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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154171/early-maladaptive-schemas-as-mediators-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-later-psychological-distress-among-chinese-college-students
#1
Jingbo Gong, Raymond C K Chan
The aim of the current study was to examine whether early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) mediate the association between different kinds of childhood maltreatment and later psychopathology and the effect of different kinds of childhood maltreatment on psychological distress in later life. A total of 1102 college students from two local universities participated in the study; their average age was 20.46 ± 1.13 years. The participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Early Maladaptive Schemas Scale (EMSs), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153744/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-familial-chylomicronemia-syndrome
#2
Ryota Teramoto, Hayato Tada, Masa-Aki Kawashiri, Atsushi Nohara, Takuya Nakahashi, Tetsuo Konno, Akihiro Inazu, Hiroshi Mabuchi, Masakazu Yamagishi, Kenshi Hayashi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial chylomicronemia syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder leading to severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) due to mutations in lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-associated genes. Few data exist on the clinical features of the disorder or on comprehensive genetic approaches to uncover the causative genes and mutations. METHODS: Eight patients diagnosed with familial hyperchylomicronemia with recessive inheritance were included in this study (two males and six females; median age of onset 23...
November 14, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153332/sensorimotor-performance-and-function-in-people-with-osteoarthritis-of-the-hand-a-case-control-comparison
#3
Nicoló Edoardo Magni, Peter John McNair, David Andrew Rice
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether hand left/right judgements, tactile acuity, and body perception are impaired in people with hand OA. To examine the relationships between left right judgements, tactile acuity and hand pain. To explore the relationships between sensorimotor measures (left/right judgements and tactile acuity) and measures of hand function in people with hand OA. METHODS: Twenty patients with symptomatic hand OA and 19 healthy pain-free controls undertook a hand left/right judgment task, a control left/right judgement task, two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold testing (assessing tactile acuity), a neglect-like symptoms questionnaire (assessing body perception) and several established measures of hand function...
September 25, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149350/a-data-fusion-pipeline-for-generating-and-enriching-adverse-outcome-pathway-descriptions
#4
Penny Nymark, Linda Rieswijk, Friederike Ehrhart, Nina Jeliazkova, Georgia Tsiliki, Haralambos Sarimveis, Chris T Evelo, Vesa Hongisto, Pekka Kohonen, Egon Willighagen, Roland C Grafström
Increasing amounts of systems toxicology data, including omics results, are becoming publically available and accessible in databases. Data-driven and informatics-tool supported pipeline schemas for fitting such data into Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) descriptions could potentially aid the development of non-animal based hazard and risk assessment methods. We devised a six-step workflow that integrated diverse types of toxicology data into a novel AOP scheme for pulmonary fibrosis. Mining of literature references and diverse data sources covering previous pathway descriptions and molecular results were coupled in a stepwise manner with informatics tools applications that enabled gene linkage and pathway identification in molecular interaction maps...
November 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149269/effects-of-a-healthy-eater-self-schema-and-nutrition-literacy-on-healthy-eating-behaviors-among-taiwanese-college-students
#5
Chia-Kuei Lee, Li-Ling Liao, I-Ju Lai, Li-Chun Chang
Unhealthy eating behaviors contribute to obesity and chronic illness. This study examined the relative contributions of a healthy-eater self-schema (a self-conception as a healthy eater) and nutrition literacy on healthy-eating behaviors and whether nutrition literacy was a mediator among Taiwanese college students. A total of 1216 undergraduate students from six universities in Taiwan participated in the study from April to June 2016. Healthy-eating behaviors, nutrition literacy, healthy-eater self-schema and known determinants of eating behaviors (e...
