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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931222/the-role-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-vasculopathy-in-the-etiology-of-stroke
#1
Laura A Benjamin, Theresa J Allain, Henry Mzinganjira, Myles D Connor, Colin Smith, Sebastian Lucas, Elizabeth Joekes, Sam Kampondeni, Karen Chetcuti, Ian Turnbull, Mark Hopkins, Steve Kamiza, Elizabeth L Corbett, Robert S Heyderman, Tom Solomon
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a recognized risk factor for stroke among young populations, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of HIV-related ischemic stroke to gain insight into the disease mechanisms. Methods: We conducted a prospective, in-depth analysis of adult ischemic stroke patients presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, in 2011...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931091/mt-cell-responses-targeting-hiv-nef-uniquely-correlate-with-infected-cell-frequencies-after-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K McMahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones
HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930586/drug-repurposing-approaches-to-fight-dengue-virus-infection-and-related-diseases
#3
Lorenzo Botta, Mirko Rivara, Valentina Zuliani, Marco Radi
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically distinct serotypes of Dengue Virus (DENV), namely DENV1-4 and is currently considered the most important arthropod-born viral disease in the world. An effective antiviral therapy to treat Dengue Virus infection is still missing and a number of replicative cycle inhibitors are currently under study. Considering the rapid spreading of DENV and the common timeframe required for bringing a new drug on the market, the repurposing of approved drugs used for different diseases to identify novel inhibitors of this pathogen represents an attractive approach for a rapid therapeutic intervention...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930153/selective-hdl-raising-human-apo-a-i-gene-therapy-counteracts-cardiac-hypertrophy-reduces-myocardial-fibrosis-and-improves-cardiac-function-in-mice-with-chronic-pressure-overload
#4
Ruhul Amin, Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Joseph Pierre Aboumsallem, Mudit Mishra, Frank Jacobs, Bart De Geest
Epidemiological studies support an independent inverse association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and heart failure incidence. The effect of selective HDL-raising adeno-associated viral serotype 8-human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (AAV8-A-I) gene transfer on cardiac remodeling induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was evaluated in C57BL/6 low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Septal wall thickness and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were reduced by 16.5% (p < 0...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928736/selective-igm-deficiency-an-underestimated-primary-immunodeficiency
#5
REVIEW
Sudhir Gupta, Ankmalika Gupta
Although selective IgM deficiency (SIGMD) was described almost five decades ago, it was largely ignored as a primary immunodeficiency. SIGMD is defined as serum IgM levels below two SD of mean with normal serum IgG and IgA. It appears to be more common than originally realized. SIGMD is observed in both children and adults. Patients with SIGMD may be asymptomatic; however, approximately 80% of patients with SIGMD present with infections with bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. There is an increased frequency of allergic and autoimmune diseases in SIGMD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928217/peptides-derived-from-evolutionarily-conserved-domains-in-beclin1-and-beclin2-enhance-the-entry-of-lentiviral-vectors-into-human-cells
#6
Saliha Majdoul, Jérémie Cosette, Ababacar K Seye, Eric Bernard, Sophie Frin, Nathalie Holic, Nathalie Chazal, Laurence Briant, Lucile Espert, Anne Galy, David Fenard
Autophagy-related proteins such as Beclin1 are involved in an array of complex processes including antiviral responses, and may also modulate the efficiency of gene therapy viral vectors. The TatBeclin1 (TB1) peptide has been reported as an autophagy-inducing factor inhibiting the replication of pathogens such as HIV-1. Yet, autophagy-related proteins are also essential for the early steps of HIV-1 infection. Therefore, we examined here the effects of the Beclin1-evolutionarily conserved domain in TB1 on viral transduction and autophagy in single-round HIV infection or with nonreplicative HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectors (LV)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927823/t-cell-therapies-for-human-polyomavirus-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Sarah I Davies, Pawel Muranski
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings...
