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Meg Perceval, Kairi Kõlves, Victoria Ross, Prasuna Reddy, Diego De Leo
Farmers and farm workers have been recognised as a group at high risk of suicide in Australia. This study aims to identify and better understand environmental factors associated with suicide among Australian farmers and farm workers. Qualitative analysis was undertaken in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. Male and female focus groups were conducted separately with people who lived or worked on a farm in six farming communities. Qualitative analyses showed that a number of environmental influences may contribute to the increased risk of suicide: extreme climatic events; isolation; service availability; access to, and frequent use of firearms; death and suffering of animals; government and legislation; technology; and property values...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Viviana Betti, Maurizio Corbetta, Francesco de Pasquale, Vincent Wens, Stefania Della Penna
Networks hubs represent points of convergence for the integration of information across many different nodes and systems. While a great deal is known on the topology of hub regions in the human brain, little is known about their temporal dynamics. Here, we examine the static and dynamic centrality of hub regions when measured in the absence of a task (rest) or during the observation of natural or synthetic visual stimuli. We used Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in humans (both sexes) to measure static and transient regional and network-level interaction in α and β band limited power (BLP) in three conditions: visual fixation (rest), viewing of movie clips (natural vision), and time-scrambled versions of the same clips (scrambled vision)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Pia Lau, Andreas Wollbrink, Robert Wunderlich, Alva Engell, Alwina Löhe, Markus Junghöfer, Christo Pantev
Tinnitus is a prevalent phenomenon and bothersome for people affected by it. Its occurrence and maintenance have a clear neuroscientific tie and one aspect are differences in the neuronal oscillatory pattern, especially in auditory cortical areas. As studies in this field come to different results, the aim of this study was to analyze a large number of participants to achieve more stable results. Furthermore, we expanded our analysis to two variables of potential influence, namely being a novice to neuroscientific measurements and the exclusion of psychological comorbidities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Mei-Yin Lin, Shiou-Han Yang
Age-related deficiency in the top-down modulation of cognitive inhibition has been extensively documented, whereas the effects of age on a bottom-up or automatic operation of inhibitory function were less investigated. It is unknown that whether the older adults (OA)' reduced behavioral performance and neural responses are due to the insufficient bottom-up processes. Compared to behavioral assessments which have been widely used to examine the top-down control of response inhibition, electrophysiological recordings are more suitable to probe the early-stage processes of automatic inhibitory function...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Omid Abbasi, Jan Hirschmann, Lena Storzer, Tolga Esat Özkurt, Saskia Elben, Jan Vesper, Lars Wojtecki, Georg Schmitz, Alfons Schnitzler, Markus Butz
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy to treat motor symptoms in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms leading to the high therapeutic effectiveness of DBS are poorly understood so far, but modulation of oscillatory activity is likely to play an important role. Thus, investigating the effect of DBS on cortical oscillatory activity can help clarifying the neurophysiological mechanisms of DBS. Here, we aimed at scrutinizing changes of cortical oscillatory activity by DBS at different frequencies using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Jose M Sanchez Bornot, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Alwani Liyana Ahmad, Girijesh Prasad
The brain's functional connectivity (FC) estimated at sensor level from electromagnetic (EEG/MEG) signals can provide quick and useful information towards understanding cognition and brain disorders. Volume conduction (VC) is a fundamental issue in FC analysis due to the effects of instantaneous correlations. FC methods based on the imaginary part of the coherence (iCOH) of any two signals are readily robust to VC effects, but neglecting the real part of the coherence leads to negligible FC when the processes are truly connected but with zero or π-phase (modulus 2π) interaction...