November 14, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149076/the-association-between-food-addiction-and-early-maladaptive-schemas-in-overweight-and-obese-women-a-preliminary-investigation
#6
Claudio Imperatori, Marco Innamorati, David Lester, Massimo Continisio, Michela Balsamo, Aristide Saggino, Mariantonietta Fabbricatore
In recent years, there has been a growing focus on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) as core features associated with eating psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i) the association between dysfunctional eating patterns (i.e., food addiction and binge eating) and EMSs, and (ii) the association between food addiction and EMSs after controlling for potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology). Participants were 70 overweight and obese women seeking low-energy-diet therapy...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146290/sustained-opioid-antagonism-modulates-striatal-sensitivity-to-baby-schema-in-opioid-use-disorder
#7
An-Li Wang, Steven B Lowen, Igor Elman, Zhenhao Shi, Victoria P Fairchild, Alexander Bouril, Ruben C Gur, Daniel D Langleben
BACKGROUND: Chronic opioid misuse is associated with reduced sensitivity to natural rewards and social motivation deficits that include impaired caregiving. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these deficits and their response to treatment are not well understood. Baby schema (Kindchenschema) is a set of juvenile physical features, which is perceived as "cute" and triggers motivation for caregiving. Recent studies suggest that the "baby schema effect" is mediated by the brain "reward" network...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145774/predicting-the-risk-of-opioid-use-disorder-based-on-early-maladaptive-schemas
#8
Somayeh Zamirinejad, Seyed Kaveh Hojjat, Alireza Moslem, Vahideh MoghaddamHosseini, Arash Akaberi
Substance use is a globally devastating social problem. Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are inefficient mechanisms leading directly or indirectly to psychological distress. The current study aimed to assess the role of EMSs in predicting opioid use disorder. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bojnurd at northeast of Iran on 60 male opioid users who received Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) and 60 control males. The opioid users were selected randomly from MMT clinics and control subjects were selected and matched with opioid users using demographic variables...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132067/limited-generalization-with-varied-as-compared-to-specific-practice-in-short-term-motor-learning
#9
Chéla R Willey, Zili Liu
The schema theory of learning predicts that varied training in motor learning should give rise to better transfer than specific training. For example, throwing beanbags during practice to targets 5 and 9ft away should better generalize to targets 7 and 11ft away, as compared to only throwing to a target 7ft away. In this study, we tested this prediction in a throwing task, when the pretest, practice, and posttest were all completed within an hour. Participants in the varied group practiced throwing at 5 and 9ft targets, while participants in the specific group practiced throwing at 7ft only...
November 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130840/what-works-for-wellbeing-a-systematic-review-of-wellbeing-outcomes-for-music-and-singing-in-adults
#10
Norma Daykin, Louise Mansfield, Catherine Meads, Guy Julier, Alan Tomlinson, Annette Payne, Lily Grigsby Duffy, Jack Lane, Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Adele Burnett, Tess Kay, Paul Dolan, Stefano Testoni, Christina Victor
AIMS: The role of arts and music in supporting subjective wellbeing (SWB) is increasingly recognised. Robust evidence is needed to support policy and practice. This article reports on the first of four reviews of Culture, Sport and Wellbeing (CSW) commissioned by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded What Works Centre for Wellbeing ( https://whatworkswellbeing.org/ ). OBJECTIVE: To identify SWB outcomes for music and singing in adults. METHODS: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PsychInfo, Medline, ERIC, Arts and Humanities, Social Science and Science Citation Indexes, Scopus, PILOTS and CINAHL databases...
November 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130834/the-relationship-between-intuitive-action-choices-and-moral-reasoning-on-animal-ethics-issues-in-students-of-veterinary-medicine-and-other-relevant-professions
#11
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125326/young-schema-questionnaire%C3%A2-%C3%A2-short-form-version-3-ysq-s3-preliminary-validation-in-older-adults
#12
Katelyn Phillips, Robert Brockman, Phoebe E Bailey, Ian I Kneebone
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to establish the reliability and validity of one of the most used schema questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form Version 3 (YSQ-S3) in older adults. METHOD: 104 participants aged 60-84 years were recruited. They were administered a battery of questionnaires, including the YSQ-S3, Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory (YAMI), Germans (Personality) Screener, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and the Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS)...
