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Cryptosporidium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#1
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542223/measuring-changes-in-transmission-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-malaria-and-enteric-pathogens-from-quantitative-antibody-levels
#2
Benjamin F Arnold, Mark J van der Laan, Alan E Hubbard, Cathy Steel, Joseph Kubofcik, Katy L Hamlin, Delynn M Moss, Thomas B Nutman, Jeffrey W Priest, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541457/bumped-kinase-inhibitor-gastrointestinal-exposure-is-necessary-to-treat-cryptosporidium-infection
#3
Samuel L M Arnold, Ryan Choi, Matthew A Hulverson, Deborah A Schaefer, Sumiti Vinayak, Rama S R Vidadala, Molly C McCloskey, Grant R Whitman, Wenlin Huang, Lynn K Barrett, Kayode K Ojo, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Michael W Riggs, Boris Striepen, Wesley C Van Voorhis
There is a substantial need for novel therapeutics to combat the widespread impact caused by Crytosporidium infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge on which drug pharmacokinetic characteristics are key to generate an in vivo response specifically if systemic drug exposure is crucial for in vivo efficacy. To identify which pharmacokinetic properties are correlated with in vivo efficacy, we generated physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to simulate systemic and gastrointestinal (GI) drug concentrations for a series of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKI) that have nearly identical in vitro potency against Cryptosporidium but display divergent pharmacokinetic properties...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541454/comprehensive-analysis-of-prevalence-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-mono-infections-and-co-infections-in-diarrhoeal-diseases-in-children-in-tanzania
#4
Sabrina J Moyo, Øyvind Kommedal, Bjorn Blomberg, Kurt Hanevik, Marit Gjerde Tellevik, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland
The role of interactions between intestinal pathogens in diarrheal disease is uncertain. From August 2010 to July 2011, we collected stool samples from 723 children admitted with diarrhoea (cases) to three major hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and from 564 non-diarrheic children (controls). We analysed the samples for 17 pathogens and assessed interactions between co-infections in additive and multiplicative models. At least one pathogen was detected in 86.9% of the cases and 62.8%, of the controls. Prevalence of co-infections was 58...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540488/an-18s-rrna-workflow-for-characterizing-protists-in-sewage-with-a-focus-on-zoonotic-trichomonads
#5
Julia M Maritz, Krysta H Rogers, Tara M Rock, Nicole Liu, Susan Joseph, Kirkwood M Land, Jane M Carlton
Microbial eukaryotes (protists) are important components of terrestrial and aquatic environments, as well as animal and human microbiomes. Their relationships with metazoa range from mutualistic to parasitic and zoonotic (i.e., transmissible between humans and animals). Despite their ecological importance, our knowledge of protists in urban environments lags behind that of bacteria, largely due to a lack of experimentally validated high-throughput protocols that produce accurate estimates of protist diversity while minimizing non-protist DNA representation...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536073/differences-in-the-occurrence-and-epidemiology-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-people-in-western-australia-2002-2012
#6
Josephine S Y Ng-Hublin, Barry Combs, Simon Reid, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrhoeal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In Australia, very little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in Aboriginal peoples. The present study analysed long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Western Australia (WA) (2001-2012), combined with genotyping and subtyping data at the 18S and glycoprotein 60 (gp60) loci respectively. Comparison of cryptosporidiosis notifications between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in WA, revealed that notification rates among Aboriginal people were up to 50 times higher compared to non-Aboriginal people, highlighting the burden of the disease in this population...
