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Shahira A Ahmed, Panagiotis Karanis
Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasitic protozoa of concern within the food production industry, worldwide. This review describes the evolution and its development, and it monitors the methodology that has been used for Cryptosporidium in food material since 1984, when the first publication appeared regarding the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in food materials. The methods that are currently being used for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in food material (mainly vegetables) and all of the other available published methods are discussed in this review...
January 19, 2018: Parasitology Research
Alexander T Chao, Boon Heng Lee, Kah Fei Wan, Jeremy Selva, Bin Zou, Peter Gedeck, David Beer, Thierry T Diagana, Ghislain Bonamy, Ujjini H Manjunatha
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease predominantly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) and Cryptosporidium hominis (Ch), apicomplexan parasites which infect the intestinal epithelial cells of their human hosts. The only approved drug for cryptosporidiosis is nitazoxanide, which shows limited efficacy in immunocompromised children, the most vulnerable patient population. Thus, new therapeutics and in vitro infection models are urgently needed to address the current unmet medical need. Toward this aim, we have developed novel cytopathic effect (CPE)-based Cp and Ch assays in human colonic tumor (HCT-8) cells and compared them to traditional imaging formats...
January 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
R S Jumani, K Bessoff, M S Love, P Miller, E E Stebbins, J E Teixeira, M A Campbell, M J Meyers, J A Zambriski, V Nunez, A K Woods, C W McNamara, C D Huston
Cryptosporidiosis causes life-threatening diarrhea in children under age five, and prolonged diarrhea in immunodeficient people, especially AIDS patients. The standard of care, nitazoxanide, is modestly effective in children and ineffective in immunocompromised individuals. In addition to a need for new drugs, better knowledge of drug properties that drive in vivo efficacy is needed to facilitate drug development. We report identification of a piperazine-based lead compound for Cryptosporidium drug development, MMV665917, and a new pharmacodynamic method used for its characterization...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rüdiger Hauck
Except for the important role coccidia have as predisposing factors of necrotic enteritis, the role parasites play in the dynamics of a healthy microbiota of chickens is not well explored. This review describes the interactions of relevant intestinal parasites of chickens with bacteria. Infection with Eimeria spp. favor the growth of Clostridium perfringens and suppress the growth of many other bacteria by increasing viscosity and passage time of the ingesta, and by causing lesions to the intestinal mucosa that improve the availability of nutrients for C...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
Solomon Ngutor Karshima
Contamination of edible fruits and vegetables is now a global public health issue despite their health benefits as non-pharmacological prophylaxis against chronic diseases. Studies that will harness the extent of parasitic contaminations will ensure public health protection. Here, the prevalence and distribution of parasites of importance for human health on fruits and vegetables in Nigeria were determined through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. The random-effects model was used to determine pooled prevalence estimate (PPE)...
January 16, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Mohammad Asadpour, Fatemeh Namazi, Seyed Mostafa Razavi, Saeed Nazifi
Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite causing gastrointestinal disorder in various hosts worldwide. The disease is self-limiting in the immunocompetent but life-threatening in immunodeficient individuals. Investigations to find an effective drug for the complete elimination of the Cryptosporidium infection are ongoing and urgently needed. The current study was undertaken to examine the anti-cryptosporidial efficacy of curcumin in experimentally infected mice compared with that of paromomycin. Oocysts were isolated from a pre-weaned dairy calf and identified as Cryptosporidium parvum using a nested- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on Small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene and sequencing analysis...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Djamel Baroudi, Hongwei Zhang, Said Amer, Djamel Khelef, Dawn M Roellig, Yuanfei Wang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Little information is available on the occurrence of the zoonotic protists Cryptosporidium spp. and none on Enterocytozoon bieneusi in camels. This preliminary study was conducted to examine the identity of Cryptosporidium subtypes and E. bieneusi genotypes in dromedary camels in Algeria. A total of 39 fecal specimens were collected from young camels. PCR-sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA was used to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidium parvum present was further subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene...
