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Whittney A Warren, Domingo Franco-Palacios, Christopher S King, Oksana A Shlobin, Steven D Nathan, Shalika B Katugaha, Haresh Mani, A Whitney Brown
A 24-year-old woman with ΔF508/Y1092X cystic fibrosis (CF) complicated by severe obstructive lung disease (FEV1 of 30% predicted) was admitted for IV antibiotics for planned sinus surgery resulting from severe chronic sinusitis causing frequent exacerbations and declining lung function. She had persistent airway infection with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and growth of a fungus presumed to be an airway colonizer, identified as Stephanoascus ciferrii 1 year before presentation...
March 2018: Chest
L Li, Y Wang, C H Yan, X J Huang
Objective: To investigate the threshold of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia for preemptive antiviral therapy in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Methods: Viral load between 1×10(3) copies/ml and 5×10(3) copies/ml was defined as low viral load by real time Q-PCR. Clinical data and outcome were collected. Results: A total of 95 allo-HSCT recipients with low viral load from September 2014 to February 2015 were recruited in this study. The control group included 37 patients who received preemptive initial antiviral therapy...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Mari Eriksson, Janne J Jokinen, Sanni Söderlund, Pekka Hämmainen, Jyri Lommi, Karl B Lemström
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains an important pathogen in solid organ transplant patients. OBJECTIVE: We executed a hybrid prophylactic and pre-emptive valganciclovir (VGCV) prophylaxis to prevent CMV infection in heart transplant patients with antithymocyteglobulin (ATG) induction and retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of this regimen. METHODS: 100 adult heart transplant patients between 2004 and 2010 were included...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Marianne C Jacobsen, Maria D I Manunta, Emma S Pincott, Matthew Fenton, Gavin L Simpson, Nigel J Klein, Michael Burch
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is implicated in endothelial dysfunction and graft damage after pediatric heart transplantation. CMV specific immune responses are thought to be necessary for CMV viral control but there is little data in pediatric heart transplantation. METHODS: We studied 28 consecutive pediatric heart transplant recipients for 1-year posttransplant. CMV-specific T cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in response to ex-vivo stimulation with CMV lysates or peptides were measured...
March 5, 2018: Transplantation
Qian Dong, Stephanie Leroux, Hai-Yan Shi, Hai-Yan Xu, Chen Kou, Muhammad Wasim Khan, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Wei Zhao
Background: Newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are at high risk for developing permanent sequelae. Intravenous ganciclovir therapy is frequently used for the treatment of congenital CMV infection. Target area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC0-24 ) of 40-50 μg·h/mL is recommended. The standard dose resulted in a large variability in ganciclovir exposure in newborns, indicating the unmet need of dosage individualization in this vulnerable population, but the implementation of this strategy remains challenging in clinical practice...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hiromu Morikubo, Daisuke Saito, Miki Miura, Taro Sato, Shintaro Minowa, Osamu Ikezaki, Tatsuya Mitsui, Akihito Sakuraba, Mari Hayashida, Masachika Fujiwara, Kengo Tokunaga, Junji Shibahara, Hideaki Mori, Tadahiko Masaki, Shin Kawai, Tadakazu Hisamatsu
We herein report a case of simultaneous amebic colitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis in an HIV-infected patient. The patient was a 40-year-old man who developed bloody stool and diarrhea. We diagnosed him with severe amebic colitis associated with HIV infection and administered metronidazole. While his symptoms began to improve, the patient then developed CMV enteritis. We administered ganciclovir, and his symptoms improved. However, despite control of the infection, stenosis of the descending colon caused intestinal obstruction, and colostomy was performed...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
Atosa Estekizadeh, Natalia Landázur, Jiri Bartek, Christian Beltoft Brøchner, Belghis Davoudi, Helle Broholm, Mohsen Karimi, Tomas J Ekström, Afsar Rahbar
