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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634143/pcr-based-verification-of-positive-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-intestinal-protozoa-infections-with-variable-test-band-intensity
#1
Sören L Becker, Ivan Müller, Pascal Mertens, Mathias Herrmann, Leyli Zondie, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Rosa du Randt, Uwe Pühse, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections...
June 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627855/multiplex-pcr-gastro-intestinal-panels-for-the-management-of-traveller-s-diarrhea-are-they-accurate-and-useful
#2
Laurence Rochat, Antony Croxatto, Serge De Vallière, Valérie D'Acremont, Blaise Genton
Until recently, the search for enteropathogens causing travellers' diarrhea was based on stool culture (Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.), direct microscopy with (Cryptosporidium spp.) or without specific staining (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica) or specific antigen detection (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica). Molecular analyses are progressively replacing traditional diagnostic methods but their clinical usefulness remains to be better defined. This article attempts to describe the advantages and disadvantages of these new molecular methods and to illustrate situations where they could be useful using clinical cases frequently encountered in the practice of travel medicine...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625824/polymorphism-study-of-cryptosporidium-hominis-gp60-subtypes-circulating-in-northern-tunisia
#3
Rym Essid, Hanen Chelbi, Siala Emna, Ines Bensghair, Jean Menotti, Aïda Bouratbine
Cryptosporidium spp. are a major cause of gastrointestinal diseases in humans worldwide. While a single subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis has been shown to be responsible for several large outbreaks related to water contamination in developed countries, little is known about the epidemiology of C. hominis in developing countries. This study reports the first genetic characterization of C. hominis at the subtype level in several human populations in an urban region of Tunisia using the gp60 gene. Among 511 stool samples that were collected from different human populations, Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene PCR was positive for 39 samples (7...
June 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623282/a-nationwide-study-of-severe-and-protracted-diarrhoea-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#4
Wen-I Lee, Chien-Chang Chen, Tang-Her Jaing, Liang-Shiou Ou, Chuen Hsueh, Jing-Long Huang
Diarrhoea lasting longer than 14 days and failing to respond to conventional management is defined as severe and protracted diarrhoea (SD). In this study, we investigated the prevalence, pathogens and prognosis of SD in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Among 246 patients with predominantly paediatric-onset PIDs from 2003-2015, 21 [Btk (six), IL2RG (four), WASP, CD40L, gp91 (three each), gp47, RAG2 (one each)] and five [CVID (four), SCID (one)] without identified mutations had SD before prophylactic treatment...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620152/cryptosporidium-meleagridis-and-c-baileyi-apicomplexa-in-domestic-and-wild-birds-in-algeria
#5
Abd Elkarim Laatamna, Nikola Holubova, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kvac
A total of 345 faecal samples were collected from domestic, captive and wild birds in rural areas, urban areas and a Zoo in Algeria. Samples were screened for the presence of parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 by microscopy and PCR analysis of the small-subunit rRNA (SSU), actin and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 31 samples. Sequence analysis of SSU and actin genes revealed the presence of C. baileyi Current, Upton et Haynes, 1986 in domestic chicken broilers (n = 12), captive ostriches (n = 4) and a wild mallard (n = 1), and C...