November 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122654/a-processing-schema-for-children-in-the-auditory-equiprobable-go-nogo-task-erp-components-and-behaviour
#13
Robert J Barry, Frances M De Blasio, Jack S Fogarty
A sequential processing model for adults in the auditory equiprobable Go/NoGo task has been developed in recent years. This used temporal principal components analysis (PCA) to decompose Go/NoGo event related potential (ERP) data into components that mark stages of perceptual and cognitive processing. The model has been found useful in frameworking several studies in young and older adults, and in children. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the common PCA approach of decomposing Go and NoGo ERP data together results in misallocation of variance between the conditions, distorting the timing, topography, and amplitudes of the resultant components in each condition...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122592/new-perspectives-on-the-brain-lesion-approach-implications-for-theoretical-models-of-human-memory
#14
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al. in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122586/the-evolutionary-dynamics-of-language
#15
REVIEW
Luc Steels, Eörs Szathmáry
The well-established framework of evolutionary dynamics can be applied to the fascinating open problems how human brains are able to acquire and adapt language and how languages change in a population. Schemas for handling grammatical constructions are the replicating unit. They emerge and multiply with variation in the brains of individuals and undergo selection based on their contribution to needed expressive power, communicative success and the reduction of cognitive effort. Adopting this perspective has two major benefits...
November 6, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121527/the-role-of-distress-tolerance-in-the-relationship-between-cognitive-schemas-and-alcohol-problems-among-college-students
#16
Raluca M Simons, Rebecca E Sistad, Jeffrey S Simons, Jamie Hansen
INTRODUCTION: The current study tested the role of distress tolerance in the relationship between three early maladaptive cognitive schemas (Abandonment, Defectiveness/Shame, and Insufficient Self-Control) and alcohol problems among college students (N=364). Previous research suggests that maladaptive cognitive schemas may be a risk factor for alcohol-related problems. However, the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. One's tolerance for emotional distress may play an important role in understanding the nature of this association...
October 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120915/schema-therapy-for-emotional-dysregulation-in-personality-disorders-a-review
#17
Harold Dadomo, Marta Panzeri, Daniele Caponcello, Alessandro Carmelita, Alessandro Grecucci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an update on the most recent studies regarding the role of schema therapy in the treatment of emotion dysregulation related to personality disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: In personality disorders, a lack of emotion regulation can be found. Schema therapy treats emotion dysregulation with a series of techniques, such as imagery rescripting, limited reparenting, chairwork, and cognitive restructuring to remove dysregulatory mechanism. SUMMARY: Schema therapy is one of the most efficient therapies for personality disorders...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119080/metastatic-breast-cancer-endocrine-therapy-landscape-reshaped
#18
REVIEW
Mohamad Adham Salkeni, Samantha June Hall
Endocrine therapy (ET) of hormone receptor (HR)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-(HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) historically focused on estrogen deprivation and antagonism. The identification of several intracellular pathways promoting resistance to antiestrogen therapy led to the introduction of novel endocrine drug combinations that reformed treatment schema and expanded therapeutic options. There is no doubt that efforts to overcome or delay resistance to ET are fruiting, particularly with the introduction of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors such as palbociclib and ribociclib, and mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors such as everolimus...
October 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117023/legal-evidence-of-subjective-states-a-brain-based-model-of-chronic-pain-increases-accuracy-and-fairness-in-law
#19
Amanda C Pustilnik
Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging offer new ways to conceptualize chronic pain disorders and to prevent, diagnose, and treat chronic pain. Advances in pain science, though, do not entail changes in the concepts of chronic pain in law and culture. Authoritative legal and cultural conceptions of chronic pain continue to promote abstruse theories, characterizing these disorders as arising out of everything from a person's unmet need for love to resistance to "patriarchy." These constructs have consequences, impeding treatment and affecting whether individuals with chronic pain can obtain legal redress...
November 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116548/women-femininity-indirect-and-direct-self-destructiveness-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Konstantinos Tsirigotis
The aim of this work was to review results of research into direct and indirect self-destructiveness in women. Studied projects covered two populations: individuals who attempted suicide and individuals who did not attempt suicide. The Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale and Bem Sex Role Inventory were used. Intensity of indirect self-destructiveness is lower in women. A probable explanation of the gender paradox in suicides may be the hypothesis that suicides attempted by men more often end in death as men display stronger indirect self-destructiveness...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
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