Among all brain tumors diagnosed in children, medulloblastomas (MBs) are associated with a poor prognosis. The etiology of MB is not fully understood, yet the impact of epigenetic alterations of oncogenes has previously been established. During the past decade, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been detected in several types of cancer, including MB. Since DNA methylation occurs in the cell nucleus and this is considered a host defence response, we studied the impact of HCMV infection on DNA methyltransferase (DNMT‑1) in MB (D324) cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as in MB tissue sections...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Maria J García-Barchino, Maria E Sarasquete, Carlos Panizo, Julie Morscio, Antonio Martinez, Miguel Alcoceba, Vicente Fresquet, Blanca Gonzalez-Farre, Bruno Paiva, Ken H Young, Eloy F Robles, Sergio Roa, Jon Celay, Marta Larrayoz, Davide Rossi, Gianluca Gaidano, Santiago Montes-Moreno, Miguel A Piris, Ana Balanzategui, Cristina Jimenez, Idoia Rodriguez, Maria J Calasanz, Maria J Larrayoz, Victor Segura, Ricardo Garcia-Muñoz, Maria P Rabasa, Shuhua Yi, Jianyong Li, Mingzhi Zhang, Zijun Y Xu-Monette, Noemi Puig-Moron, Alberto Orfao, Sebastian Böttcher, Jesus M Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus San Miguel, Felipe Prosper, Thomas Tousseyn, Xavier Sagaert, Marcos Gonzalez, Jose A Martinez-Climent
The increased risk of Richter transformation (RT) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy with fludarabine or other targeted agents remains controversial. Among 31 RT cases classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), seven (23%) showed EBV expression. In comparison to EBV-negative tumors, EBV+ DLBCLs derived predominantly from IGVH-hypermutated CLL and exhibited CLL-unrelated IGVH sequences more frequently. Intriguingly, despite having different cellular origins, clonally related and unrelated EBV+ DLBCLs shared a previous history of immunosuppressive chemo-immunotherapy, a non-germinal center DLBCL phenotype, EBV latency programs type II/III, and a very short survival...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Ruben Mylvaganam, Allison Glaser, Noah Moss, Meenakshi Rana
We describe a male patient who presents 2 years posttransplant with cough and dyspnea. A negative pulmonary workup led to an endomyocardial biopsy and the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) myocarditis. The patient was treated with ganciclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin. This illustrates a very late presentation of posttransplant CMV myocarditis and the usefulness of myocardial biopsy in diagnosis of CMV carditis.
January 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Mari Tsujimura, Kosuke Kusamori, Chihiro Oda, Airi Miyazaki, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Makiya Nishikawa, Akira Yamamoto
Though cell transplantation is becoming an attractive therapeutic method, uncontrolled cell proliferation or overexpression of cellular functions could cause adverse effects. These unfavorable outcomes could be avoided by regulating the proliferation or functioning of transplanted cells. In this study, we used a combination of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene, a suicide gene, and ganciclovir (GCV) to control the proliferation and functioning of insulin-secreting cells after transplantation in diabetic mice...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Margaret R Jorgenson, Jillian L Descourouez, Robert R Redfield, Jeannina A Smith, Didier A Mandelbrot
BACKGROUND: Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (GR-CMV) is a serious complication of transplantation. Recurrence after primary infection is common. Little is known about CMV drug resistance and latency. OBJECTIVE: Review CMV genotype during episodes of recurrent CMV viremia after prior documentation of ganciclovir resistance to evaluate if resistance is redemonstrated. METHODS: All adult transplant recipients with history of GR-CMV viremia from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015, were screened; those with subsequent laboratory evidence of recurrent CMV viremia and genotyping were included...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Subramaniam Murugananth, Rajendran Padmaraj, Natarajan Gopalakrishnan, Rajendran Manorajan, Anila Abraham Kurien, Jeyachandran Dhanapriya, Thanigachalam Dineshkumar, Ramanathan Sakthirajan
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections in humans occurring in 1% of all liveborns. Symptomatic congenital CMV infection involves multiple systems and causes significant morbidity and mortality in newborns. Isolated CMV infection of the kidneys in a living infant has not been reported in literature. Here, we report an infant who presented only with renomegaly and renal biopsy showed extensive CMV inclusions. Serum and urine polymerase chain reaction for CMV were positive, and CMV involvement of other organs was ruled out...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Ruidong Zhu, Danhui Weng, Shichun Lu, Dongdong Lin, Menglong Wang, Dongdong Chen, Jun Lv, Hongjun Li, Fudong Lv, Ling Xi, Jianfeng Zhou, Ding Ma, Ning Li
The present clinical trial assessed the effect of double-dose administration of replication-deficient adenovirus-thymidine kinase and ganciclovir (ADV-TK/GCV) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). Eighty-six patients with single tumor diameters >5 cm or multiple tumors with diameters >3 cm each, regardless of vascular invasion, were examined over a follow-up period of 61 months. All patients underwent orthotopic LT; 43 received LT only, and 43 received LT plus double-dose ADV-TK/GCV gene therapy (LT + ADV-TK/GCV)...