March 15, 2018: Brain Topography
Sara Whetstone, Meg Autry
An unprecedented number of medical students and residents express the desire to participate in global health work during their training and beyond. Preparing learners for work in underserved settings makes it more likely that they will continue to work in areas of need. Training programs that focus on global health have been criticized as there is ample work to be done in the US, and often global health work becomes learner-centric, which is difficult to maintain and potentially burdensome and harmful to the host site...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Dawn M Holman, Helen Ding, Gery P Guy, Meg Watson, Anne M Hartman, Frank M Perna
Importance: Monitoring sun protection and sunburn over time at the population level can provide valuable information about progress toward skin cancer prevention goals and inform future intervention efforts. Objective: To examine the prevalence of sun protection use (shade, sunscreen, and clothing) and sunburn and the association between sunburn and individual characteristics and health behaviors in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of 31 162 US adults from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey-Cancer Control Supplement, household interviews of civilian, noninstitutionalized US adults were conducted throughout 2015 in person and completed on the telephone when necessary...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Bonnie L Westra, Steven G Johnson, Samira Ali, Karen M Bavuso, Christopher A Cruz, Sarah Collins, Meg Furukawa, Mary L Hook, Anne LaFlamme, Kay Lytle, Lisiane Pruinelli, Tari Rajchel, Theresa Tess Settergren, Kathryn F Westman, Luann Whittenburg
BACKGROUND:  Secondary use of electronic health record (EHR) data can reduce costs of research and quality reporting. However, EHR data must be consistent within and across organizations. Flowsheet data provide a rich source of interprofessional data and represents a high volume of documentation; however, content is not standardized. Health care organizations design and implement customized content for different care areas creating duplicative data that is noncomparable. In a prior study, 10 information models (IMs) were derived from an EHR that included 2...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
R Draganova, A Schollbach, F Schleger, J Braendle, S Brucker, H Abele, K O Kagan, D Wallwiener, A Fritsche, H Eswaran, H Preissl
The human fetal auditory system is functional around the 25th week of gestational age when the thalamocortical connections are established. Fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) provides evidence for fetal auditory brain responses to pure tones and syllables. Fifty-five pregnant women between 31 and 40 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Fetal MEG was recorded during the presentation of an amplitude modulated tone (AM) with a carrier frequency of 500 Hz to the maternal abdomen modulated by low modulation rates (MRs) - 2/s and 4/s, middle MR - 8/s and high MRs - 27/s, 42/s, 78/s and 91/s...
March 6, 2018: Hearing Research
Christine M Embury, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J McDermott, Grace H Lord, Kaitlin L Brau, Andjela T Drincic, Cyrus V Desouza, Tony W Wilson
It is now generally accepted that diabetes increases the risk for cognitive impairment, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. A critical problem in linking diabetes to cognitive impairment is that patients often have multiple comorbidities (e.g., obesity, hypertension) that have been independently linked to cognitive deficits. Herein, we focus on young adults with and without type 1 diabetes who were virtually free of such comorbidities. The two groups were matched on major health and demographic factors, and all participants completed a verbal working memory task during magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain imaging...
March 12, 2018: Diabetes
Eline R Kupers, Helena X Wang, Kaoru Amano, Kendrick N Kay, David J Heeger, Jonathan Winawer
Currently, non-invasive methods for studying the human brain do not routinely and reliably measure spike-rate-dependent signals, independent of responses such as hemodynamic coupling (fMRI) and subthreshold neuronal synchrony (oscillations and event-related potentials). In contrast, invasive methods-microelectrode recordings and electrocorticography (ECoG)-have recently measured broadband power elevation in field potentials (~50-200 Hz) as a proxy for locally averaged spike rates. Here, we sought to detect and quantify stimulus-related broadband responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
2018: PloS One
Britta U Westner, Sarang S Dalal, Simon Hanslmayr, Tobias Staudigl
Single-trial analyses have the potential to uncover meaningful brain dynamics that are obscured when averaging across trials. However, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can impede the use of single-trial analyses and decoding methods. In this study, we investigate the applicability of a single-trial approach to decode stimulus modality from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) high frequency activity. In order to classify the auditory versus visual presentation of words, we combine beamformer source reconstruction with the random forest classification method...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Robin Newhouse, Ha Do Byon, Emily Storkman Wolf, Meg Johantgen
PROBLEM: High-quality smoking cessation counseling guidelines for people who use tobacco are not fully integrated in acute-care services presenting missed opportunities to improve health outcomes. The role of the practice environment on enhancing or inhibiting guideline use is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the nurse practice environment and nurses' use of smoking cessation counseling practices, and to evaluate the effect of the individual nurse and organization characteristics on nurse smoking cessation counseling practices...
