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Alexandra Zvereva, Florian Kamp, Helmut Schlattl, Maria Zankl, Katia Parodi
PURPOSE: Variance-based sensitivity analysis (SA) is described and applied to the radiation dosimetry model proposed by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) for the organ-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine. The uncertainties in the dose coefficients thus calculated are also evaluated. METHODS: A Monte Carlo approach was used to compute first-order and total-effect SA indices, which rank the input factors according to their influence on the uncertainty in the output organ doses...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Roland Pfister, Alexander T El Gammal, Eugen Bellon, Esther K Diekhof
Nurturing behavior may be critically influenced by the interplay of different hormones. The neuropeptide oxytocin is known to promote maternal behavior and its reduction has been associated with postpartum depression risk and child neglect. Contrariwise, the observed decrease in testosterone level during early parenthood may benefit caretaking behavior, whereas increased testosterone may reduce attention to infants. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the interactive influence of testosterone and oxytocin on selective attention to and neural processing of the baby schema (BS)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Xiaobo Sun, Jingjing Gao, Peng Jin, Celeste Eng, Esteban G Burchard, Terri H Beaty, Ingo Ruczinski, Rasika A Mathias, Kathleen C Barnes, Fusheng Wang, Zhaohui Qin
Background: Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of Variant Call Format (VCF) files is frequently required in large scale whole genome sequencing or whole exome sequencing projects. Traditional single machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of VCF files due to the excessive computation time and I/O bottleneck...
May 11, 2018: GigaScience
Chaobin He, Yize Mao, Jun Wang, Xin Huang, Xiaojun Lin, Shengping Li
Background : Lymph node (LN) metastasis is a strong predictor of unfavorable prognosis for patients with periampullary adenocarcinoma after surgical resection. We sought to assess the prognostic performance of several LN staging systems, including American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/ International Union Against Cancer (7th edition) N stage, the total number of LN (TLN), the number of metastatic LN (MLN), the lymph node ratio (LNR) and the log odds of MLNs (LODDS), in patients with periampullary adenocarcinoma after surgical resection and identify the optional LN staging system to accurately stratify patients with different prognoses...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Daniel Benitez-Ribas, Raquel Cabezón, Georgina Flórez-Grau, Mari Carmen Molero, Patricia Puerta, Antonio Guillen, Sonia Paco, Angel M Carcaboso, Vicente Santa-Maria Lopez, Ofelia Cruz, Carmen de Torres, Noelia Salvador, Manel Juan, Jaume Mora, Andres Morales La Madrid
Background and objective: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal brainstem tumor in children. Dendritic cells (DCs) have T-cell stimulatory capacity and, therefore, potential antitumor activity for disease control. DCs vaccines have been shown to reactivate tumor-specific T cells in both clinical and preclinical settings. We designed a phase Ib immunotherapy (IT) clinical trial with the use of autologous dendritic cells (ADCs) pulsed with an allogeneic tumors cell-lines lysate in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG after irradiation (radiation therapy)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Miguel Alvarez, Federico Luebert
Taxonomic lists are crucial elements of vegetation-plot databases and provide the links between original entries, reference taxon views and different taxon concepts. We introduce the R package taxlist in the context of object-oriented modelling for taxonomic lists. This package provides a data structure based on species lists in Turboveg, which is a software broadly used for the storage of vegetation-plot databases and implements functions for importing and handling them prior to statistical analysis. We also present a schema for relational databases, compatible with taxlist objects and recommend its use for handling diversity records...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Esther Calvete, Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Liria Fernández-Gonzalez, Izaskun Orue, Erika Borrajo
This study examined whether exposure to family violence, both in the form of direct victimization and witnessing violence, predicted dating violence victimization in adolescents through maladaptive schemas. A sample of 933 adolescents (445 boys and 488 girls), aged between 13 and 18 (M = 15.10), participated in a three-year longitudinal study. They completed measures of exposure to family violence, maladaptive schemas of disconnection/rejection, and dating violence victimization. The findings indicate that witnessing family violence predicts the increase of dating violence victimization over time, through the mediation of maladaptive schemas in girls, but not in boys...
May 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
R A Seymour, H Wang, G Rippon, K Kessler
Mentally imagining another's perspective is a high-level social process, reliant on manipulating internal representations of the self in an embodied manner. Recently Wang et al. (2016) showed that theta-band (3-7Hz) brain oscillations within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) and brain regions coding for motor/body schema contribute to the process of perspective-taking. Using a similar paradigm, we set out to unravel the extended functional brain network in detail. Increasing the angle between self and other perspective was accompanied by longer reaction times and increases in theta power within rTPJ, right lateral pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Daniel L Rosenfeld, Anthony L Burrow
In navigating decisions about what to eat, people both construct and rely on a food-choice identity. Yet food choice is multifaceted, as people apply different dietary schemas to different types of food, engaging various domains of food-choice identity. In this paper, we focus on dietarian identity: one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors with respect to consuming or eschewing animal products (here, pertaining to red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy). First, we draw upon Rosenfeld and Burrow's (2017a) Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity in order to develop a Dietarian Identity Questionnaire (DIQ)...
