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Siddharth Shah, Vaishali Kongre, Varun Kumar, Renu Bharadwaj
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), occurring in almost 90% of AIDS patients in developing countries like India. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of pathogens associated with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and their relation to CD4 counts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five successive HIV-positive patients, 27 with diarrhea (study group) and 18 without diarrhea (control group), were included in the three-month study...
September 27, 2016: Curēus
Fabienne Schubnell, Sereina von Ah, Robert Graage, Titus Sydler, Xaver Sidler, Daniela Hadorn, Walter Basso
In order to estimate the diversity, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of parasites in pigs submitted for diagnosis to the PathoPig project of the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, faeces (n=125) from suckling piglets (n=39), weaners (n=60) and piglets beginning fattening (n=26) from 74 Swiss farms were examined by 3 coproscopical methods (i.e. sedimentation/zinc chloride-flotation; SAFC and Ziehl-Neelsen staining). Samples microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium were further tested by PCR/sequencing for species assessment...
December 2016: Parasitology International
Celene Salgado-Miranda, Juan Pablo Medina, Andrea Paloma Zepeda-Velázquez, Michele García-Conejo, Karla Patricia Galindo-Sánchez, Mariusz Krzysztof Janczur, Edgardo Soriano-Vargas
A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes...
October 2016: Systematic Parasitology
Chris T McAllister, R Scott Seville, Ruston Hartdegen
During May and June 2015, four common leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus fimbriatus (Schneider), five satanic leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus phantasticus (Boulenger), and four mossy leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus sikorae Boettger originally collected from Madagascar and housed at the Dallas Zoo, USA, had their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Eight (62%) geckos were found to be passing oöcysts, including a new eimerian, a new isosporan and a previously described eimerian. Three of four (75%) U. fimbratus (type-host) and one of five (20%) U...
October 2016: Systematic Parasitology
Marawan A Abu-Madi, Jerzy M Behnke, Sonia Boughattas, Asma Al-Thani, Sanjay H Doiphode
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimates that about 3.5 billion people worldwide are affected by intestinal parasitic infections. Reports have already emphasized the role of immigrants in outbreaks of parasitic diseases in industrialized countries. With the mass influx of immigrants to Qatar, patent intestinal parasitic infections have been observed. Herein, the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was analysed in 29,286 records of subjects referred for stool examination at the Hamad Medical Corporation over the course of a decade (2005 to 2014, inclusive)...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anna M Pyziel, Witold Jeżewski
Coprological analysis of a sample from one free-living hedgehog was done with the use of a direct flotation method with additional incubation of fecal material. The study revealed three types of eggs and oocysts in the feces. The most commonly diagnosed were oocysts of Isospora rastegaievae (543/3g), while oocysts of Monocystis sp. (267/3g) and eggs of Aonchotheca/Eucoleus spp. (52/3g) were seen less often. This is the first report of coccidia I. rastegaievae (Apicomplexa: Eimeriida) and acephaline gregarine Monocystis sp...
September 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Sherry Ama Mawuko Johnson, Daniel Waweru Gakuya, Paul Gichohi Mbuthia, John Demesi Mande, Ndichu Maingi
Toxocariosis and ancylostomosis remain the most important parasitic infections affecting companion animals worldwide and pose a risk to animal and human health. Information on these infections in dogs in Ghana is inadequate. A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths infections and management practices of dogs in the Greater Accra Region (GAR) of Ghana. Faecal samples were obtained from 380 dogs from communities in 11 out of 16 districts in the GAR. Coprological examination of the samples was performed using the modified McMaster technique...
September 2015: Heliyon
Mahmoud Agholi, Shahrbanou Naderi Shahabadi, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Gholam Reza Hatam
The genus Sarcocystis is not usually considered as an important enteric pathogen in immune compromised patients. It might be expected that species for which humans are the final host (Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis as well as possibly others) would be encountered increasingly often in immunodeficient persons. This study aimed to address how to detect and differentiate Sarcocystis oocysts and/or sporocysts from enteric protozoans in the diarrheal samples of immunodeficient patients in Shiraz, Iran...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Lionel Schilliger, Véronique Mentré, Rachel E Marschang, Alexandra Nicolier, Barbara Richter
A 2-month-old juvenile central bearded dragon was presented for anorexia and cachexia. Another specimen from the same cage had died suddenly 2 weeks prior. Fecal analysis revealed a high quantity of Isospora amphiboluri and a few pinworm eggs. Other examinations were not performed and the animal died a few days later despite supportive care. A third individual from the same cage presented with anorexia and a distended cœlom and was euthanized. In this third dragon, histological examination revealed intestinal coccidiosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions compatible with adenovirus infection, acute hepatic necrosis with intrahepatocytic and intraenteritic organisms typical of microsporidia and renal gout...
