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Maureen N Kinyua, Ileana Wald, Fabricio Camacho-Céspedes, Ricardo Izurieta, Charles N Haas, Sarina J Ergas
Worldwide, high incidences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are attributed to livestock waste. Quantitative microbial risk assessment can be used to estimate the risk of livestock related infections from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. The objective of this paper was to assess the occupational and public health risks associated with management of raw and anaerobically digested livestock waste in two rural communities in Costa Rica based on fomite, soil and crop contamination and livestock waste management exposure pathways...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
A Castellanos-Gonzalez, H Sparks, S Nava, W Huang, Z Zhang, K Rivas, M Hulverson, L Barrett, K K Ojo, E Fan, W C Van Voorhis, A C White
Cryptosporidium is recognized as one of the main causes of childhood diarrhea worldwide. However, the current treatment for cryptosporidiosis is suboptimal. Calcium flux is essential for entry in apicomplexan parasites. Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are distinct from protein kinases of mammals, and the CDPK1 of the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium lack side-chains that typically block a hydrophobic pocket in protein kinases. We exploited this to develop bumped kinase inhibitors (BKI) that selectively target CDPK1...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
D R Lapen, P J Schmidt, J L Thomas, T A Edge, C Flemming, J Keithlin, N Neumann, F Pollari, N Ruecker, A Simhon, E Topp, G Wilkes, K D M Pintar
Many Cryptosporidium species/genotypes are not considered infectious to humans, and more realistic estimations of seasonal infection risks could be made using human infectious species/genotype information to inform quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA). Cryptosporidium oocyst concentration and species/genotype data were collected from three surface water surveillance programs in two river basins [South Nation River, SN (2004-09) and Grand River, GR (2005-13)] in Ontario, Canada to evaluate seasonal infection risks...
August 13, 2016: Water Research
Shehla Khalil, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Jaishree Paul, Ashutosh Panda, Govind Makharia, Rama Chaudhry, Shinjini Bhatnagar
Cryptosporidiosis is predominantly a gastrointestinal disease of humans and other animals, caused by various species of protozoan parasites representing the genus Cryptosporidium. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in human clinical samples is central to the prevention, surveillance and control of cryptosporidiosis, particularly given that there is presently no broadly applicable treatment regimen for this disease. A non-radioactive, genus specific DNA dot blot hybridization assay was developed using Digoxigenin (DIG) labelled probes to detect Cryptosporidium DNA in human clinical samples...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Fiona M Menzies, David Macphail, Fiona L Henriquez
Protists are a diverse collection of eukaryotic organisms that account for a significant global infection burden. Often, the immune responses mounted against these parasites cause excessive inflammation and therefore pathology in the host. Elucidating the mechanisms of both protective and harmful immune responses is complex, and often relies of the use of animal models. In any immune response, leucocyte trafficking to the site of infection, or inflammation, is paramount, and this involves the production of chemokines, small chemotactic cytokines of approximately 8-10 kDa in size, which bind to specific chemokine receptors to induce leucocyte movement...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Fuhuang Li, Haiyan Wang, Zhenjie Zhang, Junqiang Li, Chenrong Wang, Jinfeng Zhao, Suhui Hu, Rongjun Wang, Longxian Zhang, Ming Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Caroline Jacobson, Andrew Williams, Rongchang Yang, Una Ryan, Ian Carmichael, Angus J Campbell, Graham E Gardner
Associations between intensity and frequency of Cryptosporidium and Giardia shedding with growth, carcase weight and dressing% were investigated using a longitudinal study of 1182 lambs on eight Australian farms. Live weight was recorded and faecal samples were collected on three sampling occasions; weaning (approximately 12 weeks of age), post-weaning (approximately 19 weeks) and pre-slaughter (approximately 29 weeks). Hot standard carcase weight (HSCW) and dressing% were measured at slaughter. Faecal samples were screened for presence and concentration of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Haemonchus oocysts using a quantitative PCR...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Nawal Hijjawi, Rami Mukbel, Rongchang Yang, Una Ryan
Little is known about the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in Jordan and to date, only one genotyping study has been conducted on Cryptosporidium isolates from Jordanian children. In the present study, a total of 284 faecal samples from Jordanian cattle, sheep, goats and chicken and 48 human faecal samples were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a C. parvum/C. hominis specific qPCR at a lectin locus. Of these, 37 of 284 animal faecal samples were positive by qPCR at the 18S locus giving an overall prevalence of 11...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Youfang Gu, Xiaolong Wang, Cefan Zhou, Peiying Li, Qianming Xu, Changcheng Zhao, Wei Liu, Wenlong Xu
To assess Cryptosporidium infections among wild animals in a zoo located in Anhui province, we conducted an investigation on the fecal samples collected from 44 primates, 41 herbivores, 44 carnivores and omnivores, and 103 birds in the zoo with the use of Sheather's sugar flotation technique and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the fecal samples from six primates, two herbivores, four carnivores and omnivores, and seven birds by using Sheather's sugar flotation technique; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 13...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
R M Chalmers, S Cacciò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Diana F Florescu, Uriel Sandkovsky