January 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Rym Essid, Jean Menotti, Chelbi Hanen, Karim Aoun, Aïda Bouratbine
Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite infecting a wide range of hosts. It has emerged as an important cause of chronic life-threatening diarrhea in humans worldwide. Several subtypes of Cryptosporidium sp. have been described to be responsible for several large outbreaks related to water contamination in developed countries. However, there is a lack of information in the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium among human population especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to update and report the genetic diversity of human Cryptosporidium spp...
January 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ze-Dong Wang, Quan Liu, Huan-Huan Liu, Shuang Li, Li Zhang, Yong-Kun Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea caused by opportunistic intestinal protozoa is a common problem in HIV infection. We aimed to establish the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, misrosporidia, and Isospora in HIV-infected people using a systematic review and meta-analysis, which is central to developing public policy and clinical services. METHODS: We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Embase, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP databases for studies reporting Cryptosporidium, microsporidia, or Isospora infection in HIV-infected people...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Janka Melicherová, Lada Hofmannová, Andrea Valigurová
The need for an effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis has triggered studies in the search for a working in vitro model. The peculiar niche of cryptosporidia at the brush border of host epithelial cells has been the subject of extensive debates. Despite extensive research on the invasion process, it remains enigmatic whether cryptosporidian host-parasite interactions result from an active invasion process or through encapsulation. We used HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines for in vitro cultivation of the gastric parasite Cryptosporidium proliferans strain TS03...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Stefanie Wiedmer, Ulrike Buder, Sinja Bleischwitz, Michael Kurth
Eimeria species are veterinary important coccidian parasites and are transmitted between hosts via oocysts. The infectious sporozoites are protected by the oocyst and sporocyst wall. Tyrosine-rich proteins are well-known components of the Eimeria oocyst wall. Recently, cysteine motif containing proteins (COWP family), as described in Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp., have also been characterized in Eimeria. Here, we identified a novel COWP related protein, EnOWP13, and tracked it via transfection technology in Eimeria nieschulzi...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Erin Stebbins, Rajiv S Jumani, Connor Klopfer, John Barlow, Peter Miller, Mary A Campbell, Marvin J Meyers, David W Griggs, Christopher D Huston
Cryptosporidiosis causes life-threatening diarrhea in infants, but the best available treatment is only modestly efficacious. Rodents infected with relevant Cryptosporidium species do not develop diarrhea, which complicates drug development. Cryptosporidium parvum infection of dairy calves, however, causes an illness like that seen in infants. Here, the clinical and microbiologic anti-Cryptosporidium efficacy of the piperazine-based compound MMV665917 was demonstrated in neonatal calves. Oral administration of MMV665917 (22 mg/kg once daily) was begun two days after the onset of severe diarrhea and continued for seven days...
January 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hanen Chelbi, Rym Essid, Refka Jelassi, Nesrine Bouzekri, I Zidi, Hamza Ben Salah, Ilhem Mrad, Iness Ben Sgaier, Rym Abdelmalek, Sameh Aissa, Aida Bouratbine, Karim Aoun
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium, has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. In the immunocompetent host, the typical watery diarrhea can be self-limiting. However, it is severe and chronic, in the immunocompromised host and may cause death. Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, which complete their life cycle in both humans and animals. The two species C...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Tarmo Niine, Elisabeth Dorbek-Kolin, Brian Lassen, Toomas Orro
Cryptosporidium spp. infections in neonatal dairy calves can cause diarrhoea and, in rare cases, death. The infection is usually self-limiting, but halofuginone lactate (HL) can be used prophylactically. Calves (n=144) in the study were born during a 2-month period on one farm. A total of 901 serum and 767 faecal samples were collected. Based on HL treatment, the calves were divided into 3 groups: I) not treated, II) treated incorrectly (treatment started >48h after birth, or lasted <7days), and III) treated correctly (started <48h after birth, and lasted ≥7days)...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Maxime W Lemieux, Karine Sonzogni-Desautels, Momar Ndao
In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis causes moderate-to-severe diarrhea and kills thousands of infants and toddlers annually. Drinking and recreational water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts has led to waterborne outbreaks in developed countries. A competent immune system is necessary to clear this parasitic infection. A better understanding of the immune responses required to prevent or limit infection by this protozoan parasite is the cornerstone of development of an effective vaccine...
