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Cryptosporidium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102513/incidence-of-cryptosporidium-andersoni-in-diarrheal-patients-from-southern-assam-india-a-molecular-approach
#1
G Hussain, S Roychoudhury, B Singha, J Paul
The distribution and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in humans and bovine differ across geographical areas. Cryptosporidium species causes a disease known as cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. To characterize the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in humans in southern Assam, India, stool samples (n = 1119) of diarrhea patients were collected from different hospitals and from the community during the period January 2014 to July 2016. Fecal smears were examined microscopically for Cryptosporidium species using modified acid fast staining and were screened to ascertain the presence of Cryptosporidium antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098070/epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-infection-in-cattle-in-china-a-review
#2
Chao Gong, Xue-Feng Cao, Lei Deng, Wei Li, Xiang-Ming Huang, Jing-Chao Lan, Qi-Cheng Xiao, Zhi-Jun Zhong, Fan Feng, Yue Zhang, Wen-Bo Wang, Ping Guo, Kong-Ju Wu, Guang-Neng Peng
The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095909/prevalence-and-genetic-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-species-and-giardia-duodenalis-in-lambs-in-oromia-special-zone-central-ethiopia
#3
Teklu Wegayehu, Md Robiul Karim, Junqiang Li, Haileeyesus Adamu, Berhanu Erko, Longxian Zhang, Getachew Tilahun
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis are gastro-intestinal parasites that infect human and animals worldwide. Both parasites share a broad host range and are believed to be zoonosis. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium and assemblages of G. duodenalis in lambs and to elucidate their role in zoonotic transmission. RESULTS: A total of 389 fecal samples were collected from lambs and screened by microscopy and nested PCR targeting the small-subunit ribosomal RNA for Cryptosporidium; and the small-subunit ribosomal RNA, triose phosphate isomerase, β-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes for G...
January 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093538/prevalence-and-determinants-of-cryptosporidium-infection-in-an-underdeveloped-rural-region-of-southwestern-china
#4
Ya Yang, Yibiao Zhou, Wanting Cheng, Xiang Pan, Penglei Xiao, Yan Shi, Jianchuan Gao, Xiuxia Song, Yue Chen, Qingwu Jiang
Few studies have focused on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in resource-challenged settings in China. We report a community-based cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection and its risk factors and associations with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 12.6% (95% confidence interval = 11.0-14.3). Individuals living in households with ≥ 5 family members and raising domestic pigs tended to have a greater risk of Cryptosporidium infection...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093213/characterization-of-the-efficiency-and-uncertainty-of-skimmed-milk-flocculation-for-the-simultaneous-concentration-and-quantification-of-water-borne-viruses-bacteria-and-protozoa
#5
Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, Yexenia Cardenas-Youngs, Miquel Calvo, Marcelle Figueira Marques da Silva, Ayalkibet Hundesa, Inmaculada Amorós, Yolanda Moreno, Laura Moreno-Mesonero, Rosa Rosell, Lliliane Ganges, Rosa Araujo, Rosina Girones
In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091387/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-cats-and-their-importance-in-terms-of-public-health
#6
Umut Fikret Korkmaz, Sami Gökpınar, Kader Yıldız
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to detect the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats by fecal examination. METHODS: A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from owned and stray cats in the Kırıkkale province. Epidemiological data on the sampled cats (e.g., age, race, and sex) were recorded. The samples were macroscopically investigated for the presence of cestode proglottids. The fecal smears were stained with Giemsa and Carbol fuchsin stains. The samples were prepared by centrifugal flotation with a saturated sugar solution...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087921/pathogen-characterization-of-fresh-and-stored-mesophilic-anaerobically-digested-biosolids
#7
Cecily A
Culturable bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria, Yersinia) and indicators (E. coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) were quantified at six wastewater treatment plants that land apply anaerobically digested biosolids in Ontario, Canada. Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia were also quantified by PCR. Salmonella and Listeria were frequently detected in sludge and liquid biosolids (70-100% of samples) but less often in fresh dewatered cake biosolids (50-60%); with low levels in fresh cake (<100 cells/g dw)...