May 7, 2018: Appetite
Roni Tibon, Andrea Greve, Richard Henson
Unitization refers to the creation of a new unit from previously distinct items. The concept of unitization has been used to explain how novel pairings between items can be remembered without requiring recollection, by virtue of new, item-like representations that enable familiarity-based retrieval. We tested an alternative account of unitization - a schema account - which suggests that associations between items can be rapidly assimilated into a schema. We used a common operationalization of "unitization" as the difference between two unrelated words being linked by a definition, relative to two words being linked by a sentence, during an initial study phase...
May 9, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg, Russell Rosenblatt, Stephanie Gold, Robert Burakoff, Akbar Waljee, Sameer Saini, Bruce R Schackman, Ellen Scherl, Carl Crawford
Background and Aims: Opioid use disorder (OUD) has become a public health crisis among patients with chronic disease. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are high risk for OUD because they suffer from chronic relapsing-remitting pain.  We aimed to describe the prevalence and trends in OUD-related diagnoses among hospitalized IBD patients. Methods: A retrospective study was performed using weighted Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2005-2014. Adult IBD hospital visits and OUD-related diagnoses were identified using a previously published schema...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Susan G Simpson, Giada Pietrabissa, Alessandro Rossi, Tahnee Seychell, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Calum Munro, Julian B Nesci, Gianluca Castelnuovo
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED) in a disordered eating population. Method: 573 participants with disordered eating patterns as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) completed the 190-item adapted version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI). The new SMI-ED was developed by clinicians/researchers specializing in the treatment of eating disorders, through combining items from the original SMI with a set of additional questions specifically representative of the eating disorder population...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrey Babichev, Yuri A Dabaghian
Hippocampal cognitive map-a neuronal representation of the spatial environment-is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework-the memory space-that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as "networks of interconnections among the representations of events," have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Billie de Haas, Inge Hutter
Teachers can feel uncomfortable teaching sexuality education when the content conflicts with their cultural values and beliefs. However, more research is required to understand how to resolve conflicts between teachers' values and beliefs and those implicit in comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. This study uses cultural schema theory to identify teachers' cultural schemas of teaching sexuality education and the internal conflicts arising between them. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 secondary school teachers in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda...
May 8, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Sylvia Lucas, Andrew H Ahn
There are currently no accepted therapies for posttraumatic headache (PTH). In order to meet the urgent need for effective therapies for PTH, we must continue to address fundamental gaps in our understanding of the clinical course and impact of PTH. Here we examine the existing schema used to characterize the clinical characteristics of PTH, including the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD). There remain unresolved questions about whether to classify patients based on the extent of brain injury or on clinical symptom profiles...
May 8, 2018: Headache
Melanie J Sekeres, Gordon Winocur, Morris Moscovitch
Episodic memories are multifaceted and malleable, capable of being transformed with time and experience at both the neural level and psychological level. At the neural level, episodic memories are transformed from being dependent on the hippocampus to becoming represented in neocortical structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and back again, while at the psychological level, detailed, perceptually rich memories, are transformed to ones retaining only the gist of an experience or a schema related to it...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Steven Arild Wuyts Andersen, Lars Konge, Mads Sølvsten Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Complex tasks such as surgical procedures can induce excessive cognitive load (CL), which can have a negative effect on learning, especially for novices. AIM: To investigate if repeated and distributed virtual reality (VR) simulation practice induces a lower CL and higher performance in subsequent cadaveric dissection training. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled cohort study, 37 residents in otorhinolaryngology received VR simulation training either as additional distributed practice prior to course participation (intervention) (9 participants) or as standard practice during the course (control) (28 participants)...
May 7, 2018: Medical Teacher
Paola Malerba, Maxim Bazhenov
The hippocampus is important for memory and learning, being a brain site where initial memories are formed and where sharp wave - ripples (SWR) are found, which are responsible for mapping recent memories to long-term storage during sleep-related memory replay. While this conceptual schema is well established, specific intrinsic and network-level mechanisms driving spatio-temporal patterns of hippocampal activity during sleep, and specifically controlling off-line memory reactivation are unknown. In this study, we discuss a model of hippocampal CA1-CA3 network generating spontaneous characteristic SWR activity...
April 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Steven M Weisberg, Steven A Marchette, Anjan Chatterjee
Modern spatial navigation requires fluency with multiple representational formats, including visual scenes, signs, and words. These formats convey different information. Visual scenes are rich and specific, but contain extraneous details. Arrows, as an example of signs, are schematic representations in which the extraneous details are eliminated, but analog spatial properties are preserved. Words eliminate all spatial information and convey spatial directions in a purely abstract form. How does the human brain compute spatial directions within and across these formats? To investigate this question, we conducted two experiments on men and women: a behavioral study that was preregistered, and a neuroimaging study using multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to uncover similarities and differences among representational formats...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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