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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778481/health-benefits-of-orally-administered-anti-il-10-antibody-in-milk-fed-dairy-calves
#1
S M Raabis, T L Ollivett, M E Cook, J M Sand, S M McGuirk
The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine whether anti-IL-10 egg yolk antibodies fed upon arrival to a calf ranch would lower the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum shedding in naturally challenged preweaned dairy calves. The secondary objectives included measuring the effect of anti-IL-10 antibodies on calf health, performance, and shedding of less common diarrheal pathogens. A total of 133 calves, enrolled at 24 to 72 h of age, received a daily dose of 0.96 g of egg yolk powder with anti-IL-10 antibodies (MAB, n = 71) or without anti-IL-10 antibodies (MEP, n = 62) split between 2 feedings for the first 11 d on feed at a calf ranch...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776848/comparison-of-current-methods-used-to-detect-cryptosporidium-oocysts-in-stools
#2
REVIEW
Shahira A Ahmed, Panagiotis Karanis
In this review all of the methods that are currently in use for the investigation of Cryptosporidium in stool material are highlighted and critically discussed. It appears that more qualifications and background knowledge in this field regarding the diagnosis of the Cryptosporidium parasite is required. Furthermore, there is no standardization for the protocols that are commonly used to either detect oocysts in faeces or to diagnose the Cryptosporidium infection. It is therefore necessary to initiate further education and research that will assist in improving the accuracy of the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faecal micro-cosmos...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775772/occurrence-genotyping-and-health-risk-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-recreational-lakes-in-tianjin-china
#3
Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Hongying Yuan, Jingfang Lu, Sike Hu
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are critical parasites in the etiology of diarrhea worldwide, and often cause waterborne outbreaks. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes was investigated with molecular characterization, and a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of protozoan infections was performed, considering multiple exposure pathways, differences in age, sex, and disease severity, and the genotypes of the protozoa. Forty-three (82.7%) and 51 (98.1%) water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, with average counts of 3...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771872/outbreaks-associated-with-treated-recreational-water-united-states-2000-2014
#4
Michele C Hlavsa, Bryanna L Cikesh, Virginia A Roberts, Amy M Kahler, Marissa Vigar, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Dawn M Roellig, Jennifer L Murphy, Lihua Xiao, Kirsten M Yates, Jasen M Kunz, Matthew J Arduino, Sujan C Reddy, Kathleen E Fullerton, Laura A Cooley, Michael J Beach, Vincent R Hill, Jonathan S Yoder
Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 46 states and Puerto Rico reported 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water. These outbreaks resulted in at least 27,219 cases and eight deaths. Among the 363 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, 212 (58%) were caused by Cryptosporidium (which causes predominantly gastrointestinal illness), 57 (16%) by Legionella (which causes Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness with flu-like symptoms), and 47 (13%) by Pseudomonas (which causes folliculitis ["hot tub rash"] and otitis externa ["swimmers' ear"])...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767678/identification-of-etiology-specific-diarrhea-associated-with-linear-growth-faltering-in-bangladeshi-infants
#5
Amanda E Schnee, Rashidul Haque, Mami Taniuchi, Jashim Uddin, Masud Alam, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Beth Kirkpatrick, Eric R Houpt, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills
Childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings has been variably linked to linear growth shortfalls. However, the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and growth has not been comprehensively evaluated. We tested diarrheal stools collected from the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries study from 2011-2013 in Dhaka, Bangladesh by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a broad range of enteropathogens to characterize diarrhea etiology and examine the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and linear growth and systemic inflammation...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762365/multiplex-real-time-pcr-detection-of-intestinal-protozoa-in-hiv-infected-children-in-malawi-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-is-common-and-associated-with-gastrointestinal-complaints-and-may-delay-bmi-nutritional-status-recovery
#6
Minke H W Huibers, Peter Moons, Nelson Maseko, Monfort B Gushu, Oluwadamilola H Iwajomo, Robert S Heyderman, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Eric A Brienen, Lisette van Lieshout, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance, or the effect of immune reconstitution by anti-retroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections are children is lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children prior to and during their first year of ART. METHODS: Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for non-opportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Entroctytoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752883/occurrence-molecular-characterization-and-assessment-of-zoonotic-risk-of-cryptosporidium-spp-giardia-duodenalis-and-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-pigs-in-henan-central-china
