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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532134/assessing-the-efficacy-of-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment-for-hiv-patients-failing-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-iran-a-cohort-study
#1
Mehrnaz Rasooli-Nejad, Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Ladan Abbasian, Zahra Bayat Jozani, Sara Ahsani-Nasab, Banafsheh Moradmand Badie, Afsaneh Pargar, Gholamreza Esmaeeli Djavid
There are limited documents about HIV patients switched to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy of second-line ART for HIV patients following first-line ART failure. This was a cohort study of HIV/AIDS patients with first-line ART treatment failure switched to second-line ART between January 2004 and March 2014, who followed for at least 12 months after switching. Fifty of studied patients (85%) were treated with regimens containing lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) and nine of them (15%) treated with other regimes...
April 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532005/non-viral-strategies-for-ocular-gene-delivery
#2
REVIEW
Ana V Oliveira, Ana M Rosa da Costa, Gabriela A Silva
The success of gene therapy relies on efficient gene transfer and stable transgene expression. The in vivo efficiency is determined by the delivery vector, route of administration, therapeutic gene, and target cells. While some requirements are common to several strategies, others depend on the target disease and transgene product. Consequently, it is unlikely that a single system is suitable for all applications. This review examines current gene therapy strategies, focusing on non-viral approaches and the use of natural polymers with the eye, and particularly the retina, as their gene delivery target...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531553/hiv-1-viral-load-measurement-in-venous-blood-and-fingerprick-blood-using-abbott-realtime-hiv-1-dbs-assay
#3
Ning Tang, Vihanga Pahalawatta, Andrea Frank, Zowie Bagley, Raquel Viana, John Lampinen, Gregor Leckie, Shihai Huang, Klara Abravaya, Carole L Wallis
BACKGROUND: HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530287/microfluidic-self-assembly-of-folate-targeted-monomolecular-sirna-lipid-nanoparticles
#4
R Krzysztoń, B Salem, D J Lee, G Schwake, E Wagner, J O Rädler
Non-viral delivery of nucleic acids for therapies based on RNA interference requires a rational design and optimal self-assembly strategies. Nucleic acid particles need to be small, stable and functional in terms of selective cell uptake and controlled release of encapsulated nucleic acids. Here we report on small (∼38 nm) monomolecular nucleic acid/lipid particles (mNALPs) that contain single molecules of short double-stranded oligonucleotides covered by a tight, highly curved lipid bilayer. The particles consist of DOPE, DOTAP, DOPC and DSPE-PEG(2000) and are assembled with 21 bp double-stranded DNA or small interfering RNA by solvent exchange on a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip...
May 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530135/prolonged-expression-of-secreted-enzymes-in-dogs-after-liver-directed-delivery-of-i-sleeping-beauty-i-transposons-implications-for-non-viral-gene-therapy-of-systemic-disease
#5
Elena L Aronovich, Kendra Anne Hyland, Bryan C Hall, Jason B Bell, Erik R Olson, Myra Urness Rusten, David W Hunter, N Matthew Ellinwood, R Scott McIvor, Perry B Hackett
The non-viral, integrating Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is efficient in treating systemic monogenic disease in mice including hemophilias A and B caused by deficiency of blood clotting factors and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and VII caused by α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) and β-glucuronidase (GUSB) deficiency, respectively. We recently reported modified approaches of the hydrodynamics-based procedure to deliver transposons to the liver in dogs. Using the transgenic canine reporter secreted alkaline phosphatase (cSEAP), we demonstrated transgenic protein in the plasma for up to six weeks post-infusion...
May 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530128/in-vivo-endocrine-secretion-of-prostacyclin-following-expression-of-a-cox-1-pgis-fusion-protein-in-the-salivary-glands-of-rats-via-non-viral-gene-therapy
#6
Zhimin Wang, Raymond L Benza, Lee Zourelias, Angela Sanguino, Ramaz Geguchadze, Kelly J Shields, Changgong Wu, Kristin B Highland, Michael J Passineau
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that culminates in right heart failure and death. Prostacyclin(PGI2) and its derivatives are effective treatments for PAH when administered as continuous parenteral infusions. This treatment paradigm requires medical sophistication, and patients are at risk for complications from an indewelling catheter; drug interruptions may result in rebound pulmonary hypertension and death. We hypothesized that the salivary gland can be repurposed into an endogenous production site for circulating PGI2 through the expression of a fusion protein embodying cyclooxygenase-1(Cox1) and prostacyclin synthase(PGIS) domains...