June 13, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617836/molecular-diversity-and-frequency-of-the-diarrheagenic-enteric-protozoan-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-a-hospital-setting-in-northern-spain
#6
José Manuel Azcona-Gutiérrez, Aida de Lucio, Marta Hernández-de-Mingo, Concepción García-García, Luis Miguel Soria-Blanco, Lucía Morales, María Aguilera, Isabel Fuentes, David Carmena
BACKGROUND: Human giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis are caused by the enteric protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. Both pathogens are major contributors to the global burden of diarrhoeal disease, affecting primarily children and immunodebilitated individuals in resource-poor settings. Giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis also represent an important, often underestimate, public health threat in developed countries. In Spain only limited information is currently available on the epidemiology of these infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617666/parasitic-diseases-of-camels-in-iran-1931-2017-a-literature-review
#7
Alireza Sazmand, Anja Joachim
Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 100-300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus) live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609729/reliability-of-pathogen-control-in-direct-potable-reuse-performance-evaluation-and-qmra-of-a-full-scale-1-mgd-advanced-treatment-train
#8
Brian M Pecson, Sarah C Triolo, Simon Olivieri, Elise C Chen, Aleksey N Pisarenko, Chao-Chun Yang, Adam Olivieri, Charles N Haas, R Shane Trussell, R Rhodes Trussell
To safely progress toward direct potable reuse (DPR), it is essential to ensure that DPR systems can provide public health protection equivalent to or greater than that of conventional drinking water sources. This study collected data over a one-year period from a full-scale DPR demonstration facility, and used both performance distribution functions (PDFs) and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to define and evaluate the reliability of the advanced water treatment facility (AWTF). The AWTF's ability to control enterovirus, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium was characterized using online monitoring of surrogates in a treatment train consisting of ozone, biological activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet light with an advanced oxidation process...
June 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608808/drivers-of-microbial-risk-for-direct-potable-reuse-and-de-facto-reuse-treatment-schemes-the-impacts-of-source-water-quality-and-blending
#9
Rabia M Chaudhry, Kerry A Hamilton, Charles N Haas, Kara L Nelson
Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0-100% treated wastewater effluent) were assessed...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606696/targeted-gene-knockdown-validates-the-essential-role-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-in-cryptosporidium-parvum
#10
William H Witola, Xuejin Zhang, Chi Yong Kim
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan that can cause a life-threatening gastrointestinal syndrome in children and in immunocompromised adults. Currently, the only approved drug for treatment of Cryptosporidium infections in humans is nitazoxanide, but it is not effective in immunocompromised individuals or in children with malnutrition. This is compounded by the lack of genetic methods for studying and validating potential drug targets in the parasite. Therefore, in this study, we endeavoured to adapt the use of a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (morpholino) antisense approach to develop a targeted gene knockdown assay for use in C...
June 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602163/investigation-of-a-food-borne-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-school-canteen-revealed-a-variant-of-sapovirus-genogroup-v-not-detected-by-standard-pcr-sollentuna-sweden-2016
#11
Maria-Pia Hergens, Joanna Nederby Öhd, Erik Alm, Helena H Askling, Sofia Helgesson, Mona Insulander, Nina Lagerqvist, Bo Svenungsson, Malin Tihane, Thomas Tolfvenstam, Per Follin
A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested that the source of the outbreak was the salad buffet served on 20 April, although no specific food item could be identified...
June 1, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601061/intestinal-and-external-parasites-of-raccoon-dogs-nyctereutes-procyonoides-in-western-poland
#12
Natalia Osten-Sacken, Anna Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Jarosław Pacoń, Łukasz Skrzypczak, Anna Werner
Parasites of an invasive species, the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from western Poland were investigated to clarify poorly known ecological key aspects of the species. The research was conducted in two study areas: the Ujście Warty National Park and the Bogdaniec Forestry District. Intestinal samples were collected from the intestinal tracks of 39 dead animals and 51 faecal samples were collected in all seasons from latrines of raccoon dogs. Macro-parasites, their eggs and protozoan parasites were investigated to assess the taxonomic composition of parasites, the level of infection and the risk of potential transfer of dangerous parasites from raccoon dogs to people and native species...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600310/environmental-transport-of-emerging-human-pathogenic-cryptosporidium-species-and-subtypes-through-combined-sewer-overflow-and-wastewater
#13
Chengchen Huang, Yue Hu, Lin Wang, Yuanfei Wang, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
The environmental transport of Cryptosporidium spp. through combined sewer overflow (CSO) and the occurrence of several emerging human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species in developing countries remain unclear. In this study, we collected 40 CSO samples and 40 raw wastewater samples from Shanghai, China and examined them by PCR and DNA sequencing for Cryptosporidium species (targeting the small subunit rRNA gene) and Giardia duodenalis (targeting the triosphosphate isomerase, β-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi (targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) genotypes...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599077/protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-cryptosporidium-parvum-cpprp1-sushi-domain-against-c-tyzzeri-infection-in-mice
#14
Y Huang, W Cao, K Shi, R Mi, K Lu, X Han, Z Chen
Until now there are no completely effective parasite-specific pharmaceuticals or immunotherapies for treatment against the zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. Sushi domain (CpSushi) is an important functional domain in Cryptosporidium parvum putative rhoptry protein-1 (CpPRP1) which is the only reported C. parvum rhoptry protein and may play key role in the course of invasion. Here, a 708 bp fragment encoding the CpSushi domain was amplified and expressed in E. coli. Immunofluorescence detection showed that CpSushi was located on the surface of C...
