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Global health, implementation science

Jae M Sevelius, Madeline B Deutsch, Robert Grant
INTRODUCTION: Globally, transgender ("trans") women are one of the key populations most disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the newest and most promising biomedical HIV prevention intervention to date. This paper reviews relevant literature to describe the current state of the science and describes the potential role of PrEP among trans women, including a discussion of unique considerations for maximizing the impact of PrEP for this vulnerable population...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Francesco Cappuccio
The evidence. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is causally related to blood pressure (BP). The higher the salt intake, the higher the BP, an effect seen since birth. A small and sustained reduction in salt intake causes a fall in BP. The evidence from controlled studies, small and large, short and long, all agree on the following: (1) salt intake is one of the major determinants of BP in populations and individuals; (2) a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP - the lower the salt the lower the BP; (3) the effect is seen in both sexes, in people of all ages and ethnic groups, and with all starting BPs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Louise Hull, Thanos Athanasiou, Stephanie Russ
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to emphasize the importance of implementation science in understanding why efforts to integrate evidence-based interventions into surgical practice frequently fail to replicate the improvements reported in early research studies. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Over the past 2 decades, numerous patient safety initiatives have been developed to improve the quality and safety of surgical care. The surgical community is now faced with translating "promising" initiatives from the research environment into clinical practice-the World Health Organization (WHO) has described this task as one of the greatest challenges facing the global health community and has identified the importance of implementation science in scaling up evidence-based interventions...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Glendon Diehl, Nicole Bradstreet, Felicia Monahan
Tasked with analyzing the effectiveness of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) global health engagements, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) used the Measures Of Effectiveness in Defense Engagement and Learning (MODEL) study to conduct a qualitative analysis of the DoD's response efforts to the Ebola pandemic in West Africa. The research aims to summarize the findings of studies that monitor and evaluate the DoD's response to the Ebola pandemic or compare the effectiveness of different DoD response activities; it further aims to identify common themes around positive and negative lessons learned and recommendations that can be applied to future DoD humanitarian assistance and disaster response efforts...
September 2016: Health Security
Jennifer Cohn, Katherine Whitehouse, Julia Tuttle, Kristin Lueck, Trang Tran
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-positive children in low-income and middle-income countries remain undiagnosed. Although HIV testing in children at health facilities is recommended by WHO, it is not well implemented. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the case-finding benefit of HIV screening in children aged 0-5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We did this systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with an a-priori protocol. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, WHO Global Index Medicus, Web of Science, Médecins Sans Frontières, Cochrane, Embase, CABS Abstracts, and LILACS databases for articles published between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2016, that reported the quantitative prevalence of HIV detected through screening in four key contexts (paediatric inpatient settings, paediatric outpatient settings, nutrition centres, and expanded programme on immunisation centres) in paediatric populations in low-income and middle-income countries...
October 2016: Lancet HIV
Francesco Cappuccio
The evidence. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is causally related to blood pressure (BP). The higher the salt intake, the higher the BP, an effect seen since birth. A small and sustained reduction in salt intake causes a fall in BP. The evidence from controlled studies, small and large, short and long, all agree on the following: (1) salt intake is one of the major determinants of BP in populations and individuals; (2) a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP - the lower the salt the lower the BP; (3) the effect is seen in both sexes, in people of all ages and ethnic groups, and with all starting BPs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Eloise Cj Carr, Emma V Briggs, Michelle Briggs, Nick Allcock, Pauline Black, Derek Jones
BACKGROUND: Studies in Europe, North America and Australasia suggest that one in five adults suffer from pain. There is increasing recognition that pain, particularly chronic pain, represents a global health burden. Many studies, including two national surveys exploring the content of undergraduate curricula for pain education, identify that documented pain education in curricula was limited and fragmentary. METHODS: The study design used a questionnaire which included an open text comment box for respondents to add 'further comments' as part of larger study previously published...