January 13, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081063/state-laws-requiring-hand-sanitation-stations-at-animal-contact-exhibits-united-states-march-april-2016
#8
Aila Hoss, Colin Basler, Lauren Stevenson, Kelly Gambino-Shirley, Misha Park Robyn, Megin Nichols
In the United States, animal contact exhibits, such as petting zoos and agricultural fairs, have been sources of zoonotic infections, including infections with Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Cryptosporidium (1-4). The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians recommends handwashing after contact with animals as an effective prevention measure to disease transmission at these exhibits (4). This report provides a list of states that have used law, specifically statutes and regulations, as public health interventions to increase hand sanitation at animal contact exhibits...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079280/cryptosporidiosis-outbreak-at-an-academic-animal-research-laboratory-colorado-2014
#9
Jessica Hancock-Allen, Nisha B Alden, Alicia B Cronquist
BACKGROUND: After cryptosporidiosis was reported in three workers caring for preweaned calves at an academic research laboratory, we sought to identify cases, determine risk factors, and implement control measures. METHODS: A cryptosporidiosis case was defined as diarrhea duration ≥72 hr, abdominal cramps, or vomiting in an animal research laboratory worker during July 14-July 31. A confirmed case had laboratory evidence of Cryptosporidium infection. Staff were interviewed regarding illness, potential exposures, training, and personal protective equipment (PPE) standard operating procedures (SOPs)...
February 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074315/the-roundworm-strongyloides-stercoralis-in-children-dogs-and-soil-inside-and-outside-a-segregated-settlement-in-eastern-slovakia-frequent-but-hardly-detectable-parasite
#10
G Štrkolcová, M Goldová, E Bocková, J Mojžišová
A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the Strongyloides stercoralis infections in children and dogs inside and outside the segregated settlement in Medzev, Eastern Slovakia, and a survey of the soil within the settlement was included. Applying the Koga agar plate (KAP) culture method and microscopy examination of stool samples collected from 60 Roma and 21 nonRoma children, no larvae of S. stercoralis were detected but eggs of three nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis) and cysts of two protozoan endoparasites (Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp...
January 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061911/presence-of-zoonotic-cryptosporidium-scrofarum-giardia-duodenalis-assemblage-a-and-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-genotypes-in-captive-eurasian-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-in-china-potential-for-zoonotic-transmission
#11
Wei Li, Lei Deng, Kongju Wu, Xiangming Huang, Yuan Song, Huaiyi Su, Yanchun Hu, Hualin Fu, Zhijun Zhong, Guangneng Peng
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are the main causal pathogens of gastrointestinal disease. However, there are limited reports about the prevalence of these organisms in captive Eurasian wild boars worldwide. Therefore, we examined the occurrence and identified the species/assemblages/genotypes of these pathogens in captive Eurasian wild boars, and estimated the zoonotic potential. FINDINGS: Of 357 fecal samples collected from captive Eurasian wild boars in China, 155 (43...
January 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058536/diversity-of-cryptosporidium-species-occurring-in-sheep-and-goat-breeds-reared-in-poland
#12
Agnieszka Kaupke, Mirosław M Michalski, Artur Rzeżutka
The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species and assessment of their prevalence in different breeds of sheep and goat reared in Poland. In addition, the relationship between animal age, breed type, and the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections was determined. Fecal samples from 234 lambs and 105 goat kids aged up to 9 weeks, representing 24 breeds and their cross-breeds were collected from 71 small ruminant farms across Poland. The identification of Cryptosporidium species was performed at the 18 SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and COWP loci followed by subtyping of C...
