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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916308/transient-transfection-of-cryptosporidium-baileyi
#1
A-K Tetens, S Hanig, M Kurth, G Greif, R Entzeroth
Here we demonstrate the transient transfection of C. baileyi. We describe the transfection of this apicomplexan parasite and the cultivation in ovo. The functionality of heterologous sequences in C. baileyi was demonstrated by the expression and detection of the mCherry protein in ovo. The mCherry protein was expressed in parasitic stages up to the oocyst stage under the control of the heterologous promoter region of the C. parvum actin gene.
September 12, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916001/giardia-and-cryptosporidium-infections-in-neonatal-reindeer-calves-relation-to-the-acute-phase-response
#2
Tarmo Niine, Kristel Peetsalu, Mauri Nieminen, Antti Oksanen, Timo Soveri, Toomas Orro
This longitudinal observational study was conducted to investigate the spontaneous effect of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections on acute phase response (APR) in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Finnish Lapland. Serum (n=609) and faecal samples (n=366) were collected from 54 reindeer calves aged zero to 33days. The samples were analysed for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, acute phase proteins (APP) and γ-globulins. Linear regression models were used to investigate associations of early Giardia infection (before 12days of life) with the response of APPs and acquiring of passive immunity...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912761/preliminary-characterization-of-medle-2-a-protein-potentially-involved-in-the-invasion-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#3
Baoling Li, Haizhen Wu, Na Li, Jiayuan Su, Ruilian Jia, Jianlin Jiang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidium spp. are important causes of diarrhea in humans, ruminants, and other mammals. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that genetically related and host-adapted Cryptosporidium species have different numbers of subtelomeric genes encoding the Cryptosporidium-specific MEDLE family of secreted proteins, which could contribute to differences in host specificity. In this study, a Cryptosporidium parvum-specific member of the protein family MEDLE-2 encoded by cgd5_4590 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910512/differences-in-staining-intensities-affects-reported-occurrences-and-concentrations-of-giardia-spp-in-surface-drinking-water-sources
#4
Kerri A Alderisio, Leah F Villegas, Michael W Ware, Lisa A McDonald, Lihua Xiao, Eric N Villegas
AIM: USEPA Method 1623, or its equivalent, is currently used to monitor for protozoan contamination of surface drinking water sources worldwide. At least three approved staining kits used for detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia are commercially available. This study focuses on understanding the differences among staining kits used for Method 1623. METHODS AND RESULTS: Merifluor and EasyStain labeling kits were used to monitor Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst densities in New York City's raw surface water sources...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910275/occupational-animal-exposure-among-persons-with-campylobacteriosis-and-cryptosporidiosis-nebraska-2005-2015
#5
Chia-Ping Su, Derry T Stover, Bryan F Buss, Anna V Carlson, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2)...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906319/enteroaggregative-e-coli-subclinical-infection-and-co-infections-and-impaired-child-growth-in-the-mal-ed-cohort-study
#6
Aldo A M Lima, Alberto M Soares, José Q S Filho, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Noélia L Lima, Cláudia B Abreu, Francisco S Junior, Rosa M S Mota, William K-Y Pan, Christopher Troeger, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Herlice N Vera, Mara M G Prata, Ben McCormick, Monica McGrath, Elizabeth Rogawski, Eric Houpt, James Platts-Mills, Jean Gratz, Amidou Samie, Pascal Bessong, Sudhir Babji, Gangadeep Kang, Qureshi Shahida, Sadia Shakoor, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed, Estomih Mduma, Erling Svensen, Margaret Kosek, Pablo Penataro Yori, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Shrestha Jasmin, Carl Mason, Dennis Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of subclinical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection alone and in combination with other pathogens in the first six months of life on child growth. METHODS: Non-diarrheal samples from 1,684 children across eight Multisite Birth Cohort Study, Malnutrition and Enteric Diseases (MAL-ED) sites in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were tested monthly; over 90% of children were followed-up twice weekly for the first six months of life...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900722/molecular-characterization-of-bovine-cryptosporidium-isolated-from-diarrheic-calves-in-the-sudan
#7
Shahinaz Taha, Khitma Elmalik, Berit Bangoura, Matthias Lendner, Ehab Mossaad, Arwid Daugschies
Cryptosporidiosis is a common protozoan infection causing morbidity and mortality in young cattle and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans. So far, there is no data available on the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Sudan. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify, and genotype Cryptosporidium oocysts sampled from diarrheic calves housed at different farms in three different municipalities in Khartoum State (Khartoum, Khartoum North, Omdurman). A total of 149 fecal samples were evaluated microscopically for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method and 87 (58...