September 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927089/chronic-radiation-exposure-of-neuroblastoma-cells-reduces-nmyc-copy-number
#8
Manu Gnanamony, Reuben Antony, Karen S Fernández, Libes Jaime, Julian Lin, Pushpa A Joseph, Christopher S Gondi
Neuroblastoma accounts for >15% of cancer-associated mortalities of children in the USA. Despite aggressive treatment regimens, the long-term survival for these children remains <40%. The identification of v-Myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog (nMYC) gene amplification during diagnosis is associated with poor prognosis in neuroblastoma. There are limited studies examining changes in nMYC copy numbers in response to therapy and its biological effect on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of radiation on nMYC expression and amplification status in high-risk neuroblastoma...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926997/effects-of-cellular-methylation-on-transgene-expression-and-site-specific-integration-of-adeno-associated-virus
#9
Diptiman Chanda, Jonathan A Hensel, Jerome T Higgs, Rajat Grover, Niroop Kaza, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic event that affects not only cellular gene expression but that also has the potential to influence bacterial and viral DNA in their host-dependent functions. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome contains a high degree of CpG sequences capable of methylation in its terminal repeat sequences, which are the sole elements retained in AAV-based vectors used in gene therapy. The present study determined the influence of methylation status of the host cell on wild type (wt) AAV integration and recombinant (r) AAV transgene expression in HeLa cells...
September 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926641/impact-of-monotherapy-on-hiv-1-reservoir-immune-activation-and-co-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#10
Maria Raffaella Petrara, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Riccardo Freguja, Francesco Carmona, Silvia Sanavia, Marisa Zanchetta, Paola Del Bianco, Anita De Rossi
OBJECTIVES: Although monotherapy (mART) effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the same period of time were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926631/correction-randomized-controlled-trials-to-define-viral-load-thresholds-for-cytomegalovirus-pre-emptive-therapy
#11
Paul D Griffiths, Emily Rothwell, Mohammed Raza, Stephanie Wilmore, Tomas Doyle, Mark Harber, James O'Beirne, Stephen Mackinnon, Gareth Jones, Douglas Thorburn, Frank Mattes, Gaia Nebbia, Sowsan Atabani, Colette Smith, Anna Stanton, Vincent C Emery
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163722.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926399/natural-killer-cells-in-hiv-1-infection-and-therapy
#12
Joanna Mikulak, Ferdinando Oriolo, Elisa Zaghi, Clara Di Vito, Domenico Mavilio
: Natural killer (NK) cells are important effectors of innate immunity playing a key role in the eradication and clearance of viral infections. Over the recent years, several studies have shown that HIV-1 pathologically changes NK cell homeostasis and hampers their antiviral effector functions. Moreover, high levels of chronic HIV-1 viremia markedly impair those NK cell regulatory features that normally regulate the cross-talks between innate and adaptive immune responses. These pathogenic events take place early in the infection and are associated with a pathologic redistribution of NK cell subsets that includes the expansion of anergic CD56 NK cells with an aberrant repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926398/association-of-a-3-untranslated-region-polymorphism-in-pcsk9-with-hiv-viral-load-and-cd4-levels-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infected-women
#13
Mark H Kuniholm, Hua Liang, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Seble Kassaye, Marek Nowicki, Beverly E Sha, Emilia J Pawlowski, Stephen J Gange, Bradley E Aouizerat, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Michael I Bukrinsky, Vinayaka R Prasad
OBJECTIVE: To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: We examined 2,050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1,066 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve women...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925950/targeting-host-cell-surface-nucleolin-for-rsv-therapy-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
Peter Mastrangelo, Michael J Norris, Wenming Duan, Edward G Barrett, Theo J Moraes, Richard G Hegele
Nucleolin (NCL) has been reported as a cellular receptor for the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We studied the effects of re-purposing AS1411, an anti-cancer compound that binds cell surface NCL, as a possible novel strategy for RSV therapy in vitro and in vivo. AS1411 was administered to RSV-infected cultures of non-polarized (HEp-2) and polarized (MDCK) epithelial cells and to virus-infected mice and cotton rats. Results of in vitro experiments showed that AS1411, used in micromolar concentrations, was associated with decreases in the number of virus-positive cells...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924449/outcomes-after-sofosbuvir-containing-regimens-for-hepatitis-c-virus-in-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis-a-real-world-study
#15
Fanpu Ji, Wenjun Wang, Shuangsuo Dang, Shengbang Wang, Burong Li, Dan Bai, Wenxue Zhao, Hong Deng, Changyin Tian, Zongfang Li
