranibizumab injection. A 75-year-old woman was treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular edema. During this period, a retinitis occurred in her left eye along with increased IgG and later IgM cytomegalovirus antibody titers. Ocular and intravenous ganciclovir was administered. Cytomegalovirus retinitis subsided post treatment with residual areas of retinal atrophy. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis, in diabetic patients, after ranibizumab injection...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745007/a-randomized-phase-2-study-of-asp0113-a-dna-based-vaccine-for-the-prevention-of-cmv-in-cmv-seronegative-kidney-transplant-recipients-receiving-a-kidney-from-a-cmv-seropositive-donor
#5
Flavio Vincenti, Klemens Budde, Pierre Merville, Fuad Shihab, V Ram Peddi, Malay Shah, Kate Wyburn, Elisabeth Cassuto-Viguier, Alexander Weidemann, Misun Lee, Teresa Flegel, Jay Erdman, Xuegong Wang, Christopher Lademacher
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a latent infection in most infected individuals, but can be pathogenic in immunocompromised kidney transplant recipients. ASP0113 is a DNA-based vaccine for the prevention of CMV-related mortality and end-organ disease in transplant recipients. The efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of ASP0113 was assessed in a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in CMV-seronegative kidney transplant recipients receiving a kidney from a CMV-seropositive donor. Transplant recipients were randomized (1:1) to receive five doses of ASP0113 (5 mg; n=75) or placebo (n=74) on Days 30/60/90/120/180 post transplant, and received prophylactic valganciclovir/ganciclovir 10-100 days post transplant...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738038/pp65-antigenemia-and-cytomegalovirus-diagnosis-in-patients-with-lupus-nephritis-report-of-a-series
#6
Katia Lino, Natalia Trizzotti, Fabiana Rabe Carvalho, Rachel Ingrid Cosendey, Cintia Fernandes Souza, Evandro Mendes Klumb, Andrea Alice Silva, Jorge Reis Almeida
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to organ transplantation, few studies correlate the monitoring of pp65 antigenemia with a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of CMV outside transplantation, we monitored pp65 antigenemia in a series of SLE patients. METHODS: From March 2015 to March 2016, SLE patients presenting kidney involvement, fever, and an unclear infection at hospital admission were monitored through pp65 antigenemia...
April 26, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735826/cytomegalovirus-reactivation-and-disease-amongst-patients-with-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-eastern-india-epidemiology-outcome-and-healthcare-cost
#7
Meet Kumar, Mita Roychowdhury, Jeevan Kumar, Anusha Harishankar, Subir Sinha, Saurabh Jayant Bhave, Anupam Chakrapani, Vivek Radhakrishnan, Reena Nair, Sanjay Bhattacharya, Mammen Chandy
Purpose: Data from developing countries about incidence, prognosis and healthcare cost of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation amongst patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) remain scarce. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiology, outcome and cost implications of CMV reactivation and CMV disease amongst patients with AHSCT in cancer hospital in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: The study design was a retrospective audit of clinical records...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732231/the-detailed-kinetics-of-cytomegalovirus-specific-t-cell-responses-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-1-year-follow-up-data
#8
Seongman Bae, Jiwon Jung, Sun-Mi Kim, Young-Ah Kang, Young-Shin Lee, Yong Pil Chong, Heungsup Sung, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee, Sung-Han Kim
The detailed kinetics of the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell response in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have not yet been fully assessed. We evaluated these kinetics of CMV-specific T cell response and factors associated with high CMV-specific T cell responses 1 year after HCT. In HCT recipients, CMV pp65 and IE1-specific ELISPOT assay were performed before HCT (D0), and at 30 (D30), 90 (D90), 180 (D180), and 360 (D360) days after HCT. Of the 51 HCT recipients with donor-positive (D+ )/recipient-positive (R+ ) serology, 26 (51%) developed CMV infections after HCT...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712656/the-artemisinin-derivative-artemisone-is-a-potent-inhibitor-of-human-cytomegalovirus-replication
#9
E Oiknine-Djian, Y Weisblum, A Panet, H N Wong, R K Haynes, D G Wolf
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of disease in immunocompromised individuals and the most common cause of congenital infection and neuro-sensorial disease. The expanding target populations for HCMV antiviral treatment along with the limitations of the currently available HCMV DNA polymerase inhibitors underscore the need for new antiviral agents with alternative modes of action. The anti-malarial artemisinin derivative artesunate was shown to inhibit HCMV in vitro , yet has demonstrated limited antiviral efficacy in vivo , prompting our search for more potent anti-HCMV artemisinin derivatives...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712633/how-i-treat-t-cell-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-disease
#10
Catherine M Bollard, Jeffrey I Cohen
T cell chronic active EBV is a rare disease in which EBV is present predominantly in T cells which infiltrate the tissues; patients have high levels of EBV in the blood. If untreated, patients often develop liver failure, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, coronary artery aneurysms, EBV infiltrating T cells impairing organ function, or T cell lymphomas refractory to treatment. At present, hematopoietic stem transplantation is the only curative therapy, and it is critical to make a proper diagnosis and initiate transplantation before the disease progresses to an irreversible stage...