September 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899309/waterparks-are-high-risk-for-cryptosporidiosis-a-case-control-study-in-victoria-2015
#8
Tanyth E de Gooyer, Joy Gregory, Marion Easton, Nicola Stephens, Emily Fearnley, Martyn Kirk
BACKGROUND: An increase in notifications of cryptosporidiosis was observed in Victoria between March and April 2015. Cases mostly resided in one metropolitan region and hypothesis-generating interviews identified common exposures to aquatic facilities. We conducted a case-control study to determine exposure source(s) and facilitate control measures. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from the region of interest notified between 1 March and 23 April 2015 were included...
June 30, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895860/a-rapid-il-17-response-to-cryptosporidium-parvum-in-the-bovine-intestine
#9
Emma Drinkall, Matthew J Wass, Tracey J Coffey, Robin J Flynn
Cryptosporidium parvum causes diarrhoea, due to villi damage, in livestock and humans globally. Immunity develops after repeated infections but initial infections can be severe, highlighting the importance of early infection dynamics. We have modelled early C. parvum infection in bovine jejunum biopsies. IL-17A accumulated over time peaking at 9h post-infection, with no effect of infection on IL-1β; antibiotics positively influenced IL-17A as higher levels were found in cultures with antibiotics. Infection of primary fibroblasts resulted in lower plaque formation when fibroblasts were primed with IL-17A...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893970/has-respiratory-cryptosporidiosis-spread-to-black-grouse-tetrao-tetrix
#10
Nancy Parsons, Philip Warren, James Paul Duff, David Baines
Infection by Cryptosporidium baileyi was first confirmed in red grouse in northern England in 2010 and within three years spread to 48 per cent of moors. These form the last English stronghold for the rarer black grouse, and given the rapid spread of respiratory cryptosporidiosis among red grouse, concern has been expressed about possible infection. In 2010, the authors started screening black grouse for cryptosporidiosis in (1) dead birds taken for postmortem examination, (2) sample birds caught at night and (3) an observational study of birds attending leks...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893638/innate-immune-responses-play-a-key-role-in-controlling-infection-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-cryptosporidium
#11
REVIEW
Fabrice Laurent, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé
Cryptosporidium infection leads to acute diarrhea worldwide. The development of cryptosporidiosis is closely related to the immune status of its host, affecting primarily young ruminants, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. In recent years, several studies have improved our knowledge on the immune mechanisms responsible for the control of the acute phase of the infection and have highlighted the importance of innate immunity. The parasite develops in the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells, giving these cells a central role, as they are both the exclusive host cell for replication of the parasite and participate in the protective immune response...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893636/advances-in-the-application-of-genetic-manipulation-methods-to-apicomplexan-parasites
#12
REVIEW
C E Suarez, R P Bishop, H F Alzan, W A Poole, B M Cooke
Apicomplexan parasites such as Babesia, Theileria, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma greatly impact animal health globally, and improved, cost-effective measures to control them are urgently required. These parasites have complex multi-stage life cycles including obligate intracellular stages. Major gaps in our understanding of the biology of these relatively poorly characterized parasites and the diseases they cause severely limit options for designing novel control methods. Here we review potentially important shared aspects of the biology of these parasites, such as cell invasion, host cell modification, and asexual and sexual reproduction, and explore the potential of the application of relatively well-established or newly emerging genetic manipulation methods (GMMs), such as classical transfection or gene editing, respectively, for closing important gaps in our knowledge of the function of specific genes and proteins, and the biology of these parasites...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888829/sensitivity-specificity-and-comparison-of-three-commercially-available-immunological-tests-in-the-diagnosis-of-cryptosporidium-species-in-animals
#13
Olga Danišová, Monika Halánová, Alexandra Valenčáková, Lenka Luptáková
The study was conducted to compare the specificity of immunological diagnostic methods used for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species capable of causing life-threatening infection in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. For the detection of Cryptosporidium species in 79 animals with diarrhoea, we used three Copro-antigen tests: RIDASCREEN(®)Cryptosporidium test, Cryptosporidium 2nd Generation (ELISA) and RIDA(®)QUICK Cryptosporidium. For immunoassays we used positive and negative samples detected by means of polymerase chain reaction and validated by sequencing and nested polymerase chain reaction to confirm the presence six different species of Cryptosporidium species...