May 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529622/ires-mediated-protein-translation-overcomes-suppression-by-the-p14arf-tumor-suppressor-protein
#7
Song Xi, Ming Zhao, Si Wang, Ling Ma, Shensen Wang, Xianling Cong, Ruth A Gjerset, Rebecca C Fitzgerald, Yinghui Huang
Internal ribosome entry sites (IRES elements) have attracted interest in cancer gene therapy because they can be used in the design of gene transfer vectors that provide bicistronic co-expression of two transgene products under the control of a single promoter. Unlike cellular translation of most mRNAs, a process that requires a post-translational 5' modification of the mRNA known as the cap structure, IRES-mediated translation is independent of the cap structure. The cellular conditions that may intervene to modulate IRES-mediated, cap-independent versus cap-dependent translation, however, remain poorly understood, although they could be critical to the choice of gene transfer vectors...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529359/the-journey-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-india-achievements-and-challenges
#8
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529033/high-throughput-characterization-of-hiv-1-reservoir-reactivation-using-a-single-cell-in-droplet-pcr-assay
#9
Robert W Yucha, Kristen S Hobbs, Emily Hanhauser, Louise E Hogan, Wildaliz Nieves, Mehmet O Ozen, Fatih Inci, Vanessa York, Erica A Gibson, Cassandra Thanh, Hadi Shafiee, Rami El Assal, Maja Kiselinova, Yvonne P Robles, Helen Bae, Kaitlyn S Leadabrand, ShuQi Wang, Steven G Deeks, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Utkan Demirci, Timothy J Henrich
Reactivation of latent viral reservoirs is on the forefront of HIV-1 eradication research. However, it is unknown if latency reversing agents (LRAs) increase the level of viral transcription from cells producing HIV RNA or harboring transcriptionally-inactive (latent) infection. We therefore developed a microfluidic single-cell-in-droplet (scd)PCR assay to directly measure the number of CD4(+) T cells that produce unspliced (us)RNA and multiply spliced (ms)RNA following ex vivo latency reversal with either an histone deacetylase inhibitor (romidepsin) or T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
May 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527665/therapeutic-editing-of-hepatocyte-genome-in-vivo
#10
REVIEW
Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Amaia Lujambio
The recent development of gene editing platforms enables making precise changes in the genome of eukaryotic cells. Programmable nucleases, such as meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated nucleases, have revolutionized the way research is conducted as they facilitate the rapid production of mutant or knock-out cellular and animal models. These same genetic tools can potentially be applied to cure or alleviate a variety of diseases, including genetic diseases that lack an efficient therapy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527257/-polyclonal-antibodies-against-recombinant-dengue-virus-ns3-protein
#11
Liliana Morales, Myriam L Velandia, María Angélica Calderon, Jaime E Castellanos, Jacqueline Chaparro-Olaya
INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a disease caused by one of four serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV) and is endemic in approximately 130 countries. The incidence of dengue has increased dramatically in recent decades, as well as the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks. Despite all efforts, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for the disease. Accordingly, research on the processes governing the DENV infection cycle is essential to develop vaccines or antiviral therapies. One of themost attractive DENV molecules to investigate is nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), which is essential for viral replication and a major immune target for infection...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527117/non-viral-and-viral-delivery-systems-for-crispr-cas9-technology-in-the-biomedical-field
#12
REVIEW
Zhi-Yao He, Ke Men, Zhou Qin, Yang Yang, Ting Xu, Yu-Quan Wei
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system provides a novel genome editing technology that can precisely target a genomic site to disrupt or repair a specific gene. Some CRISPR-Cas9 systems from different bacteria or artificial variants have been discovered or constructed by biologists, and Cas9 nucleases and single guide RNAs (sgRNA) are the major components of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. These Cas9 systems have been extensively applied for identifying therapeutic targets, identifying gene functions, generating animal models, and developing gene therapies...
May 2, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526972/patient-experiences-attitudes-and-expectations-towards-receiving-information-about-anti-tnf-medication-a-quantitative-study
#13
Jon Packham, Paul Arkell, Tom Sheeran, Ann Brownfield, Anthony Cadwgan, Sarah Ryan
The objective of the study was to measure patient attitudes and experience of information received during drug counselling for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) medications. This is a cross-sectional UK postal questionnaire study. Three RA patient groups-disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) only, first anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and failed anti-TNF-were sent postal questionnaires. Data on patient history/demographics, drug counselling experience, knowledge of drug side effects, attitudes to vaccinations, cancer screening and blood borne virus testing was collected; 264/679 (39%) patients responded (median age 65 years, 66% female, median disease duration 15 years)...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526779/the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-nephropathies-associated-with-mutations-in-diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE%C2%B5
#14