June 9, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598348/mortality-from-selected-diseases-that-can-be-transmitted-by-water-united-states-2003-2009
#15
J W Gargano, E A Adam, S A Collier, K E Fullerton, S J Feinman, M J Beach
Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires' disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio)...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598342/removals-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-oocysts-and-cryptosporidium-sized-polystyrene-microspheres-from-swimming-pool-water-by-diatomaceous-earth-filtration-and-perlite-sand-filtration
#16
Ping Lu, James E Amburgey, Vincent R Hill, Jennifer L Murphy, Chandra L Schneeberger, Michael J Arrowood, Tao Yuan
Removal of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from swimming pools was investigated using diatomaceous earth (DE) precoat filtration and perlite-sand filtration. In pilot-scale experiments, microsphere removals of up to 2 log were obtained with 0.7 kg·DE/m(2) at a filtration rate of 5 m/h. A slightly higher microsphere removal (2.3 log) was obtained for these DE-precoated filters when the filtration rate was 3.6 m/h. Additionally, pilot-scale perlite-sand filters achieved greater than 2 log removal when at least 0...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582618/estimating-infection-risks-and-the-global-burden-of-diarrheal-disease-attributable-to-intermittent-water-supply-using-qmra
#17
Aaron Bivins, Trent Sumner, Emily Kumpel, Guy Howard, Oliver Cumming, Ian Ross, Kara L Nelson, Joe Brown
Intermittent water supply (IWS) is prevalent throughout low and middle-income countries. IWS is associated with increased microbial contamination and potentially elevated risk of waterborne illness. We used existing datasets to estimate the population exposed to IWS, assess the probability of infection using quantitative microbial risk assessment, and calculate the subsequent burden of diarrheal disease attributable to consuming fecally contaminated tap water from an IWS. We used reference pathogens Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, and rotavirus as conservative risk proxies for infections via bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, respectively...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579835/transmission-of-health-care-associated-infections-from-roommates-and-prior-room-occupants-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Bevin Cohen, Catherine Crawford Cohen, Borghild Løyland, Elaine L Larson
Pathogens that cause health care-associated infections (HAIs) are known to survive on surfaces and equipment in health care environments despite routine cleaning. As a result, the infection status of prior room occupants and roommates may play a role in HAI transmission. We performed a systematic review of the literature evaluating the association between patients' exposure to infected/colonized hospital roommates or prior room occupants and their risk of infection/colonization with the same organism. A PubMed search for English articles published in 1990-2014 yielded 330 studies, which were screened by three reviewers...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579426/estimates-of-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-diarrhoeal-diseases-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of diarrhoeal diseases. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and informs the changing picture of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. METHODS: We estimated diarrhoeal mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm), a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study...
June 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579024/longitudinal-monitoring-of-cryptosporidium-species-in-pre-weaned-dairy-calves-on-five-farms-in-shanghai-china
#20
Min Cai, Yaqiong Guo, Baoliang Pan, Na Li, Xiaolan Wang, Chuanxiang Tang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
In pre-weaned dairy calves, the zoonotic and pathogenic species Cryptosporidium parvum is the dominant Cryptosporidium species in most industrialized nations. In several studies in China, however, C. bovis has been the dominant one. To further examine the distribution of Cryptosporidium species in pre-weaned dairy calves in China, 818 fecal specimens were collected from five farms in Shanghai, with repeated samplings (up to five times) on each farm. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene was used to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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