July 7, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Suman Mitra, Anindya Mukherjee, Dibbendhu Khanra, Ananya Bhowmik, Krishnendu Roy, Arunansu Talukdar
CONTEXT: Parasitic opportunistic infections (POIs) frequently occur in HIV/AIDS patients and affect the quality of life. AIMS: This study assessing the standard organisms in the stool of HIV-positive patients, their comparison with HIV-negative controls, their relation with various factors, is the first of its kind in the eastern part of India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: hospital-based case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 194 antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-positive patients (18-60 years) were taken as cases and 98 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative family members as controls...
April 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Judit Plutzer, Panagiotis Karanis
Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
Keith K Lai, Hannah E Goyne, David Hernandez-Gonzalo, Kennon A Miller, Marion Tuohy, Gary W Procop, Laura W Lamps, Deepa T Patil
Cystoisospora belli, previously known as Isospora belli, is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that is most often associated with gastrointestinal disease in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we detail the clinicopathologic features of 18 cases of Cystoisospora infection affecting the gallbladder in immunocompetent individuals and compare them with a control group. Each case was reviewed for cholecystitis (none, acute, chronic), epithelial disarray, presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes (none, rare [≤5 per 20 epithelial cells], present [>5 per 20 epithelial cells]), architectural distortion, intramucosal eosinophilia, and mural thickening/serositis...
August 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
M Mellado-Ferreiro, V Jarne-Betrán, M Arteaga-Mazuelas, M L Abínzano-Guillén
Chronic diarrhea caused by infection in immunocompetent patients is an infrequent condition in developed countries, although certain pathogens,generally parasites (Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli,Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Strongyloides, Ameba,Trichuris and Schistosoma) and some bacteria (Aeromonas,Plesiomonas, Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella or Mycobacterium tuberculosis)can cause persistent diarrhea.We present the case of a patient who showed Salmonella typhimurium in his stool culture and recovered following treatment with levofloxacin for 7 days...
2016: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Rongchang Yang, Belinda Brice, Una Ryan
A new Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species is described from a single red-browed finch (Neochmia temporalis) (subspecies N. temporalis temporalis), that was part of a captive population in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of this isolate are spherical, 18.3 (18.2-18.9) × 18.2 (18.2-18.6) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.0; and a smooth and bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but the oocyst residuum and a micropyle are absent...
July 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Reza Shafiei, Mohsen Najjari, Ali Kargar Kheirabad, Golamreza Hatam
Cystoisospora belli, formerly Isospora belli, as an opportunistic infection agent, is seen in immunocompromised patients like HTLV-1. We describe here cystoisosporiasis in an HTLV1 Iranian female in Mashhad, northwestern Iran in 2012 who presented with a debilitating diarrheal illness and great weight loss. C. belli was detected in her stool by modified acid-fast staining and then by molecular detection. Serologic testing was negative for HIV but she showed positivity for HTLV-1 infection. Treatment with TMP/SMX led to improvement of her diarrhea but she died after one year due to malabsorption syndrome...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Rongchang Yang, Belinda Brice, Aileen Elloit, Una Ryan
An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass...
July 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Bruno doBomfim Lopes, Mariana Borges Rodrigues, Lidiane Maria da Silva, Bruno Pereira Berto, Hermes Ribeiro Luz, Ildemar Ferreira, Carlos Wilson Gomes Lopes
A new isosporoid coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is reported from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus, a very well distributed species in South and Central America. Isospora corruirae sp. nov. oocysts are subspherical to ovoidal, 24.1 × 21.4 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but small spherules and splinter-like granules are frequently present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to piriform, 14.0 × 9.5 μm. Stieda body is prominent knob-like and substieda body is delicate...
March 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Tamara Ilić, Zsolt Becskei, Tamaš Petrović, Vladimir Polaček, Bojan Ristić, Siniša Milić, Predrag Stepanović, Katarina Radisavljević, Sanda Dimitrijević
Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district)...
March 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Ambachew Woreta Hailu, Solomon G/Selassie, Yared Merid, Addis Adera Gebru, Yonas Yimam Ayene, Markos Kidane Asefa
Tuberculosis remains a major health problem worldwide in the era of HIV/AIDS. Co-infection with intestinal parasites has been suggested to worsen the outcome of infection in addition to HIV infection. Hence, adequate information on TB patients with HIV and intestinal parasites infection is being needed to tackle the problem, undertake the integrated prevention and control program. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of HIV and intestinal parasitic infections in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients compared with their healthy extended family of the subject as a control...
May 2015: International Journal of Pharma Sciences
Cuiqin Huang, Fuli Wen, Liangping Yue, Renfeng Chen, Wei Zhou, Lingying Hu, Meizhen Chen, Shoukun Wang
Isospora suis is an intestinal protozoan parasite in pigs. The 2-3 weeks old piglets are most often infected by I. suis because their immune system is not fully developed. The infection exhibits clinical features such as diarrhea and dehydration and seriously affects the economic interests of farmers. The traditional method of identifying I. suis relies on the detection of fecal oocysts, which depends heavily on the accumulation of experience. Thus, missed detection, and false alarms often occur during detection...
June 2016: Experimental Parasitology
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