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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423030/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-from-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#2
Liana F Wait, Samantha Fox, Sarah Peck, Michelle L Power
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420373/early-outbreak-detection-by-linking-health-advice-line-calls-to-water-distribution-areas-retrospectively-demonstrated-in-a-large-waterborne-outbreak-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-sweden
#3
Pär Bjelkmar, Anette Hansen, Caroline Schönning, Jakob Bergström, Margareta Löfdahl, Marianne Lebbad, Anders Wallensten, Görel Allestam, Stephan Stenmark, Johan Lindh
BACKGROUND: In the winter and spring of 2011 a large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Skellefteå municipality, Sweden. This study summarizes the outbreak investigation in terms of outbreak size, duration, clinical characteristics, possible source(s) and the potential for earlier detection using calls to a health advice line. METHODS: The investigation included two epidemiological questionnaires and microbial analysis of samples from patients, water and other environmental sources...
April 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408215/prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-potential-clinical-impact-of-blood-borne-and-enteric-protozoan-parasites-in-native-mammals-from-northern-australia
#4
Amanda Barbosa, Andrea Reiss, Bethany Jackson, Kristin Warren, Andrea Paparini, Graeme Gillespie, Danielle Stokeld, Peter Irwin, Una Ryan
A molecular survey was conducted to provide baseline information on the prevalence, genetic diversity and potential clinical impacts of blood-borne and enteric protozoans in native wild mammals from the Northern Territory (NT). A total of 209 blood and 167 faecal samples were collected from four target species; the northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) and brush-tailed rabbit-rat (Conilurus penicillatus). Blood samples were screened by PCR at the 18S rRNA gene for trypanosomes, piroplasms and haemogregarines, with faecal samples tested for Cryptosporidium spp...
April 4, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403147/cryptosporidium-spp-and-giardia-spp-in-feces-and-water-and-the-associated-exposure-factors-on-dairy-farms
#5
Roberta Dos Santos Toledo, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Jonatas Campos de Almeida, Liza Ogawa, Hannah Lia Ettiene Peruch Lemos Dos Santos, Maíra Moreira Dos Santos, Filipe Aguera Pinheiro, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, João Luis Garcia, Roberta Lemos Freire
The aims of this study were to verify the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in animal feces and drinking water on dairy farms and to identify a possible relation between the exposure factors and the presence of these parasites. Fecal samples from cattle and humans and water samples were collected on dairy farms in Paraná, Brazil. Analysis of (oo)cysts in the feces was performed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and centrifugal flotation in zinc sulfate. Test-positive samples were subjected to nested PCR amplification of the 18SSU ribosomal RNA gene for identification of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and of the gp60 gene for subtyping of Cryptosporidium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403054/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-carriage-and-disease-in-children-with-primary-immune-deficiencies-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-northern-europe
#6
MULTICENTER STUDY
Angharad P Davies, Mary Slatter, Andrew R Gennery, Guy Robinson, Nigel Crouch, Kristin Elwin, Stephen J Hadfield, Andrew J Cant, E Graham Davies, Rachel M Chalmers
A prospective cohort study of children with primary immunodeficiencies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant in the United Kingdom investigated the extent and significance of Cryptosporidium carriage in this high risk group. Three of 42 children recruited were infected with Cryptosporidium, a lower proportion than previously described. One had serious disease. The underlying immunodeficiency likely had a bearing on the clinical presentation and possible outcome of infection.