February 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Xinfeng Lin, Qilong Jiang, Jiduo Liu, Fu Zhao, Weitao Chen
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by fever, pancytopenia and splenomegaly. The underlying hemophagocytosis occurs primarily in the bone marrow, liver and lymph nodes. Multiple microbiological agents, including cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HLH. The present study presents a case of HLH associated with Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides infection treated successfully with clindamycin...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lawrence P L Iu, Michelle C Y Fan, Wai-Ching Lam, Ian Y H Wong
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an opportunistic infection that primarily affects immunocompromised individuals. Intravitreal ganciclovir injection monotherapy or in combination with systemic anti-CMV therapy are effective treatments for CMV retinitis. Crystallization of ganciclovir after intravitreal injection is extremely rare. Only two cases had been reported in literature. Crystallization in only one eye after bilateral injections had not been reported before. We hereby report a case of intraocular ganciclovir crystallization in one eye after bilateral intravitreal injections, and repeated crystallization in the same eye after repeated injections...
February 9, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Shlomi Cohen, Christine Martinez-Vinson, Marina Aloi, Dan Turner, Amit Assa, Lissy de Ridder, Victorien M Wolters, Tim de Meij, Patrizia Alvisi, Jiri Bronsky, Uri Kopylov
BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical course and outcomes of pediatric patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection complicating acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASC) are very limited. The aim of our study was to compare outcomes of children with ASC who were CMV positive or CMV negative. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective case-controlled study, from centers affiliated with the Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Porto Group of European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition...
March 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
K M Baradhi, R L Aure, J-M El-Amm
We report the first case of a ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) involving the gastrointestinal tract that was successfully treated with high-dose valganciclovir. A kidney transplant recipient developed drug-resistant CMV colitis which was initially treated with valganciclovir, but his CMV was found to have major resistance to ganciclovir and cidofovir due to UL97 and UL54 mutations. The patient was switched to intravenous foscarnet 40 mg/kg given every twelve hours. However, foscarnet had to be discontinued after 4 days of treatment due to acute kidney injury...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Chun-Nun Chao, Yu-Hsuan Yang, Mu-Sheng Wu, Ming-Chieh Chou, Chiung-Yao Fang, Mien-Chun Lin, Chien-Kuo Tai, Cheng-Huang Shen, Pei-Lain Chen, Deching Chang, Meilin Wang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor, has a short period of survival even with recent multimodality treatment. The neurotropic JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects glial cells and oligodendrocytes and causes fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with AIDS. In this study, a possible gene therapy strategy for GBM using JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs) as a gene delivery vector was investigated. We found that JCPyV VLPs were able to deliver the GFP reporter gene into tumor cells (U87-MG) for expression...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yimeng Shen, Yanxia Li, Xiaofang Ma, Qiaohao Wan, Zhongmin Jiang, Yixin Liu, Dianying Zhang, Xiaozhi Liu, Wenhan Wu
Connexin 43 (Cx43) can be modified and regulated by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)1; however, its role in liver cancer stem cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found a significant difference in the expression of Cx43 and SUMO1 between cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells in liver cancer. In liver cancer stem cells, Cx43 was almost absent, although the level of SUMO1 was significantly higher than that in non-cancer stem cells. Further experiments confirmed that the conjugated site of Cx43 by SUMO1 was located in Lys-144 and Lys-237, both of which are highly conserved among species...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Vinita Rao, Jyotirmay Biswas, Gopal Lingam
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) following herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in an immunocompetent patient is a rare condition. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has made it possible to identify and quantify viral genome. We report a case of ARN following HSE managed with the help of qPCR. A 45-year-old man developed ARN following HSE and was treated with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal foscarnet. The retinitis did not respond initially and the qPCR demonstrated a rise in the number of copies of the HSV-1 viral genome...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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