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Shumin Xiao, Sike Hu, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Wenwei Pan
Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are one of the sources of pathogens discharged into surface water. An investigation was carried out over the duration of 12 months in Henan Province, China, to evaluate the health influence of municipal wastewater effluent discharge on water quality of the receiving water. A discharge-based quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was employed, taking into account the vegetables consumption habits of the Chinese, population subgroups with different immune statuses and ages, to evaluate the incremental disease burden from agricultural irrigation and swimming exposure scenarios associated with increased concentration of the protozoan Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the receiving river...
November 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Joanna Schiller, Sebastian Klein, Marianne Engels, Reinhard Büttner, Jan Rybniker, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Christof Scheid, Christian Wybranski, Alexander Quaas, Hans Christian Reinhardt, Ruth Waßermann
Cryptosporidium infection is a rare cause of enterocolitis. In immunocompromised patients, cryptosporidiosis may lead to debilitating and life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption, occasionally with multi organ involvement. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while cellular immunity is usually compromised due to intensive conditioning chemotherapy. Diarrhea in patients who underwent allo-HSCT may be a sign of an infection, but can also be the result of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
David Baines, Michaela Giles, Michael Richardson
Infection by Cryptosporidiumbaileyi causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis in red grouse Lagopuslagopusscotica. First diagnosed in 2010, it has since been detected across half of moors managed for grouse shooting in northern England. We hypothesised that contaminated grouse faeces within communal trays visited by grouse containing grit coated with flubendazole, provided to control Trichostrongylustenuis parasites of grouse, is a reservoir of infection. To establish the basis to this hypothesis, contents of 23 trays from a grouse moor were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts...
November 13, 2017: Pathogens
Giulia Simonato, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono, Rudi Cassini, Donato Traversa, Cinzia Tessarin, Angela Di Cesare, Mario Pietrobelli
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal pathogens of humans and animals. Dogs may be infected by zoonotic isolates of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. that, consequently, have high interest under public health perspective. This study estimated the occurrence of these protozoa in canine faeces polluting public areas of Padua municipality (Northern Italy), towards a potential evaluation of health risks for dogs and humans. A total of 705 canine stools was collected in green (n = 270) and urban (n = 435) areas and processed by duplex real-time PCR and real-time PCR SYBR® Green I for the detection of both protozoa...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne illness, the majority of which is caused by enteric infectious agents, costs global economies billions of dollars each year. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is particularly suited to foodborne transmission and is responsible for >8 million cases of foodborne illness annually. Procedures have been developed for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce and molecular diagnostic assays have been widely used in case linkages and infection source tracking, especially during outbreak investigations...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Christine Marie George, Vanessa Burrowes, Jamie Perin, Lauren Oldja, Shwapon Biswas, David Sack, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Rashidul Haque, Nurul Amin Bhuiyan, Tahmina Parvin, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Mahmuda Akter, Shan Li, Gayathri Natarajan, Mohammad Shahnaij, Abu G Faruque, O Colin Stine
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between fecal contamination in child play spaces, enteric infections, environmental enteropathy (EE), and impaired growth among young children. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 203 children 6-30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Stool samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for Shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp. Four fecal markers of intestinal inflammation were also measured: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin, and calprotectin...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Katharine M Benedict, Hannah Reses, Marissa Vigar, David M Roth, Virginia A Roberts, Mia Mattioli, Laura A Cooley, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Kathleen E Fullerton, Jonathan S Yoder, Vincent R Hill
Provision of safe water in the United States is vital to protecting public health (1). Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to CDC through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) ( During 2013-2014, 42 drinking water-associated(†) outbreaks were reported, accounting for at least 1,006 cases of illness, 124 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. Legionella was associated with 57% of these outbreaks and all of the deaths...
November 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
R Paul McClung, David M Roth, Marissa Vigar, Virginia A Roberts, Amy M Kahler, Laura A Cooley, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Kathleen E Fullerton, Jonathan S Yoder, Vincent R Hill
Waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States are associated with a wide variety of water exposures and are reported annually to CDC on a voluntary basis by state and territorial health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). A majority of outbreaks arise from exposure to drinking water (1) or recreational water (2), whereas others are caused by an environmental exposure to water or an undetermined exposure to water. During 2013-2014, 15 outbreaks associated with an environmental exposure to water and 12 outbreaks with an undetermined exposure to water were reported, resulting in at least 289 cases of illness, 108 hospitalizations, and 17 deaths...
November 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
K Vanathy, Subhash Chandra Parija, Jharna Mandal, Abdoul Hamide, Sriram Krishnamurthy
Cryptosporidium spp. was first described in mice in 1907. The first human case was reported in an acquired immune deficiency syndrome patient after which it gained importance. It is one of the emerging protozoan parasites according to the Centre of Disease Control and Prevention. The special structure which is present in them such as rhoptries and micronemes are responsible for their virulence and pathogenicity. They can be transmitted from animals, human to human, water, food, and tends to cause waterborne outbreaks...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
Jan Šlapeta
Cryptosporidium spp. (Apicomplexa) causing cryptosporidiosis are of medical and veterinary significance. The genus Cryptosporidium has benefited from the application of what is considered a DNA-barcoding approach, even before the term 'DNA barcoding' was formally coined. Here, the objective to define the DNA barcode diversity of Cryptosporidium infecting mammals is reviewed and considered to be accomplished. Within the Cryptosporidium literature, the distinction between DNA barcoding and DNA taxonomy is indistinct...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
Asis Khan, Jahangheer S Shaik, Michael E Grigg
Cryptosporidium is one of the most widespread protozoan parasites that infects domestic and wild animals and is considered the second major cause of diarrhea and death in children after rotavirus. So far, around 20 distinct species are known to cause severe to moderate infections in humans, of which Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the major causative agents. Currently, ssurRNA and gp60 are used as the optimal markers for differentiating species and subtypes respectively. Over the last decade, diagnostic tools to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species at the genotype and subtype level have improved, but our understanding of the zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission potential of each species is less clear, largely because of the paucity of high resolution whole genome sequencing data for the different species...