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402185/giardiasis-outbreak-associated-with-asymptomatic-food-handlers-in-new-york-state-2015
#7
Mary Figgatt, Kimberly Mergen, Deborah Kimelstein, Danielle M Mahoney, Alexandra Newman, David Nicholas, Kristen Ricupero, Theresa Cafiero, Daniel Corry, Julius Ade, Philip Kurpiel, Susan Madison-Antenucci, Madhu Anand
Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan that causes a gastrointestinal illness called giardiasis. Giardiasis outbreaks in the United States are most commonly associated with waterborne transmission and are less commonly associated with food, person-to-person, and zoonotic transmission. During June to September 2015, an outbreak of 20 giardiasis cases occurred and were epidemiologically linked to a local grocery store chain on Long Island, New York. Further investigation revealed three asymptomatic food handlers were infected with G...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400860/multiple-etiologies-of-infectious-diarrhea-and-concurrent-infections-in-a-pediatric-outpatient-based-screening-study-in-odisha-india
#8
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
BACKGROUND: There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age. METHODS: In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies. Rotavirus and Adenovirus were screened by immunochromatographic tests...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394028/the-dynamics-of-transmission-and-the-dynamics-of-networks
#9
Damien Farine
A toy example depicted here highlighting the results of a study in this issue of the Journal of Animal Ecology that investigates the impact of network dynamics on potential disease outbreaks. Infections (stars) that spread by contact only (left) reduce the predicted outbreak size compared to situations where individuals can become infected by moving through areas that previously contained infected individuals (right). This is potentially important in species where individuals, or in this case groups, have overlapping ranges (as depicted on the top right)...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389892/in-silico-identification-and-validation-of-a-novel-hypothetical-protein-in-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-virtual-screening-of-inhibitors-as-therapeutics
#10
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu, Rajani Kanta Mahapatra
Computational approaches to predict structure/function and other biological characteristics of proteins are becoming more common in comparison to the traditional methods in drug discovery. Cryptosporidiosis is a major zoonotic diarrheal disease particularly in children, which is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Currently, there are no vaccines for cryptosporidiosis and recommended drugs are ineffective. With the availability of complete genome sequence of C. hominis, new targets have been recognized for the development of effective and better drugs and/or vaccines...
April 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388665/dose-response-relationships-for-environmentally-mediated-infectious-disease-transmission-models
#11
Andrew F Brouwer, Mark H Weir, Marisa C Eisenberg, Rafael Meza, Joseph N S Eisenberg
Environmentally mediated infectious disease transmission models provide a mechanistic approach to examining environmental interventions for outbreaks, such as water treatment or surface decontamination. The shift from the classical SIR framework to one incorporating the environment requires codifying the relationship between exposure to environmental pathogens and infection, i.e. the dose-response relationship. Much of the work characterizing the functional forms of dose-response relationships has used statistical fit to experimental data...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387527/quantitative-shedding-of-multiple-genotypes-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-by-deer-mice-peromyscus-maniculatus-in-a-major-agricultural-region-on-the-california-central-coast
#12
Christopher Kilonzo, Xunde Li, Tamara Vodoz, Chengling Xiao, Jennifer A Chase, Michele T Jay-Russell, Eduardo J Vivas, Edward R Atwill
Deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) are abundant and widely distributed rodents in North America that occupy diverse habitats, including agricultural landscapes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common parasites in wildlife including deer mice, which may play a role in on-farm contamination of produce. An important step in assessing the risk of produce contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia shed by deer mice is to determine the prevalence, levels, and genotypes of (oo)cysts in mouse feces. A total of 63 (30...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386287/cryptosporidium-contamination-and-attributed-risks-in-yunlong-lake-in-xuzhou-china
#13
Yadong Kong, Ping Lu, Tao Yuan, Jinghui Niu, Zhaoji Li, Baisong Yang
Swimming in surface water bodies (e.g., lakes, rivers) can expose the human body to substantial risk of infection by Cryptosporidium. These findings are from a one-year investigation on the occurrence and distribution of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium in Yunlong Lake, Xuzhou, China. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. From January to November of 2015, 180 samples (120 water samples and 60 sediment samples) were collected and analyzed. Among them, 42 (35%) water samples and 28 (47%) sediment samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366929/strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-united-states-of-america-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Laia Jimena Vazquez Guillamet, Zane Saul, Goran Miljkovich, Gabriel Alejandro Vilchez, Nikolai Mendonca, Venkata Gourineni, Nicholas Lillo, Marguerite Pinto, Aurengzaib Baig, Louie Mar Gangcuangco
BACKGROUND Strongyloides stercoralis infection is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions but is reported rather sporadically in temperate countries. In the USA, the highest rates of infection are from the southeastern states, predominantly among immigrants. There is paucity of case reports on S. stercoralis infection among HIV-infected patients who were born and raised in the USA. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old male with known HIV infection (CD4 count: 235 cells/uL, undetectable HIV RNA, on antiretroviral therapy) presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361273/widespread-5-methylcytosine-in-the-genomes-of-avian-coccidia-and-other-apicomplexan-parasites-detected-by-an-elisa-based-method
#15
Zhenxing Gong, Hao Yin, Xueting Ma, Baohong Liu, Zhenglan Han, Lingqiao Gou, Jianping Cai
To date, little is known about cytosine methylation in the genomic DNA of apicomplexan parasites, although it has been confirmed that this important epigenetic modification exists in many lower eukaryotes, plants, and animals. In the present study, ELISA-based detection demonstrated that low levels of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) are present in Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Neospora caninum. The proportions of 5-mC in genomic DNA were 0.18 ± 0.02% in E tenella sporulated oocysts, 0...