March 12, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Julia M Stephen, Lucinda Flynn, Danielle Kabella, Megan Schendel, Sandra Cano, Daniel D Savage, William Rayburn, Lawrence M Leeman, Jean Lowe, Ludmila N Bakhireva
Early identification of children who experience developmental delays due to prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge for individuals who do not exhibit facial dysmorphia. It is well-established that children with PAE may still exhibit the cognitive and behavioral difficulties, and individuals without facial dysmorphia make up the majority of individuals affected by PAE. This study employed a prospective cohort design to capture alcohol consumption patterns during pregnancy and then followed the infants to 6 months of age...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Meg Watson, Vicki Benard, Elaine W Flagg
Improved understanding of the natural history of cervical cancer has led to changes in screening recommendations, including the addition of the human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an option in routine screening. Most studies of screening trends have used national self-reported survey data. To better understand recent trends in cervical cancer screening, including cytology (Papanicolaou, or Pap, tests) and human papillomavirus co-tests (HPV + Pap test), we used healthcare claims data to examine screening practices and trends...
March 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Federico Sabbadin, Giovanna Pesante, Luisa Elias, Katrin Besser, Yi Li, Clare Steele-King, Meg Stark, Deborah A Rathbone, Adam A Dowle, Rachel Bates, J Reuben Shipway, Simon M Cragg, Neil C Bruce, Simon J McQueen-Mason
Lignocellulose forms the structural framework of woody plant biomass and represents the most abundant carbon source in the biosphere. Turnover of woody biomass is a critical component of the global carbon cycle, and the enzymes involved are of increasing industrial importance as industry moves away from fossil fuels to renewable carbon resources. Shipworms are marine bivalve molluscs that digest wood and play a key role in global carbon cycling by processing plant biomass in the oceans. Previous studies suggest that wood digestion in shipworms is dominated by enzymes produced by endosymbiotic bacteria found in the animal's gills, while little is known about the identity and function of endogenous enzymes produced by shipworms...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Kensuke Sekihara, Yoshiaki Adachi, Hiroshi K Kubota, Chang Cai, Srikantan S Nagarajan
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
 has a well-recognized weakness at detecting deeper brain activities. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for selective detection of deep sources by suppressing interference signals from superficial sources in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. 
 Approach: The proposed algorithm combines the beamspace preprocessing method with the dual signal space projection (DSSP) interference suppression method. A prerequisite of the proposed algorithm is prior knowledge of the location of the deep sources...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J McDermott, Mackenzie S Mills, Alex I Wiesman, Yu-Ping Wang, Julia M Stephen, Vince D Calhoun, Tony W Wilson
Numerous studies connect beta oscillations in the motor cortices to volitional movement, and beta is known to be aberrant in multiple movement disorders. However, the dynamic interplay between these beta oscillations, motor performance, and spontaneous beta power (e.g., during rest) in the motor cortices remains unknown. This study utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these three parameters and their lifespan trajectory in 57 healthy participants aged 9-75 years old. Movement-related beta activity was imaged using a beamforming approach, and voxel time series data were extracted from the peak voxels in the primary motor cortices...
March 2, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
V L N Brandao, X Dai, E M Paula, L G Silva, M I Marcondes, T Shenkoru, S R Poulson, A P Faciola
Camelina is a drought- and salt-tolerant oil seed, which in total ether extract (EE) contains up to 74% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of replacing calcium salts of palm oil (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) with camelina seed (CS) on ruminal fermentation, digestion, and flows of fatty acids (FA) and AA in a dual-flow continuous culture system when supplemented at 5 or 8% dietary EE. Diets were randomly assigned to 8 fermentors in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with four 10-d experimental periods consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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