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals have been used for decompensated cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the benefits in Chinese patients with decompensated cirrhosis are unclear. METHODS: Thirty patients with HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis were administered sofosbuvir-containing regimens at our hospital between April and December 2015. The efficacy and safety of the treatments was determined by sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR 12), change of liver function and adverse events...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923622/enzyme-linked-immunospot-assay-as-a-complementary-method-to-assess-and-monitor-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-on-pre-emptive-antiviral-therapy-a-single-center-experience
#16
E Favi, R Santangelo, S Iesari, M Morandi, G E Marcovecchio, E M Trecarichi, M P Salerno, M Ferraresso, F Citterio, J Romagnoli
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease represents a major cause of post-transplantation morbidity and mortality. To estimate the risk of infection and monitor response to antiviral therapy, current guidelines suggest combination of viral load monitoring with direct assessment of CMV-specific immune response. We used enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) for the evaluation of CMV-specific T-cell response in kidney transplant recipients with CMV viremia and investigated how information gained could help manage CMV infection...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923034/an-implementation-science-protocol-of-the-women-s-health-coop-in-healthcare-settings-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-stepped-wedge-design
#17
Wendee M Wechsberg, Jacqueline W Ndirangu, Ilene S Speizer, William A Zule, Winnifred Gumula, Courtney Peasant, Felicia A Browne, Laura Dunlap
BACKGROUND: HIV persists as a public health emergency in South Africa, especially among women of childbearing age. In response to the HIV epidemic, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS has put forth the 90-90-90 global goals to achieve an AIDS-free generation by 2020. This goal aspires to have 90% of people living with HIV diagnosed; 90% of those who test positive on sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 90% of those on ART be virally suppressed. Ensuring access to ART is an important first step in reducing HIV incidence, especially among vulnerable populations such as women who use substances and bear the burden of HIV in South Africa...
September 18, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922440/real-life-use-of-3-direct-acting-antiviral-regimen-in-a-large-cohort-of-patients-with-genotype-1b-hcv-compensated-cirrhosis
#18
Liana Gheorghe, Speranta Iacob, Manuela Curescu, Ciprian Brisc, Cristina Cijevschi, Florin Caruntu, Carol Stanciu, Iulia Simionov, Ioan Sporea, Cristian Gheorghe, Razvan Iacob, Victoria Arama, Roxana Sirli, Anca Trifan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/ritonavir/Dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r+DSV) is one of the elective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) recommended by international guidelines and the only one covered by the National Insurance System in Romania until November 2016. Our aim was to present the first prospective Romanian cohort evaluating the effectiveness and safety in clinical practice of this 3DAA combination in patients with HCV genotype-1b Child A liver cirrhosis. METHODS: 681 patients received OBV/PTV/r+DSV+RBV for 12 weeks and were assessed clinically and biologically at baseline, week 4, 8, 12 (end of treatment, EOT), and 12 weeks after therapy (sustained viral response, SVR)...
September 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922411/cytokine-induced-killer-cell-delivery-enhances-the-antitumor-activity-of-oncolytic-reovirus
#19
Xing Zhao, Weiwei Ouyang, Cariad Chester, Shiqi Long, Nianxue Wang, Zhixu He
Oncolytic viruses (OV) have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic modality in cancer treatment. OV selectively infect and kill tumor cells, while sparing untransformed cells. The direct cytotoxic effects combined with the capacity to trigger an immune response make OV an appealing combination partner in the burgeoning field of cancer immunotherapy. One of the leading OV therapeutic candidates is the double-stranded RNA virus reovirus. In order to improve the oncolytic activity of reovirus and allow for systemic administration despite the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells were explored as cell carriers for reovirus delivery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921749/functional-specific-t-cell-expansion-after-first-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-predicts-viremia-control-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#20
Miriam Ciáurriz, Lorea Beloki, Amaya Zabalza, Eva Bandrés, Cristina Mansilla, Estela Pérez-Valderrama, Mercedes Lachén, Mercedes Rodríguez-Calvillo, Natalia Ramírez, Eduardo Olavarría
BACKGROUND: The use of preemptive antiviral therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients might result in over-treatment, inducing drug-related toxicity and viral resistance. A search for predictive markers is needed, to determine requirement for antiviral therapy. Clinical follow-up, in combination with the use of streptamers (STs) and cytokine-intracellular staining, could help to identify patients at high risk for CMV reactivations...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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