March 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357803/rainwater-harvesting-in-american-samoa-current-practices-and-indicative-health-risks
#16
Marek Kirs, Philip Moravcik, Pradip Gyawali, Kerry Hamilton, Veljo Kisand, Ian Gurr, Christopher Shuler, Warish Ahmed
Roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) is an important alternative source of water that many island communities can use for drinking and other domestic purposes when groundwater and/or surface water sources are contaminated, limited, or simply not available. The aim of this pilot-scale study was to investigate current RHRW practices in American Samoa (AS) and to evaluate and compare the quality of water from common potable water sources including RHRW stored in tanks, untreated stream water, untreated municipal well water, and treated municipal tap water samples...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346485/identification-and-discrimination-of-toxoplasma-gondii-sarcocystis-spp-neospora-spp-and-cryptosporidium-spp-by-righ-resolution-melting-analysis
#17
Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg, Bianca Mendes Maciel, George Rêgo Albuquerque
The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan), on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction), and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338744/understanding-the-molecular-mechanism-of-substrate-channeling-and-domain-communication-in-protozoal-bifunctional-ts-dhfr
#18
Karen S Anderson
Most species, such as humans, have monofunctional forms of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that are key folate metabolism enzymes making critical folate components required for DNA synthesis. In contrast, several parasitic protozoa, including Leishmania major (Lm), Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and Cryptosporidium hominis (Ch), contain a unique bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) having the two sequential catalytic activities contained on a single polypeptide chain...
March 1, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336217/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia
#19
REVIEW
Gabriela Certad, Eric Viscogliosi, Magali Chabé, Simone M Cacciò
Intestinal protozoa are important etiological agents of diarrhea, particularly in children, yet the public health risk they pose is often neglected. Results from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) showed that Cryptosporidium is among the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children under 2 years. Likewise, Giardia infects approximately 200 million individuals worldwide, and causes acute diarrhea in children under 5 years. Despite this recognized role as pathogens, the question is why and how these parasites cause disease in some individuals but not in others...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329187/bumped-kinase-inhibitors-for-therapy-of-cryptosporidiosis
#20
Matthew A Hulverson, Sumiti Vinayak, Ryan Choi, Deborah A Schaefer, Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez, Rama S R Vidadala, Carrie F Brooks, Gillian T Herbert, Dana P Betzer, Grant R Whitman, Hayley N Sparks, Samuel L M Arnold, Kasey L Rivas, Lynn K Barrett, A Clinton White, Maly Dustin J, Michael W Riggs, Boris Striepen, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Kayode K Ojo
Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) of Cryptosporidium parvum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CpCDPK1) are leading candidates for treatment of cryptosporidiosis diarrhea. Potential cardiotoxicity related to anti-human ether-à-go-go potassium channel (hERG) activity of the first generation anti-Cryptosporidium BKIs triggered further testing for efficacy. A luminescence assay adapted for high-throughput screening was used to measure inhibitory activities of BKIs on in vitro C. parvum. Furthermore, neonatal and interferon-γ knockout mouse models of C...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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