October 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Anna Paziewska-Harris, Gerard Schoone, Henk D F H Schallig
The long-term storage of Cryptosporidium life-cycle stages is a prerequisite for in vitro culture of the parasite. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, sporozoites and intracellular forms inside infected host cells were stored for 6 to 12 mo in liquid nitrogen utilizing different cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], glycerol and fetal calf serum [FCS]), then cultured in vitro. Performance in vitro was quantified by estimating the total Cryptosporidium copy number using qPCR in 3- and 7-day-old cultures. While only few parasites were recovered either from stored oocysts or from infected host cells, sporozoites stored in liquid nitrogen recovered from freezing successfully...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
Sarah K Wilson, Laura J Knoll
Emerging lipidomic technologies have enabled researchers to dissect the complex roles of phospholipases in lipid metabolism, cellular signaling, and immune regulation. Host phospholipase products are involved in stimulating and resolving the inflammatory response to pathogens. While many pathogen-derived phospholipases also manipulate the immune response, they have recently been shown to be involved in lipid remodeling and scavenging during replication. Animal and plant hosts as well as many pathogens contain a family of patatin-like phospholipases, which have been shown to have phospholipase A2 activity...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Fernando César Andreoli, Lyda Patricia Sabogal-Paz
Removing protozoa from a water supply using coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation and filtration on a bench scale was evaluated. Flocculation in calcium carbonate with and without immunomagnetic separation was chosen to detect Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the studied samples. Analytical quality of assays of the detection protocol of target organisms was performed and the results were compared to the criteria established in Method 1623.1 from the US Environmental Protection Agency...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
Shalini Chakraborty, Sonti Roy, Hiral Uday Mistry, Shweta Murthy, Neena George, Vasundhra Bhandari, Paresh Sharma
Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Babesia, and Theileria are the major apicomplexan parasites affecting humans or animals worldwide. These pathogens represent an excellent example of host manipulators who can overturn host signaling pathways for their survival. They infect different types of host cells and take charge of the host machinery to gain nutrients and prevent itself from host attack. The mechanisms by which these pathogens modulate the host signaling pathways are well studied for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Theileria, except for limited studies on Babesia...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Ceren Dinler, Bulent Ulutas, Huseyin Voyvoda, Pinar Alkim Ulutas, Kerem Ural, Tulin Karagenc
This study aimed to evaluate the acute phase response (APR) through haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in serum and to examine the correlation between these acute phase proteins (APPs) and oocyst shedding using experimental Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) infection model in neonatal lambs. Twenty lambs were divided into two equal groups: group CON remained uninfected as negative control and lambs of the group EXP were inoculated orally with 1×10(6)C. parvum oocysts. Blood and faecal samples were obtained from both groups before colostrum intake and prior to inoculation (day-1), and at 2, 6, 13, and 20days post-inoculation (dpi)...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Yingying Fan, Tao Wang, Anson V Koehler, Min Hu, Robin B Gasser
BACKGROUND: The protistan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia can cause significant intestinal diseases in animals and humans. Cattle, particularly calves, carrying these protists can be significant reservoirs for human infections and disease. However, little is known about the genetic make-up of Cryptosporidium and Giardia populations in cattle and other ruminants in some regions of China. RESULTS: In the present study, PCR-based tools were used to genetically characterise these protists in faecal samples from a total of 339 pre- and post-weaned calves from four distinct locations in Hubei Province using markers in the large (LSU) or small (SSU) subunits of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes...
October 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Y Moreno, L Moreno-Mesonero, I Amorós, R Pérez, A J Morillo, J L Alonso
Understanding waterborne protozoan parasites (WPPs) diversity has important implications in public health. In this study, we evaluated a NGS-based method as a detection approach to identify simultaneously most important WPPs using 18S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. A set of primers to target the V4 18S rRNA region of WPPs such as Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia sp., Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba spp, Toxoplasma sp. and free-living amoebae (FLA) was designed. In order to optimize PCR conditions before sequencing, both a mock community with a defined composition of representative WPPs and a real water sample inoculated with specific WPPs DNA were prepared...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Eva Domenech, Inmaculada Amorós, Yolanda Moreno, José L Alonso
The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in waste water is a main concern because water reuse for irrigation can jeopardize human health. Spanish Legislation for water reuse does not oblige to analyze the presence of both pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia in reused water for irrigation. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to determine the influence of wastewater treatment in the increase of the consumer safety margin in relation to the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in leafy green vegetables...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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