Diarrhea is a common complication in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and may be attributed to immunosuppressive drugs or infectious organisms such as bacteria, viruses or parasites. Cryptosporidium usually causes self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts. Although it is estimated that cryptosporidium is involved in about 12% of cases of infectious diarrhea in developing countries and causes approximately 748000 cases each year in the United States, it is still an under recognized and important cause of infectious diarrhea in SOT recipients...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Touret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
Jie Liu, James A Platts-Mills, Jane Juma, Furqan Kabir, Joseph Nkeze, Catherine Okoi, Darwin J Operario, Jashim Uddin, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Pedro L Alonso, Martin Antonio, Stephen M Becker, William C Blackwelder, Robert F Breiman, Abu S G Faruque, Barry Fields, Jean Gratz, Rashidul Haque, Anowar Hossain, M Jahangir Hossain, Sheikh Jarju, Farah Qamar, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Brenda Kwambana, Inacio Mandomando, Timothy L McMurry, Caroline Ochieng, John B Ochieng, Melvin Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Sandra Panchalingam, Adil Kalam, Fatima Aziz, Shahida Qureshi, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, James H Roberts, Debasish Saha, Samba O Sow, Suzanne E Stroup, Dipika Sur, Boubou Tamboura, Mami Taniuchi, Sharon M Tennant, Deanna Toema, Yukun Wu, Anita Zaidi, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Eric R Houpt
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, but establishing the cause can be complicated by diverse diagnostic approaches and varying test characteristics. We used quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to reassess causes of diarrhoea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). METHODS: GEMS was a study of moderate to severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Africa and Asia. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to test for 32 enteropathogens in stool samples from cases and matched asymptomatic controls from GEMS, and compared pathogen-specific attributable incidences with those found with the original GEMS microbiological methods, including culture, EIA, and reverse-transcriptase PCR...
September 24, 2016: Lancet
Lucien W Gassie, James D Englehardt, Jian Wang, Nichole Brinkman, Jay Garland, Piero Gardinali, Tianjiao Guo
Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design and operating experience are extremely limited. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the second phase of operation of an advanced oxidation-based NZW pilot system designed, constructed, and operated for a period of two years, serving an occupied four-person apartment...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Benjarat Yimming, Khampee Pattanatanang, Pornchai Sanyathitiseree, Tawin Inpankaew, Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Nongnuch Pinyopanuwat, Wissanuwat Chimnoi, Jumnongjit Phasuk
Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota)...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Fabienne Schubnell, Sereina von Ah, Robert Graage, Titus Sydler, Xaver Sidler, Daniela Hadorn, Walter Basso
In order to estimate the diversity, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of parasites in pigs submitted for diagnosis to the PathoPig project of the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, faeces (n=125) from suckling piglets (n=39), weaners (n=60) and piglets beginning fattening (n=26) from 74 Swiss farms were examined by 3 coproscopical methods (i.e. sedimentation/zinc chloride-flotation; SAFC and Ziehl-Neelsen staining). Samples microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium were further tested by PCR/sequencing for species assessment...
December 2016: Parasitology International
Una Ryan, Andrea Paparini, Paul Monis, Nawal Hijjawi
Parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium are a major cause of diarrhoea and ill-health in humans and animals and are frequent causes of waterborne outbreaks. Until recently, it was thought that Cryptosporidium was an obligate intracellular parasite that only replicated within a suitable host, and that faecally shed oocysts could survive in the environment but could not multiply. In light of extensive biological and molecular data, including the ability of Cryptosporidium to complete its life cycle in the absence of a host and the production of novel extracellular stages, Cryptosporidium has been formally transferred from the Coccidia, to a new subclass, Cryptogregaria, with gregarine parasites...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Francisco Miroslav Ulloa-Stanojlović, Bruna Aguiar, Luis M Jara, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato, Juana Arzola Guerrero, Elayse Hachich, Glavur Rogério Matté, Milena Dropa, Maria Helena Matté, Ronalda Silva de Araújo
The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
September 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ying Tang, Na Li, Mingxin Song, Dawn M Roellig, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidium ubiquitum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen in humans. Recently, a subtyping tool targeting the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was developed for C. ubiquitum, and identified six subtype families (XIIa-XIIf). In this study, we selected five genetic loci known to be polymorphic in C. hominis and C. parvum for the development of a multilocus subtyping tool for C. ubiquitum, including CP47 (cgd6_1590), MSC6-5 (cgd6_4290), cgd6_60, cgd2_3690, and cgd4_370. PCR primers for these targets were designed based on whole genome sequence data from C...
September 12, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kinga Leśniańska, Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak, Joanna Hildebrand, Katarzyna Buńkowska-Gawlik, Agnieszka Piróg, Marcin Popiołek
The raccoon (Procyon lotor) carnivore native to North America is a fast spreading, invasive species in the Europe now. At the moment, the highest population occupies areas near the German-Polish border. The data on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and microsporidia in raccoons is limited to North America's territory and is totally lacking in the case of their introduction to Europe. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of microparasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium spp. and microsporidia in the introduced raccoons obtained from localities in Poland and Germany...
September 14, 2016: Parasitology Research
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