Karolis Azukaitis, Eva Simkova, Mohammad Abdul Majid, Matthias Galiano, Kerstin Benz, Kerstin Amann, Clemens Bockmeyer, Radha Gajjar, Kevin E Meyers, Hae Il Cheong, Bärbel Lange-Sperandio, Therese Jungraithmayr, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi, Carsten Bergmann, Csaba Bereczki, Monika Miklaszewska, Dorottya Csuka, Zoltán Prohászka, Patrick Gipson, Matthew G Sampson, Mathieu Lemaire, Franz Schaefer
The recent discovery of mutations in the gene encoding diacylglycerol kinase ε (DGKE) identified a novel pathophysiologic mechanism leading to HUS and/or MPGN. We report ten new patients from eight unrelated kindreds with DGKE nephropathy. We combined these cases with all previously published cases to characterize the phenotypic spectrum and outcomes of this new disease entity. Most patients presented with HUS accompanied by proteinuria, whereas a subset of patients exhibited clinical and histologic patterns of MPGN without TMA...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526661/the-parasol-protocol-an-implementation-science-study-of-hiv-continuum-of-care-interventions-for-gay-men-and-transgender-women-in-burma-myanmar
#15
Andrea L Wirtz, Soe Naing, Emily Clouse, Kaung Htet Thu, Sandra Hsu Hnin Mon, Zin Min Tun, Stefan Baral, Aung Zayar Paing, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with HIV and reduce onward transmission of HIV rely on innovative interventions along multiple steps of the HIV care continuum. These innovative methods are particularly important for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated among key populations, and national efforts now focus on reducing stigma and improving engagement of MSM and TW in HIV prevention and care...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525755/antibodies-from-a-human-survivor-define-sites-of-vulnerability-for-broad-protection-against-ebolaviruses
#16
Anna Z Wec, Andrew S Herbert, Charles D Murin, Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Dafna M Abelson, J Maximilian Fels, Shihua He, Rebekah M James, Marc-Antoine de La Vega, Wenjun Zhu, Russell R Bakken, Eileen Goodwin, Hannah L Turner, Rohit K Jangra, Larry Zeitlin, Xiangguo Qiu, Jonathan R Lai, Laura M Walker, Andrew B Ward, John M Dye, Kartik Chandran, Zachary A Bornholdt
Experimental monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies have shown promise for treatment of lethal Ebola virus (EBOV) infections, but their species-specific recognition of the viral glycoprotein (GP) has limited their use against other divergent ebolaviruses associated with human disease. Here, we mined the human immune response to natural EBOV infection and identified mAbs with exceptionally potent pan-ebolavirus neutralizing activity and protective efficacy against three virulent ebolaviruses. These mAbs recognize an inter-protomer epitope in the GP fusion loop, a critical and conserved element of the viral membrane fusion machinery, and neutralize viral entry by targeting a proteolytically primed, fusion-competent GP intermediate (GPCL) generated in host cell endosomes...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525366/mesenchymal-stem-cell-carriers-enhance-antitumor-efficacy-of-oncolytic-adenoviruses-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model
#17
Esther Rincón, Teresa Cejalvo, Deepak Kanojia, Arantzazu Alfranca, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Milla, Raul Andrés Gil Hoyos, Yu Han, Lingjiao Zhang, Ramón Alemany, Maciej S Lesniak, Javier García-Castro
Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524912/gold-nanocages-with-dual-modality-for-image-guided-therapeutics
#18
Shijin Bao, Shengnan Huang, Ying Liu, Yurong Hu, Weiping Wang, Mengfei Ji, Huili Li, Ning Xia Zhang, Chengzhi Song, Shaofeng Duan
Numerous studies have demonstrated that microRNAs are very important in cancer development and progression. However, the complex relationship between the size of microRNA delivery systems, cellular uptake, biodistribution and therapeutic efficiency remains unclear. Herein, we have successfully constructed a series of differently-sized microRNA delivery systems, miR-26a-loaded, hyaluronic acid-modified, polyetherimide-conjugated PEGylated gold nanocage ternary nanocomplexes (PPHAuNCs-TNCs), which can be monitored optically by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography imaging...
May 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522916/early-hepatitis-b-viral-dna-clearance-predicts-treatment-response-at-week-96
#19
Xiao-Yu Fu, De-Ming Tan, Cui-Mei Liu, Bin Gu, Li-Hua Hu, Zhong-Tian Peng, Bin Chen, Yuan-Lin Xie, Huan-Yu Gong, Xiao-Xuan Hu, Lian-Hui Yao, Xiao-Ping Xu, Zheng-Yuan Fu, Lang-Qiu He, Si-Hai Li, Yun-Zhu Long, De-Hui Li, Ji-Long Gu, Shi-Fang Peng
AIM: To investigate whether hepatitis viral DNA load at 24 wk of treatment predicts response at 96 wk in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: A total of 172 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients who received initial treatment at 16 tertiary hospitals in Hunan Province, China were enrolled in this study. All patients received conventional doses of lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil, telbivudine, entecavir dispersible tablets, or entecavir tablets for 96 wk...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522237/u-s-hiv-incidence-and-transmission-goals-2020-and-2025
#20
Robert A Bonacci, David R Holtgrave
INTRODUCTION: The recently updated U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy sets key HIV prevention and care targets for 2020, but the trajectory of the epidemic remains unclear. Authors modeled HIV incidence, prevalence, and mortality for the U.S. over 10 years to determine whether an ambitious trajectory toward "ending AIDS" by 2025 would be achievable. METHODS: Authors utilized recently published 2010-2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance data to model HIV incidence, prevalence, and mortality...
May 6, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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