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Aortic stenosis guidelines

Saif Al-Najafi, Frank Sanchez, Stamatios Lerakis
Transcatheter valve interventions have emerged as one of the most important developments in structural heart disease over the past 20 years. Initially, these interventions were directed at patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk; however, their applications have extended to involve other native valves' pathologies, degenerated prosthetic valves, as well as patients of lower surgical risk. In this article, we discuss the importance of cardiac imaging in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) by exploring the current practices, guidelines, and recommendations with the supporting data...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Michael B Boffa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are an independent and causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and calcific aortic valve stenosis. This review summarizes the rationale for Lp(a) lowering and surveys relevant clinical trial data using a variety of agents capable of lowering Lp(a). RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary guidelines and recommendations outline populations of patients who should be screened for elevated Lp(a) and who might benefit from Lp(a) lowering...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Yong-Jin Kim
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valve disease, affecting nearly 5% of elderly individuals. Because most common etiology of AS is degenerative valve disease, hypertension (HT) is not rare in patients with AS. It was reported that more than 30% of patients with AS had systemic hypertension. Therefore, management of hypertension is an important issue for these patients. There are several effects of combined AS and HT. First, HT increases hemodynamic load of left ventricle and peak systolic left ventricular wall stress...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lyubov Lytvyn, Gordon H Guyatt, Veena Manja, Reed A Siemieniuk, Yuan Zhang, Thomas Agoritsas, Per O Vandvik
OBJECTIVE: To investigate patients' values and preferences regarding aortic valve replacement therapy for aortic stenosis. SETTING: Studies published after transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI) became available (2002). PARTICIPANTS: Adults with aortic stenosis who are considering or have had valve replacement, either TAVI or via surgery (surgical aortic valve replacement, SAVR). OUTCOME MEASURES: We sought quantitative measurements, or qualitative descriptions, of values and preferences...
2016: BMJ Open
Reed A Siemieniuk, Thomas Agoritsas, Veena Manja, Tahira Devji, Yaping Chang, Malgorzata M Bala, Lehana Thabane, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE:  To examine the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical replacement of an aortic valve (SAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis at low and intermediate risk of perioperative death. DESIGN:  Systematic review and meta-analysis DATA SOURCES:  Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. STUDY SELECTION:  Randomized trials of TAVI compared with SAVR in patients with a mean perioperative risk of death <8%...
September 28, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Per O Vandvik, Catherine M Otto, Reed A Siemieniuk, Rodrigo Bagur, Gordon H Guyatt, Lyubov Lytvyn, Richard Whitlock, Trond Vartdal, David Brieger, Bert Aertgeerts, Susanna Price, Farid Foroutan, Michael Shapiro, Ray Mertz, Frederick A Spencer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Steve Varvel, Joseph P McConnell, Sotirios Tsimikas
OBJECTIVE: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a causal, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis. We aimed to define the prevalence and patient thresholds of elevated Lp(a) levels in the United States. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We analyzed Lp(a) levels in 532 359 subjects from 2 data sets: (1) in 531 144 subjects from a referral laboratory and (2) in 915 patients from a tertiary referral center. Lp(a) mass levels were measured by immunoturbidometric assays in both centers and expressed as mg/dL...
September 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yong-Jin Kim
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valve disease, affecting nearly 5% of elderly individuals. Because most common etiology of AS is degenerative valve disease, hypertension (HT) is not rare in patients with AS. It was reported that more than 30% of patients with AS had systemic hypertension. Therefore, management of hypertension is an important issue for these patients. There are several effects of combined AS and HT. First, HT increases hemodynamic load of left ventricle and peak systolic left ventricular wall stress...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Luciana Thiago, Selma Rumiko Tsuji, Jonathan Nyong, Maria Es Puga, Aecio Ft Gois, Cristiane R Macedo, Orsine Valente, Álvaro N Atallah
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the USA and Europe. Aortic valve stenosis is considered similar to atherosclerotic disease. Some studies have evaluated statins for aortic valve stenosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus...
September 5, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Samantha L Freeze, Benjamin J Landis, Stephanie M Ware, Benjamin M Helm
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect and falls in the spectrum of left-sided heart defects, also known as left ventricular outflow tract obstructive (LVOTO) defects. BAV is often identified in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals, but it is associated with serious long term health risks including progressive aortic valve disease (stenosis or regurgitation) and thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. BAV and other LVOTO defects have high heritability. Although recommendations for cardiac screening of BAV in at-risk relatives exist, there are no standard guidelines for providing genetic counseling to patients and families with BAV...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Chirag Bavishi, Kiruthika Balasundaram, Edgar Argulian
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the evidence base for the 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines for severe aortic stenosis (SAS) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction by comparing the natural history of the disease in subgroups of low-gradient (LG) aortic stenosis patients with high-gradient (HG) patients. BACKGROUND: The 2014 AHA/ACC valvular disease guidelines recommend estimation of stroke volume index by echocardiography in patients with suspected LG SAS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction...