April 30, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709989/congenital-cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-and-treatment-response-evaluation-using-viral-load-during-ganciclovir-therapy-a-case-report
#11
Minsoo Lee, Keiji Goishi, Yuka Torii, Yoshinori Ito, Hiroya Ono, Tomoko Mori, Naoyuki Kashiwa, Shinichi Hosokawa, Hiroyuki Shichino
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection. Pneumonitis is considered to be a rare manifestation although congenital CMV infection presents with various non-specific findings. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are beneficial for improving neurodevelopmental sequelae and hearing outcome of congenital CMV infection, but treatment response evaluationis not well reported. We report a female case of congenital CMV infectionpresenting with pneumonitis, meningoencephalitis, and chorioretinitis...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708927/cytomegalovirus-keratitis
#12
Samuel C Faith, Asad F Durrani, Vishal Jhanji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) keratitis, albeit an uncommon manifestation of this ubiquitous pathogen, can lead to devastating ocular morbidity. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are also unfortunately uncommon. The purpose of this review is to discuss recently published literature regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of CMV keratitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Classic clinical presentations of CMV keratitis are known; however, current investigations further elucidate characteristics of typical versus atypical disease...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697435/management-of-herpes-simplex-virus-epithelial-keratitis
#13
Mehdi Roozbahani, Kristin M Hammersmith
PURPOSE: To review recent advancements in the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Trifluridine eye drop, acyclovir (ACV) ointment, ganciclovir gel, and oral ACV are still the main therapeutic agents. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane has been recently used as an adjuvant treatment. Resistance to ACV has become a concerning issue. The animal models of HSV vaccine are able to reduce HSV keratitis. New antivirals are under development...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678260/ganciclovir
#14
Abdullah A Al-Badr, Tariq D S Ajarim
Ganciclovir is synthetic nucleoside analog of guanine closely related to acyclovir but has greater activity against cytomegalovirus. This comprehensive profile on ganciclovir starts with a description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, chemical structure, elemental composition, and appearance. The uses and application of the drug are explained. The methods that were used for the preparation of ganciclovir are described and their respective schemes are outlined. The methods which were used for the physical characterization of the dug are: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, crystal structure, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry...
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660022/molecular-ablation-of-tumor-blood-vessels-inhibits-therapeutic-effects-of-radiation-and-bevacizumab
#15
Viveka Nand Yadav, David Altshuler, Padma Kadiyala, Daniel Zamler, Andrea Comba, Henry Appelman, Patrick Dunn, Carl Koschmann, Maria G Castro, Pedro R Löwenstein
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive and highly vascular tumor with median survival below 2 years. Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy survival has improved modestly. To combat glioma vascular proliferation anti-angiogenic agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were introduced. Preclinically these agents were effective, yet they did not improve overall survival in Phase III trials. We tested the hypothesis that ganciclovir (GCV)-mediated killing of proliferating endothelial cells expressing HSV1-TK would have direct anti-tumor effects, and whether vessel ablation would affect the anti-tumor activity of anti-VEGF antibodies and radiotherapy...
April 12, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655492/isolated-acute-appendicitis-caused-by-aspergillus-in-a-patient-who-underwent-lung-transplantation-a-case-report
#16
H S Kim, H J Yeo, D H Shin, W H Cho, D Kim
Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone lung transplantation. Aspergillus infections usually involve the respiratory tract, with vascular invasion and subsequent dissemination. However, acute appendicitis associated with localized aspergillosis is rare, especially among patients who have undergone prophylaxis with voriconazole. We present a case of primary Aspergillus appendicitis diagnosed by histologic examination in a patient who underwent lung transplantation...
April 11, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650261/maribavir-brincidofovir-and-letermovir-efficacy-and-safety-of-new-antiviral-drugs-for-treating-cytomegalovirus-infections
#17
REVIEW
P Frange, M Leruez-Ville
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication in immunocompromised patients, especially after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation. Therapeutic antiviral options [(val)ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir] are still limited and can expose to severe toxicities. Moreover, prolonged antiviral drug exposure and ongoing viral replication are key factors in the development of antiviral drug resistance. After many years of few tangible advances in terms of new antiviral drugs, we are now experiencing an exciting period characterized by a series of phase III clinical trials incorporating three novel agents: maribavir, brincidofovir, and letermovir...
April 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627026/ganciclovir-and-foscarnet-dual-therapy-for-cytomegalovirus-encephalitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Adam Baghban, Maricar Malinis
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus which establishes lifelong latency following primary infection. It is then capable of reactivating in the face of immunosuppression. Encephalitis is a less common, but particularly devastating syndrome associated with CMV. Here, we describe a case of CMV encephalitis in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient who received dual antiviral therapy with ganciclovir and foscarnet. The case presentation is followed by a summary of cases reported in the last ten years, with the goal of describing vulnerable patient populations, treatment courses, and outcomes...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607871/herpes-zoster-induced-acute-urinary-retention-two-cases-and-literature-review
#19
H He, C Tang, X Yi, W Zhou
We report two uncommon cases of acute urinary retention in Chinese patients caused by reactivation of sacral herpes zoster and requiring bladder drainage. Indwelling urinary catheterization, antiviral medication (ganciclovir), and physiotherapy with infrared light (830 nm) led to successful recovery of the micturition reflex in both cases.
April 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604975/primary-cns-lymphoma-in-hiv-infection
#20
Dieta Brandsma, Jacoline E C Bromberg
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. PCNSL generally presents with supratentorial, single or multiple, contrast-enhancing lesions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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