January 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052996/a-novel-bioengineered-3d-human-intestinal-model-for-long-term-infection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#13
Maria A DeCicco RePass, Ying Chen, Yinan Lin, Wenda Zhou, David L Kaplan, Honorine D Ward
Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan parasites of global importance that cause human diarrheal disease. In vitro culture models to study this parasite with physiological relevance to in vivo infection remain sub-optimal. Thus, the pathogenesis of cryptosporidiosis remains poorly characterized, and interventions for the disease are limited. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a novel bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model (which we developed previously) to support long term infection by C. parvum...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043388/first-description-of-cryptosporidium-hominis-gp60-genotype-ika20g1-and-cryptosporidium-parvum-gp60-genotypes-iiaa18g3r1-and-iiaa15g2r1-in-foals-in-brazil
#14
Sandra Valéria Inácio, Giovanni Widmer, Roberta Lomonte Lemos de Brito, Anaiza Simão Zucatto, Monally Conceição Costa de Aquino, Bruno César Miranda Oliveira, Alex Akira Nakamura, Luiz da Silveira Neto, João Gabriel Balizardo Carvalho, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
The present study focuses on Cryptosporidium infections of foals in Brazil. A total of 92 animals of different breeds from 11 farms in the vicinity of Araçatuba in the state of São Paulo, were examined. According to PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene, Cryptosporidium sp. DNA was detected in 21.7% (20/92) of foals. Good quality 18S rRNA, actin, HSP70 and gp60 genes nPCR amplicons were obtained from five fecal samples. PCR amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the GP60 sporozoite surface glycoprotein gene revealed C...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043382/protozoan-and-helminth-parasite-fauna-of-free-living-croatian-wild-wolves-canis-lupus-analyzed-by-scat-collection
#15
Carlos Hermosilla, Sonja Kleinertz, Liliana M R Silva, Jörg Hirzmann, Djuro Huber, Josip Kusak, Anja Taubert
The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039407/cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-attenuates-the-ex%C3%A2-vivo-propagation-of-murine-intestinal-enteroids
#16
Xin-Tian Zhang, Ai-Yu Gong, Yang Wang, Xiqiang Chen, Sheng-Yau S Lim, Courtney E Dolata, Xian-Ming Chen
Cryptosporidium, a ubiquitous coccidian protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal epithelium and other mucosal surfaces, is an important opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised individuals and a common cause of diarrhea in young children in the developing countries. One of the pathological hallmarks of intestinal cryptosporidiosis is villous atrophy, which results in a shorter height of intestinal villi. Here, we investigated the effects of Cryptosporidium infection on intestinal epithelial growth, using an ex vivo model of intestinal cryptosporidiosis employing enteroids from mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039197/an-evaluation-of-health-protection-practices-for-the-investigation-and-management-of-cryptosporidium-in-england-and-wales
#17
R M Chalmers, N McCarthy, K L Barlow, R Stiff
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major cause of gastroenteritis (cryptosporidiosis). Case and outbreak report rates vary geographically, which may in part reflect public health practice. METHODS: To examine the public health management of cryptosporidiosis, an online questionnaire was administered to the 28 Health Protection Teams (HPTs) in England and Wales in 2014. Practices for investigation and management of cases and outbreaks were compared. RESULTS: Practice varied among the 24 (86%) respondents in terms of who undertook actions (HPT or Local Authority) to investigate and manage cryptosporidiosis...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039137/attenuation-of-cryptosporidium-across-the-wastewater-treatment-train-recycled-water-fit-for-purpose
#18
Brendon King, Stella Fanok, Renae Phillips, Melody Lau, Ben van den Akker, Paul Monis
: Compliance with guideline removal targets for Cryptosporidium, which do not provide any credit for the inactivation of oocysts through wastewater treatment processes, can considerably increase the cost of providing recycled water. Here we present the application of an integrated assay to quantify both oocyst numbers and infectivity after various treatment stages at three Victorian and two South Australian (SA) Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Oocyst density in the raw sewage was commensurate with community disease burden, with early rounds of sampling capturing a widespread cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Victoria...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030522/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-carriage-and-disease-in-children-with-primary-immune-deficiencies-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-northern-europe
#19
Angharad P Davies, Mary Slatter, Andrew R Gennery, Guy Robinson, Nigel Crouch, Kristin Elwin, Stephen J Hadfield, Andrew J Cant, E Graham Davies, Rachel M Chalmers
A prospective cohort study of children with primary immunodeficiencies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in the UK investigated the extent and significance of Cryptosporidium carriage in this high-risk group. Three of 42 children recruited were infected with Cryptosporidium, a lower proportion than previously described. One had serious disease. The underlying immunodeficiency likely had a bearing on the clinical presentation and possible outcome of infection.
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030344/report-of-fatal-mixed-infection-with-cryptosporidium-parvum-and-giardia-intestinalis-in-neonatal-calves
#20
Yuu Matsuura, Makoto Matsubayashi, Satoko Nukata, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Osamu Ayukawa, Yasuko Kondo, Tomohide Matsuo, Shigehiko Uni, Masaru Furuya, Hiroyuki Tani, Naotoshi Tsuji, Kazumi Sasai
In the production and management of beef and dairy cattle, controlling diarrhea is one of the important concerns. Pathogenic agents of the disease, protozoan parasites including Cryptosporidium spp., are difficult to control, making prevention, diagnoses, and treatment of diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated a farm with a history of calf deaths over a period of 10 years in order to determine the cause of disease and to clarify the detailed distribution of the pathogens. In four examined calves that were reared in calf pens, all were positive with Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia, while the other breeding stock and adult cattle were negative...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
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