September 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885460/potential-diarrheal-pathogens-common-also-in-healthy-children-in-angola
#14
Tuula Pelkonen, Mauro Dias Dos Santos, Irmeli Roine, Elisabete Dos Anjos, César Freitas, Heikki Peltola, Sanna Laakso, Juha Kirveskari
BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhea kills almost 1,500 children daily. In diagnostics, molecular methods are replacing traditional assays. We aimed to investigate enteropathogens in children with and without diarrhea in Luanda, the capital of Angola. METHODS: 194 stool samples from 98 children with acute diarrhea and 96 children without diarrhea were investigated for 17 enteropathogens with multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The median age of children was 10...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883891/the-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-effect-of-auranta-3001-in-preventing-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection
#15
Alexandros Ch Stratakos, Filip Sima, Patrick Ward, Mark Linton, Carmel Kelly, Laurette Pinkerton, Lavinia Stef, Ioan Pet, Tiberiu Iancu, Gratiela Pircalabioru, Nicolae Corcionivoschi
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhea worldwide in both humans and farm animals with no completely effective treatment available at present. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of Auranta 3001 (0.1, 0.5 and 1%), a novel natural feed supplement, on C. hominis and C. parvum invasion of human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8), bovine primary cells and C. parvum invasion of HCT-8, bovine primary cells and bovine intestinal biopsies...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882168/detection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-and-cyclospora-cayetanensis-infections-among-people-living-in-a-slum-area-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#16
Balkrishna Bhattachan, Jeevan Bahadhur Sherchand, Sarmila Tandukar, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Leesa Gauchan, Ganesh Rai
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. RESULTS: Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley...
September 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870264/cryptosporidium-infecting-wild-cricetid-rodents-from-the-subfamilies-arvicolinae-and-neotominae
#17
Brianna L S Stenger, Michaela Horčičková, Mark E Clark, Martin Kváč, Šárka Čondlová, Eakalak Khan, Giovanni Widmer, Lihua Xiao, Catherine W Giddings, Christopher Pennil, Michal Stanko, Bohumil Sak, John M McEvoy
We undertook a study on Cryptosporidium spp. in wild cricetid rodents. Fecal samples were collected from meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), southern red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi), woodland voles (Microtus pinetorum), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and Peromyscus spp. mice in North America, and from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and common voles (Microtus arvalis) in Europe. Isolates were characterized by sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU) and actin genes. Overall, 33·2% (362/1089) of cricetids tested positive for Cryptosporidium, with a greater prevalence in cricetids from North America (50·7%; 302/596) than Europe (12·1%; 60/493)...
September 5, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867614/targeting-prolyl-trna-synthetase-to-accelerate-drug-discovery-against-malaria-leishmaniasis-toxoplasmosis-cryptosporidiosis-and-coccidiosis
#18
Vitul Jain, Manickam Yogavel, Haruhisa Kikuchi, Yoshiteru Oshima, Norimitsu Hariguchi, Makoto Matsumoto, Preeti Goel, Bastien Touquet, Rajiv S Jumani, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier, Karl Harlos, Christopher D Huston, Mohamed-Ali Hakimi, Amit Sharma
Developing anti-parasitic lead compounds that act on key vulnerabilities are necessary for new anti-infectives. Malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and coccidiosis together kill >500,000 humans annually. Their causative parasites Plasmodium, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Eimeria display high conservation in many housekeeping genes, suggesting that these parasites can be attacked by targeting invariant essential proteins. Here, we describe selective and potent inhibition of prolyl-tRNA synthetases (PRSs) from the above parasites using a series of quinazolinone-scaffold compounds...
August 24, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867592/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-species-and-subtypes-in-paediatric-oncology-and-non-oncology-patients-with-diarrhoea-in-jordan
#19
Nawal Hijjawi, Alireza Zahedi, Mahmoud Kazaleh, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidiosis is a protozoan parasitic disease which affects human and animals worldwide. In adult immunocompetent individuals, cryptosporidiosis usually results in acute and self-limited diarrhoea; however, it can cause life threatening diarrhoea in children and immunocompromised individuals. In the present study, we compared the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and gp60 subtypes amongst paediatric oncology patients with diarrhoea (n=160) from King Hussein Medical Centre for Cancer in Jordan, and non-oncology paediatric patients with diarrhoea (n=137) from Al-Mafraq paediatric hospital...
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860302/cryptosporidium-outbreaks-identification-diagnosis-and-management
#20
Sebastian Horne, Bharat Sibal, Neelima Sibal, Helen K Green
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
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