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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225830/ex-vivo-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-from-donors-on-suppressive-art-can-lead-to-sustained-production-of-infectious-hiv-1-from-a-subset-of-infected-cells
#1
John K Bui, Elias K Halvas, Elizabeth Fyne, Michele D Sobolewski, Dianna Koontz, Wei Shao, Brian Luke, Feiyu F Hong, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The fate of HIV-infected cells after reversal of proviral latency is not well characterized. Simonetti, et al. recently showed that CD4+ T-cells containing intact proviruses can clonally expand in vivo and produce low-level infectious viremia. We hypothesized that reversal of HIV latency by activation of CD4+ T-cells can lead to the expansion of a subset of virus-producing cells rather than their elimination. We established an ex vivo cell culture system involving stimulation of CD4+ T-cells from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PMA/ionomycin (day 1-7), followed by rest (day 7-21), and then repeat stimulation (day 21-28), always in the presence of high concentrations of raltegravir and efavirenz to effectively block new cycles of viral replication...
February 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225575/25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-suppresses-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-and-contributes-to-rapid-virological-response-of-treatment-efficacy
#2
Jee-Fu Huang, Yu-Min Ko, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Chia-Yen Dai, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Ching-I Huang, Hua-Ling Yang, Shu-Chi Wang, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Chern Chen, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang
AIM: 25-hydroxy vitamin D (Vit D) plays a role in treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CHC). We aimed to clarify HCV replication is inhibited by Vit D in HCV replicon cells. Clinical implication was assessed for rapid virological response (RVR) and sustained virological response (SVR) among those patients receiving anti-viral therapy. METHODS: Cell survival and viral loads were observed in Con1 (genotype-1b) and J6/JFH (genotype-2a) cells treated with different doses of Vit D...
February 22, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225572/daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-for-genotype-1b-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Chisa Kondo, Masanori Atsukawa, Akihito Tsubota, Noritomo Shimada, Hiroshi Abe, Toru Asano, Kai Yoshizawa, Tomomi Okubo, Yoshimichi Chuganji, Yoshio Aizawa, Etsuko Iio, Yasuhito Tanaka, Katsuhiko Iwakiri
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir and asunaprevir combined therapy in genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: In a multicenter collaborative study, 249 patients received 60 mg of daclatasvir (NS5A inhibitor) once a day and 100 mg of asunaprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) twice a day for 24 weeks between September 2014 and September 2015 and were subjected to this analysis...
February 22, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225504/paraneoplastic-pemphigus-associated-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-a-case-report
#4
Qu Jiang, Bin Hong Zhang
RATIONALE: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune syndrome associated with neoplasms. The treatment approach principally includes suppressing the immunity, but its therapeutic effect is not satisfying. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of paraneoplastic pemphigus linked to chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a 63-year-old man. DIAGNOSES: At first, the patient was diagnosed with pityriasis rose caused by a viral infection. Biopsies for histology and immunofluorescence showed PNP, was treated with immunosuppressive and antiinfective therapy...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224486/human-herpes-virus-6-encephalitis-causing-severe-anterograde-amnesia-associated-with-rituximab-azathioprine-and-prednisolone-combination-therapy-for-dermatomyositis
#5
Thomas Baumer, Charlie Fry, Sebastian Luppe, Harsha Gunawardena, Kasia Sieradzan
Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation is a well-recognised complication following haematological stem cell transplantation, but it is novel in the context of combination immunomodulatory therapy for autoimmune disease. We report a case of severe anterograde amnesia caused by HHV-6 encephalitis in a young female patient on rituximab, azathioprine and prednisolone for dermatomyositis (DM). The use of targeted biologic treatments for systemic autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is increasing, particularly when refractory to conventional management...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224470/three-patients-treated-with-sofosbuvir-plus-ledipasvir-for-recurrent-hepatitis-c-after-liver-transplantation
#6
Tomokazu Kawaoka, Michio Imamura, Kei Morio, Yuki Nakamura, Masataka Tsuge, Clair Nelson Hayes, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Hiroshi Aikata, Hidenori Ochi, Kouhei Ishiyama, Hideki Ohdan, Kazuaki Chayama
We previously reported results of interferon (IFN)-free daclatasvir and asunaprevir for the treatment of recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection after liver transplantation (LT). Here we report three patients who achieved viral response with no effect on the blood concentrations of immunosuppressive agents following sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir treatment. The first patient was a 68-year-old female with HCV-related liver cirrhosis who failed to respond to pegylated-IFN and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) after living donor LT...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224437/baseline-hbv-load-increases-the-risk-of-anti-tuberculous-drug-induced-hepatitis-flares-in-patients-with-tuberculosis
#7
Chun-Hui Zhu, Man-Zhi Zhao, Guang Chen, Jun-Ying Qi, Jian-Xin Song, Qin Ning, Dong Xu
Hepatitis associated anti-tuberculous treatment (HATT) has been a main obstacle in managing patients co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Therefore, we evaluated the factors related to the severity of adverse effects during HATT, especially those associated with liver failure. A retrospective study was carried out at Tongji Hospital from 2007 to 2012. Increases in serum transaminase levels of >3, 5, and 10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) were used to define liver damage as mild, moderate, and severe, respectively...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224322/acceptability-of-early-antiretroviral-therapy-among-south-african-women
#8
Nigel Garrett, Emily Norman, Kerry Leask, Nivashnee Naicker, Villeshni Asari, Nelisile Majola, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim
WHO guidelines recommend immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all individuals at HIV diagnosis regardless of CD4 count, but concerns remain about potential low uptake or poor adherence among healthy patients with high CD4 counts, especially in resource-limited settings. This study assessed the acceptability of earlier treatment among HIV-positive South African women, median age at enrollment 25 (IQR 22-30), in a 10 year prospective cohort study by (i) describing temporal CD4 count trends at initiation in relation to WHO guidance, (ii) virological suppression rates post-ART initiation at different CD4 count thresholds, and (iii) administration of a standardized questionnaire...