#7
Haiyan Wang, Yiqi Zhang, Yayun Wu, Junqiang Li, Meng Qi, Tingwen Li, Jianling Wang, Rongjun Wang, Sumei Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal pathogens in humans and animals. Little is known about them and the range of species/assemblages/genotypes occurring in domestic pigs in China. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of these pathogens detected in the faeces from farms in Henan, central China. Of 897 fecal samples tested, 28 (3.1%), 15 (1.7%) and 408 (45.5%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748124/contribution-of-the-filmarray-%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-panel-in-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-cohort-of-children-a-two-year-prospective-study
#8
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747577/genome-wide-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-profiles-of-mrnas-lncrnas-and-circrnas-during-cryptosporidium-baileyi-infection
#9
Guan-Jing Ren, Xian-Cheng Fan, Ting-Li Liu, Sha-Sha Wang, Guang-Hui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium baileyi is the most common Cryptosporidium species in birds. However, effective prevention measures and treatment for C. baileyi infection were still not available. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in regulating occurrence and progression of many diseases and are identified as effective biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of several diseases. In the present study, the expression profiles of host mRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs associated with C...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742877/monitoring-of-noxious-protozoa-for-management-of-natural-water-resources
#10
Young Yil Bahk, Pyo Yun Cho, Sung Kyu Ahn, Sangjung Park, Won Hwa Jheong, Yun-Kyu Park, Ho-Joon Shin, Sang-Seob Lee, Okjae Rhee, Tong-Soo Kim
Waterborne parasitic protozoa, particularly Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp., are common causes of diarrhea and gastroenteritis worldwide. The most frequently identified source of infestation is water, and exposure involves either drinking water or recreation in swimming pools or natural bodies of water. In practice, studies on Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in surface water are challenging owing to the low concentrations of these microorganisms because of dilution. In this study, a 3-year monitoring of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia , and Naegleria fowleri was conducted from August 2014 to June 2016 at 5 surface water sites including 2 lakes, 1 river, and 2 water intake plants...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742865/detection-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-diarrheic-immunocompetent-patients-in-beni-suef-egypt-insight-into-epidemiology-and-diagnosis
#11
Samah S Abdel Gawad, Mousa A M Ismail, Naglaa F A Imam, Ahmed H A Eassa, Enas Yahia Abu-Sarea
Cryptosporidium species is an important cause of gastrointestinal infections globally. This study aimed to shed light on its role in diarrheic immunocompetent patients in Beni-Suef, Egypt and to compare three diagnostic methods. Two hundred diarrheic patients, 37±16.8 year old, were enrolled. Stool samples were examined by light microscopy, using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain (MZN) for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Coproantigens were detected by sandwich ELISA. DNA molecular diagnosis was done by nested PCR...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735091/development-of-a-cryptosporidium-arsenic-multi-risk-assessment-model-for-infant-formula-prepared-with-tap-water-in-france
#12
G Boué, L A Wasiewska, E Cummins, J-P Antignac, B Le Bizec, S Guillou, J-M Membré
Tap water is used in France to reconstitute powder infant formula, although it is not sterile and possibly contaminated by microbiological and chemical hazards. The present study aims to quantify risks of using tap water in France for the preparation of infant formula, during the first six months of life. Cryptosporidium and arsenic were selected as hazards of greatest concern in microbiology and chemistry, respectively. A probabilistic model was developed using French (when available) and European (alternatively) data...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734766/risk-factors-and-spatial-clusters-of-cryptosporidium-infection-among-school-age-children-in-a-rural-region-of-eastern-china
#13
Hao Zheng, Jianfeng He, Li Wang, Rong Zhang, Zhen Ding, Wenbiao Hu
The epidemiological features of Cryptosporidium infection among school-age children in China still remain unclear. Hereby, a cross-sectional study of 1637 children aged 3⁻9 years was designed to investigate the risk factors and spatial clusters of Cryptosporidium infection in a rural region of Eastern China. Stool specimens collected from participants were examined using the auramine-phenol and modified acid-fast staining. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of Cryptospordium infection...