May 2016: British Journal of Pain
Dinesh Katoch, Jitendra S Sharma, Subhadip Banerjee, Rajarshi Biswas, Bhaskar Das, Debayan Goswami, Ranjit K Harwansh, C K Katiyar, Pulok K Mukherjee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Małgorzata Rajtar
Resulting from health care reform in Germany that was implemented in 2003-2004, a new medical classification system called the "Diagnosis Related Groups" (DRGs) was introduced in hospitals. According to the media, social scientists, and a few physicians interviewed in this study the policy negatively transformed the German health care system by allowing the privatization of the hospital sector consistent with the neoliberal health care model. Allegedly, this privileged economic values over the quality of health care and introduced competition between hospitals...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Philip R A Baker, Daniel P Francis, Noran N Hairi, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Wan Yuen Choo
BACKGROUND: Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Charles S Wiysonge, Leila H Abdullahi, Valantine N Ndze, Gregory D Hussey
BACKGROUND: Governments use different approaches to ensure that private for-profit healthcare services meet certain quality standards. Such government guidance, referred to as public stewardship, encompasses government policies, regulatory mechanisms, and implementation strategies for ensuring accountability in the delivery of services. However, the effectiveness of these strategies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been the subject of a systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of public sector regulation, training, or co-ordination of the private for-profit health sector in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shogo Kanamori, Akira Shibanuma, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: The 5S management method (where 5S stands for sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain) was originally implemented by manufacturing enterprises in Japan. It was then introduced to the manufacturing sector in the West and eventually applied to the health sector for organizing and standardizing the workplace. 5S has recently received attention as a potential solution for improving government health-care services in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a narrative literature review to explore its applicability to health-care facilities globally, with a focus on three aspects: (a) the context of its application, (b) its impacts, and (c) its adoption as part of government initiatives...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Bahareh Yazdizadeh, Reza Majdzadeh, Leila Janani, Farideh Mohtasham, Sima Nikooee, Abdmohammad Mousavi, Farid Najafi, Maryam Atabakzadeh, Azam Bazrafshan, Morteza Zare, Manoochehr Karami
BACKGROUND: In recent years, Iran has made significant developments in the field of health sciences. However, the question is whether this considerable increase has affected public health. The research budget has always been negligible and unsustainable in developing countries. Hence, using the Payback Framework, we conducted this study to evaluate the impact of health research in Iran. METHODS: By using a cross-sectional method and two-stage stratified cluster sampling, the projects were randomly selected from six medical universities...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Henrik Erikson, Martin Salzmann-Erikson
It is highly likely that artificial intelligence (AI) will be implemented in nursing robotics in various forms, both in medical and surgical robotic instruments, but also as different types of droids and humanoids, physical reinforcements, and also animal/pet robots. Exploring and discussing AI and robotics in nursing and health care before these tools become commonplace is of great importance. We propose that monsters in popular culture might be studied with the hope of learning about situations and relationships that generate empathic capacities in their monstrous existences...
2016: Permanente Journal
Bruno F Sunguya, Murallitharan Munisamy, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, Junko Yasuoka, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: HIV advocacy programs are partly responsible for the global community's success in reducing the burden of HIV. The rising wave of the global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has prompted the World Health Organization to espouse NCD advocacy efforts as a possible preventive strategy. HIV and NCDs share some similarities in their chronicity and risky behaviors, which are their associated etiology. Therefore, pooled evidence on the effectiveness of HIV advocacy programs and ideas shared could be replicated and applied during the conceptualization of NCD advocacy programs...
August 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Marc-Alain Widdowson, Stephanie J Schrag, Rosalind J Carter, Wendy Carr, Jennifer Legardy-Williams, Laura Gibson, Durodami R Lisk, Mohamed I Jalloh, Donald A Bash-Taqi, Samuel A Sheku Kargbo, Ayesha Idriss, Gibrilla F Deen, James B W Russell, Wendi McDonald, Alison P Albert, Michelle Basket, Amy Callis, Victoria M Carter, Kelli R Clifton Ogunsanya, Julianne Gee, Robert Pinner, Barbara E Mahon, Susan T Goldstein, Jane F Seward, Mohamed Samai, Anne Schuchat
In October 2014, the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences of the University of Sierra Leone, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and CDC joined the global effort to accelerate assessment and availability of candidate Ebola vaccines and began planning for the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE). STRIVE was an individually randomized controlled phase II/III trial to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV)...
2016: MMWR Supplements
Tarun Gera, Dheeraj Shah, Paul Garner, Marty Richardson, Harshpal S Sachdev
BACKGROUND: More than 7.5 million children younger than age five living in low- and middle-income countries die every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve quality of care by improving the delivery of a variety of curative and preventive medical and behavioral interventions at health facilities, at home, and in the community. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of programs that implement the IMCI strategy in terms of death, nutritional status, quality of care, coverage with IMCI deliverables, and satisfaction of beneficiaries...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Joseph S Fernandez-Moure
The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Gregory A Aarons, David H Sommerfeld, Benjamin H Chi, Echezona E Ezeanolue, Rachel Sturke, Laura Guay, George K Siberry
OBJECTIVE: Although tremendous gains have been made to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) globally, evidence-based practice implementation remains inconsistent in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to identify the key domains for effective prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) implementation, using a participatory mixed-methods approach. METHODS: Participants were members of the NIH-PEPFAR PMTCT Implementation Science Alliance (ISA), a platform of researchers, public-health practitioners, policymakers, and donors supported through NIH/PEPFAR...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Landon Myer, Tamsin K Phillips, Allison Zerbe, Agnes Ronan, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Stanzi M Le Roux, Kirsty Brittain, Andrea Ciaranello, Greg Petro, James A McIntyre, Elaine J Abrams
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV implementation faces significant challenges globally, particularly in the context of universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-infected pregnant women. METHODS: We describe the rationale and methods of the Maternal and Child Health-Antiretroviral Therapy (MCH-ART) study, an implementation science project examining strategies for providing HIV care and treatment to HIV-infected women who initiate ART during pregnancy and their HIV-exposed infants...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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