February 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224132/dataset-of-longitudinal-analysis-of-tear-cytokine-levels-cd4-cd8-counts-and-hiv-viral-load-in-dry-eye-patients-with-hiv-infection
#9
Praveen Kumar Balne, Rupesh Agrawal, Veonice Bijin Au, Bernett Lee, Eileen Loo, Louis Tong, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Stephen C Teoh, John Connolly, Petrina Tan
The data presented in this article shows the longitudinal analysis of tear fluid cytokine profiles, blood CD4 and CD8 counts and HIV viral load in 34 dry eye patients with HIV infection during the HAART therapy. Clinical samples were collected from HIV patients with dry eye disease at the time of presentation to the clinic (visit 1), three months (visit 2) and 6 months (visit 3) after the presentation. At each time point tear samples were evaluated for 41 cytokines using Luminex bead based multiplex assay and blood samples were tested for HIV viral load and CD4 and CD8 counts...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224112/intravenous-vitamin-c-as-adjunctive-therapy-for-enterovirus-rhinovirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#10
Alpha A Fowler Iii, Christin Kim, Lawrence Lepler, Rajiv Malhotra, Orlando Debesa, Ramesh Natarajan, Bernard J Fisher, Aamer Syed, Christine DeWilde, Anna Priday, Vigneshwar Kasirajan
We report a case of virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with parenteral vitamin C in a patient testing positive for enterovirus/rhinovirus on viral screening. This report outlines the first use of high dose intravenous vitamin C as an interventional therapy for ARDS, resulting from enterovirus/rhinovirus respiratory infection. From very significant preclinical research performed at Virginia Commonwealth University with vitamin C and with the very positive results of a previously performed phase I safety trial infusing high dose vitamin C intravenously into patients with severe sepsis, we reasoned that infusing identical dosing to a patient with ARDS from viral infection would be therapeutic...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223719/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-pruritus-etiopathogenesis-and-therapeutic-strategies
#11
EDITORIAL
Youssef Alhmada, Denis Selimovic, Fadi Murad, Sarah-Lilly Hassan, Youssef Haikel, Mossaad Megahed, Matthias Hannig, Mohamed Hassan
In addition to its contributing role in the development of chronic liver diseases, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic manifestations, particularly, cutaneous-based disorders including those with pruritus as a symptom. Pruritus is frequently associated with the development of chronic liver diseases such as cholestasis and chronic viral infection, and the accumulation of bile acids in patients' sera and tissues as a consequence of liver damage is considered the main cause of pruritus...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223472/overexpression-of-sarcoendoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-atpase-2a-promotes-cardiac-sympathetic-neurotransmission-via-abnormal-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-ca-2-regulation
#12
Julia Shanks, Neil Herring, Errin Johnson, Kun Liu, Dan Li, David J Paterson
Reduced cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling and downregulation of the SERCA2a (sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a) is associated with heart failure. This has led to viral transgene upregulation of SERCA2a in cardiomyocytes as a treatment. We hypothesized that SERCA2a gene therapy expressed under a similar promiscuous cytomegalovirus promoter could also affect the cardiac sympathetic neural axis and promote sympathoexcitation. Stellate neurons were isolated from 90 to 120 g male, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar Kyoto, and spontaneously hypertensive rats...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223458/mutation-of-the-n-terminal-region-of-chikungunya-virus-capsid-protein-implications-for-vaccine-design
#13
Adam Taylor, Xiang Liu, Ali Zaid, Lucas Y H Goh, Jody Hobson-Peters, Roy A Hall, Andres Merits, Suresh Mahalingam
Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223351/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-proteome-analysis-of-hiv-1-infected-human-cd4-t-cells
#14
Johannes Nemeth, Valentina Vongrad, Karin J Metzner, Victoria Strouvelle, Rainer Weber, Patrick Pedrioli, Ruedi Aebersold, Huldrych Guenthard, Ben C Collins
Host directed therapies against HIV-1 are thought to be critical for long term containment of the HIV-1 pandemic but remain elusive. Since HIV-1 infects and manipulates important effectors of both the innate and adaptive immune system, identifying modulations of the host cell systems in humans during HIV-1 infection may be crucial for the development of immune based therapies. Here, we quantified the changes of the proteome in human CD4+ T cells upon HIV-1 infection, both in vitro and in vivo. A SWATH-MS approach was used to measure the proteome of human primary CD4+ T cells infected with HIV-1 in vitro as well as CD4+ T cells from HIV-1 infected patients with paired samples on and off antiretroviral treatment...