December 24, 2017: Pathogens
Oswaldo Partida-Rodríguez, Angélica Serrano-Vázquez, Miriam E Nieves-Ramírez, Patricia Moran, Liliana Rojas, Tobias Portillo, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, B Brett Finlay, Cecilia Ximenez
The human gut is a highly complex ecosystem with an extensive microbial community, and the influence of the intestinal microbiota reaches the entire host organism. For example, the microbiome regulates fat storage, stimulates or renews epithelial cells, and influences the development and maturation of the brain and the immune system. Intestinal microbes can protect against infection by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Hence, the maintenance of homeostasis between the gut microbiota and the rest of the body is crucial for health, with dysbiosis affecting disease...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Kumiko Kagawa, Hikaru Fujino, Hirokazu Miki, Kimiko Sogabe, Mamiko Takahashi, Tomoko Maruhashi, Kengo Udaka, Masami Iwasa, Shiro Fujii, Shingen Nakamura, Masahiro Abe
Disseminated Cryptosporidium infection results in manifestations similar to those of graft versus host disease (GVHD), which hampers the detection of Cryptosporidium infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Surveillance of oocysts on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells is needed for early and appropriate detection of Cryptosporidium infection in transplant recipients on immunosuppressants with severe intractable diarrhea. We present the first case of Cryptosporidium meleagridis infection in Japan after allogeneic cord blood transplantation...
December 26, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
J Kalinová, A Valenčáková, E Hatalová, O Danišová, M Trungelová, R Hromada
Cryptosporidium species C. parvum and C. hominis are a common cause of human diarrheal infections worldwide. In this study we attempted to detect these parasites in fish ponds and a water reservoirs in the Nitra region of Slovakia. We identified C. parvum genotype IIaA15G1R1 and genotype IIaA16G1R1 and C. hominis genotype IeA11G3T3 in these locations. Occurrence of the same genotype of C. hominis in two different locations indicates that this parasite is most likely present in the river that connects them. These results indicate a serious threat to public health of humans since these locations are used for fishing and for recreational activities...
December 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
Kjersti Selstad Utaaker, Nina Myhr, Rajinder Singh Bajwa, Himanshu Joshi, Anil Kumar, Lucy J Robertson
BACKGROUND: Various characteristics of goats mean they are highly suitable livestock for backyard rearing by people with limited resources. They are a popular livestock choice in India, where they are often kept to supplement an already scarce income. In these settings, hygiene and sanitation standards tend to be low, and weakens the interface between humans and animals, thus reducing the barrier between them and thereby increasing the likelihood that zoonotic and anthroponotic infections will occur...
December 22, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Marwan Osman, Sadia Benamrouz, Karine Guyot, Martha Baydoun, Emilie Frealle, Magali Chabe, Nausicaa Gantois, Baptiste Delaire, Anne Goffard, Albert Aoun, Nawaf Jurdi, Fouad Dabboussi, Gael Even, Christian Slomianny, Pierre Gosset, Monzer Hamze, Colette Creusy, Eric Viscogliosi, Gabriela Certad
BACKGROUND: The association between Cryptosporidium and human colon cancer has been reported in different populations. However, this association has not been well studied. In order to add new strong arguments for a probable link between cryptosporidiosis and colon human cancer, the aim of this study was to determine prevalence and to identify species of Cryptosporidium among Lebanese patients. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 218 digestive biopsies were collected in Tripoli, Lebanon, from three groups of patients: (i) patients with recently diagnosed colon intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment (n = 72); (ii) patients with recently diagnosed stomach intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment (n = 21); and (iii) patients without digestive intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma but with persistent digestive symptoms (n = 125)...
2017: PloS One
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