August 11, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Kinza Sentissi, Mandeep S Sawhney, Douglas Pleskow, Paul Sepe, Jose M Mella, Benjamin Kwittken, Gyanprakash Ketwaroo, Balachundhar Subramaniam
In this prospective observational study, conducted at an academic medical center, we evaluated the feasibility of performing a basic transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) technology to determine what cardiac structures could be assessed. This may be potentially beneficial during hemodynamic emergencies in the endoscopy suite resulting from hypovolemia, depressed ventricular function, aortic dissection, pericardial effusions, or aortic stenosis. Of the 20 patients enrolled, 18 underwent EUS with a linear echoendoscope for standard clinical indications followed by a cardiac assessment performed under the guidance of a TEE-certified cardiac anesthesiologist...
September 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
F Vogt, S Wicklein, K Singler, S Pfeiffer, T Fischlein, J Schwab, M Pauschinger, J Jessl
The treatment of severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis by conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) or by transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has a good perinterventional prognosis even for patients of advanced age. Having a heart team select the best management strategies based on current guidelines for each individual patient is essential for success. Especially in elderly and increasingly multimorbid patients with sometimes severe preconditions, the detection of functional deficits is relevant not only for the mortality but also for perioperative and postoperative complications as well as the functional outcome...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Raphaël P Martins, Vincent Galand, Edouard Colette, Nathalie Behar, Dominique Pavin, Christophe Leclercq, Jean-Claude Daubert, Philippe Mabo
Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are currently recommended for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation since the publication of the 4 major pivotal trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of factor IIa and factor Xa inhibitors. The definition of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is unclear, varying from one trial to another and even between North American and European guidelines, which is a source of uncertainties in clinical practice. However, many patients with atrial fibrillation present signs of valvular involvement, and clarification of this term is needed to not deny NOACs to patients based on the wrong perception that they may have valvular atrial fibrillation...
August 2016: American Heart Journal
Sanjeewa Kularatna, Joshua Byrnes, Merehau Cindy Mervin, Paul A Scuffham
OBJECTIVES: Made available since 2002, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a minimally invasive new intervention which can provide significant survival improvement to patients with aortic stenosis. However, TAVI is expensive and currently not reimbursed by many governments. Some governments and institutions have been conducting health technology assessments (HTAs) to inform their reimbursement decisions. The aim of the present study is to review HTAs that have relied on a cost-effectiveness analysis to inform reimbursement decisions of TAVI...
January 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Kevin O Maher, James S Tweddell
OBJECTIVES: In this review, we will discuss aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis. We will review the etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology, presentation, and treatment of aortic and mitral valve disease. Age and lesion specific treatments are outlined based on the severity of valve disease with an aim at long-term preservation of left ventricular function. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE and PubMed. CONCLUSIONS: Mitral and aortic valve disease leads to unique hemodynamic burdens that can impact left ventricular function, quality of life, and longevity...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Tarique Al Musa, Sven Plein, John P Greenwood
Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease in the western world with a prevalence expected to double within the next 50 years. International guidelines advocate the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as an investigative tool, both to guide diagnosis and to direct optimal treatment. CMR is the reference standard for quantifying both left and right ventricular volumes and mass, which is essential to assess the impact of AS upon global cardiac function. Given the ability to image any structure in any plane, CMR offers many other diagnostic strengths including full visualisation of valvular morphology, direct planimetry of orifice area, the quantification of stenotic jets and in particular, accurate quantification of valvular regurgitation...
June 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Ana Galrinho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
Sveeta Badiani, Jet van Zalen, Thomas A Treibel, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, James C Moon, Guy Lloyd
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence. It is increasingly clear that it is also a disease of the left ventricle (LV) rather than purely the aortic valve. The transition from left ventricular hypertrophy to fibrosis results in the eventual adverse effects on systolic and diastolic function. Appropriate selection of patients for aortic valve intervention is crucial, and current guidelines recommend aortic valve replacement in severe AS with symptoms or in asymptomatic patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50 %...
August 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Giuseppe Gargiulo, Marco Valgimigli
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a valid alternative to surgical replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Bleeding and cerebral ischemic events remain frequent complications of this procedure during the periprocedural period and at follow-up with a severe impact on survival. Therefore, there is growing interest towards the optimal antithrombotic therapy to manage patients undergoing TAVI. International guidelines support the adoption of a dual antiplatelet therapy after TAVI, although there is heterogeneity in the suggested duration and the concomitant association with an oral anticoagulant in patients with specific indications, mainly those with atrial fibrillation...
June 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
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