February 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223128/a-screening-assay-for-the-identification-of-host-cell-requirements-and-antiviral-targets-for-hepatitis-d-virus-infection
#15
Bettina Buchmann, Katinka Döhner, Thomas Schirdewahn, Beate Sodeik, Michael P Manns, Heiner Wedemeyer, Sandra Ciesek, Thomas von Hahn
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a minimalistic satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV/HDV co-infection, i.e. "hepatitis D", is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. No effective therapy for HDV infection is available partly due to the fact that HDV is a highly host-dependent virus devoid of any potentially drugable enzyme encoded in its small genome. In this study we present a semi-automated method to evaluate HDV infection and replication under the influence of different drugs. We utilized a Huh-7/hNTCP cell culture based system in a 96-well plate format, an automated microscope and image acquisition as well as analysis with the CellProfiler software to quantify the impact of these drugs on HDV infection...
February 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222746/c-terminal-region-of-apoptin-affects-chicken-anemia-virus-replication-and-virulence
#16
REVIEW
Yongqiang Wang, Xiuqing Song, Honglei Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Yonghao Hu, Yulong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Liting Qin, Huan Lin, Li Gao, Shuai Yao, Chunyan Han, Xiaomei Wang, Hualan Chen
BACKGROUND: Chicken anemia virus (CAV) causes anemia and immune suppression, which are important diseases in the poultry industry. CAV VP3, also referred as 'apoptin', has been shown to selectively kill tumor cells, raising great hopes for its utilization as an anticancer therapy. The ability of apoptin to induce apoptosis is closely related to its nuclear localization. The C-terminal region of apoptin contains a bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLS), and a nuclear export signal (NES) is located between the arms of the NLS...
February 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222702/the-virological-durability-of-first-line-art-among-hiv-positive-adult-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-without-virological-monitoring-a-retrospective-analysis-of-dart-trial-data
#17
David I Dolling, Ruth L Goodall, Michael Chirara, James Hakim, Peter Nkurunziza, Paula Munderi, David Eram, Dinah Tumukunde, Moira J Spyer, Charles F Gilks, Pontiano Kaleebu, David T Dunn, Deenan Pillay
BACKGROUND: Few low-income countries have virological monitoring widely available. We estimated the virological durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) after five years of follow-up among adult Ugandan and Zimbabwean patients in the DART study, in which virological assays were conducted retrospectively. METHODS: DART compared clinically driven monitoring with/without routine CD4 measurement. Annual plasma viral load was measured on 1,762 patients. Analytical weights were calculated based on the inverse probability of sampling...
February 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221100/intracellular-degradation-and-localization-of-ns1-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-affect-its-protective-properties
#18
Yulia V Kuzmenko, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Anastasia S Shevtsova, Liubov L Chernokhaeva, Anastasia A Latanova, Olga V Preobrazhenskaia, Andrey V Timofeev, Galina G Karganova, Vadim L Karpov
Currently, many DNA vaccines against infectious diseases are in clinical trials; however, their efficacy needs to be improved. The potency of DNA immunogen can be optimized by targeting technologies. In the current study, to increase the efficacy of NS1 encoded by plasmid, proteasome targeting was applied. NS1 variants with or without translocation sequence and with ornithine decarboxylase as a signal of proteasomal degradation were tested for expression, localization, protein turnover, proteasomal degradation and protection properties...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220872/human-enterovirus-71-protein-interaction-network-prompts-antiviral-drug-repositioning
#19
Lu Han, Kang Li, Chaozhi Jin, Jian Wang, Qingjun Li, Qiling Zhang, Qiyue Cheng, Jing Yang, Xiaochen Bo, Shengqi Wang
As a predominant cause of human hand, foot, and mouth disease, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to serious diseases and result in severe consequences that threaten public health and cause widespread panic. Although the systematic identification of physical interactions between viral proteins and host proteins provides initial information for the recognition of the cellular mechanism involved in viral infection and the development of new therapies, EV71-host protein interactions have not been explored...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220718/the-big-imitator-strikes-again-a-case-report-of-neurosyphilis-in-a-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-hiv
#20
Sévérine de Bruijn, Chris Kenyon, Nicolas Léonard, Erika Vlieghe
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is the result of an infection of the central nervous system caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Its clinical presentation includes meningovascular syphilis, tabes dorsalis, and dementia paralytica, resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as psychosis, Parkinsonism, and depression. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male was admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of social withdrawal and self-neglect, indicative of a major depression...
February 21, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
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