May 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732026/-cryptosporidium-spp-infection-in-iranian-children-and-immunosuppressive-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Narges Kalantari, Salman Ghaffari, Masomeh Bayani
Background: Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immunosuppressive patients. The current study was intended to evaluate the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium infection and clarify the epidemiological characteristics of the infection in both children and immunosuppressive patients in Iran. Methods: Five English electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus and Cochrane, and two Persian language databases Magiran and Scientific Information Database were searched...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730717/long-term-sequelae-of-sporadic-cryptosporidiosis-a-follow-up-study
#15
Zsófia Iglói, L Mughini-Gras, L Nic Lochlainn, A Barrasa, J Sane, S Mooij, B Schimmer, J Roelfsema, W van Pelt, T Kortbeek
To determine the frequency of occurrence of sequelae following cryptosporidiosis. A follow-up study was performed during a case-control study for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the Netherlands (2013-2016). Cryptosporidiosis cases were invited to complete a follow-up questionnaire 4 months after diagnosis. Using a case-crossover study design, we compared the frequencies of reported symptoms 4 months after the acute phase to those reported 4 months before the onset of illness and during illness. Frequencies of symptoms in the pre- to post-infection phases were also compared with those of a population control group...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729998/pathogens-transmitted-in-animal-feces-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
REVIEW
Miranda J Delahoy, Breanna Wodnik, Lydia McAliley, Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Matthew C Freeman, Karen Levy
Animals found in close proximity to humans in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) harbor many pathogens capable of infecting humans, transmissible via their feces. Contact with animal feces poses a currently unquantified-though likely substantial-risk to human health. In LMIC settings, human exposure to animal feces may explain some of the limited success of recent water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions that have focused on limiting exposure to human excreta, with less attention to containing animal feces...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722096/the-14-th-international-workshops-on-opportunistic-protists-iwop-14
#17
Melanie T Cushion, Andrew H Limper, Aleksey Porollo, Vivian Saper, Anthony P Sinai, Louis M Weiss
The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-14) was held August 10 to 12, 2017 in Cincinnati, OH, USA. The IWOP meetings focus on opportunistic protists (OIs); e.g. free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. Highlights of Pneumocystis research included reports of primary homothallism for mating; a potential requirement for sexual replication in its life cycle; a new antigen on the surface of small asci; and roles for CLRs, Dectin-1 and Mincle in host responses; and identification of MSG families and mechanisms used for surface variation...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720280/exposures-associated-with-infection-with-cryptosporidium-in-industrialised-countries-a-systematic-review-protocol
#18
Caoimhe McKerr, Sarah J O'Brien, Rachel M Chalmers, Roberto Vivancos, Robert M Christley
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of humans and other animals worldwide and is one of the greatest contributors to human diarrhoeal illness. Transmission can occur indirectly via contaminated food or water, or directly via contact with animals or other infected people. Risk exposures are often identified from outbreak investigations, but a subset of cases remains unexplained, and sources for sporadic disease and pathways to infection are still unclear. Given the few systematic syntheses of reported evidence in industrialised populations, the aim of this review is to consolidate the literature to describe exposures associated with human cryptosporidiosis in industrialised countries, specifically including the UK, and describe any differences between outbreak-associated and sporadic disease...
May 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718129/giardia-cryptosporidium-quik-chek%C3%A2-assay-is-more-specific-than-qpcr-for-rapid-point-of-care-diagnosis-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-infants-in-bangladesh
#19
Mamun Kabir, Emtiaz Ahmed, Biplob Hossain, Masud Alam, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Mami Taniuchi, Carol A Gilchrist, Eric R Houpt, A S G Faruque, William A Petri, Rashidul Haque
Background: Cryptosporidiumis a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Current modes of cryptosporidiosis diagnosis involve procedures which are costly and require both a well-equipped laboratory and technical expertise. Therefore, a cost effective, user friendly and rapid method for point-of-care detection of Cryptosporidium species in fecal samples is desirable. Methodology: A total of 832 diarrheal stool specimens collected from 200 children aged below two years were tested by Giardia/Cryptosporidium QUIK CHEK®, ELISA and qPCR to compare the performance of the individual techniques...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717577/cryptosporidiosis-in-a-fire-skink-lepidothyris-fernandi-and-molecular-identification-of-infecting-species
#20
Adekunle B. Ayinmode, Victor I. Agbajelola
Cryptosporidiosis is an infectious protozoan disease that affects a wide range of animals including reptiles. This is the first report of cryptosporidiosis in a fire skink (Lepidothyris fernandi), an insectivorous reptile commonly found in tropical West Africa. Faecal sample was collected from a fire skink at necropsy for the detection of parasites by faecal sedimentation method, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) acid-fast staining, Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Nucleotide sequencing. Sections of the intestines were also processed for histopathology...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
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