May 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533246/5-aminopyrazole-4-carboxamide-based-compounds-prevent-the-growth-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#7
Wenlin Huang, Ryan Choi, Matthew A Hulverson, Zhongsheng Zhang, Molly C McCloskey, Deborah A Schaefer, Grant R Whitman, Lynn K Barrett, Rama Subba Rao Vidadala, Michael W Riggs, Dustin J Maly, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Kayode K Ojo, Erkang Fan
Cryptosporidium parvum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CpCDPK1) is a promising target for drug development against cryptosporidiosis. We report a series of low nanomolar CpCDPK1 5-aminopyrazole-4-carboxamide (AC) scaffold inhibitors that also potently inhibit C. parvum growth in vitro Correlation between anti-CpCDPK1 and C. parvum growth inhibition, as previously reported for pyrazolopyrimidines, was not apparent. Nonetheless, lead AC-compounds exhibited a substantial reduction of parasite burden in the neonatal mouse cryptosporidiosis model when dosed at 25 mg/kg...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528556/proventriculitis-associated-with-cryptosporidium-baileyi-in-a-snowy-owl-bubo-scandiacus-and-its-epidemiological-investigation
#8
Shotaro Nakagun, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Miki Sugimoto, Sohei Tomikawa, Kenichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
We describe an unusual case of proventriculitis associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a 7-wk-old snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) chick kept at a zoo. Necropsy of this animal revealed diffuse mucosal thickening of the proventriculus. Subsequent histopathological examinations of the proventriculus showed marked ductal epithelial hyperplasia with intestinal metaplasia and severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. These lesions were associated with numerous periodic-acid-Schiff-positive cryptosporidia-like protozoan parasites...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520899/increased-urinary-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-following-cryptosporidium-infection-and-protein-malnutrition-independent-of-microbiome-effects
#9
D T Bolick, J Mayneris-Perxachs, G L Medlock, G L Kolling, J Papin, J R Swann, R L Guerrant
Cryptosporidium infections have been associated with growth stunting even in the absence of diarrhea. Having previously detailed the effects of protein deficiency on both microbiome and metabolome in this model, we now describe the specific gut microbial and biochemical effects of Cryptosporidium infection. Protein deficient mice were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for 6-13 days and compared to uninfected controls. Following infection there was an increase in the urinary excretion of choline- and amino acid-derived metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520707/using-molecular-characterization-to-support-investigations-of-aquatic-facility-associated-outbreaks-of-cryptosporidiosis-alabama-arizona-and-ohio-2016
#10
Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, Matthew H Seabolt, Amy M Kahler, Jennifer L Murphy, Taishayla K McKitt, Evelyn F Geeter, Ron Dawsey, Sherri L Davidson, Thuy N Kim, Theresa H Tucker, Sally Ann Iverson, Brenna Garrett, Nicole Fowle, Jennifer Collins, Gregory Epperson, Scott Zusy, Joli R Weiss, Ken Komatsu, Edwin Rodriguez, J Gage Patterson, Rebecca Sunenshine, Brandi Taylor, Katie Cibulskas, Lynn Denny, Keoni Omura, Boris Tsorin, Kathleen E Fullerton, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, which can cause profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 2-3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening wasting and malabsorption in immunocompromised patients. Fecal-oral transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the parasite's infectious life stage, occurs via ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or following contact with infected persons or animals, particularly preweaned bovine calves (1)...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507461/washed-away-how-not-to-lose-your-rna-during-isolation
#11
Birgitte K Hønsvall, Lucy J Robertson
Cryptosporidium oocysts have extremely robust walls that protect the parasite against environmental pressures. Analyses must be sensitive to detect the few organisms (if any) present in environmental samples. After a series of negative nucleic acid amplification results on spiked samples, following a standard RNA isolation protocol, it seemed probable that oocyst RNA had been lost in the washing steps of the isolation protocol. By reducing both the volume of wash buffer and the number of washing steps, positive results could be re-established...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506307/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-its-association-with-undernutrition-and-cd4-t-cell-levels-among-hiv-aids-patients-on-haart-in-butajira-ethiopia
#12
Dereje Gedle, Gemechu Kumera, Tewodros Eshete, Kasahun Ketema, Haweni Adugna, Fetuma Feyera
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections and HIV/AIDS have been the major public health problems and remain a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Both problems are linked in a vicious cycle. The magnitude of intestinal parasites was prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS even in the HAART era. However, the pertinent risk factors associated with intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients were not well investigated in Ethiopia particularly at Butajira town...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506035/simultaneous-molecular-detection-of-cryptosporidium-and-cyclospora-from-raw-vegetables-in-korea
#13
Seobo Sim, Jua Won, Jae-Whan Kim, Kyungjin Kim, Woo-Yoon Park, Jae-Ran Yu
Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora are well-known coccidian protozoa that can cause waterborne and foodborne diarrheal illnesses. There have been a few reports regarding contamination in different vegetables with Cryptosporidium, but no data are available regarding the sources of Cyclospora infections in Korea. In the present study, we collected 6 kinds of vegetables (perilla leaves, winter-grown cabbages, chives, sprouts, blueberries, and cherry tomatoes) from July 2014 to June 2015, and investigated contamination by these 2 protozoa using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506034/occurrence-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-and-the-relationship-between-protozoa-and-water-quality-indicators-in-swimming-pools
#14
Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Sike Hu
A total of 60 samples were collected from 35 swimming pools in Beijing, China, and the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were investigated. The results showed that 16.7% and 15.0% of samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cysts, respectively, with a mean concentration of 0.30 oocysts/10 L and 0.27 cysts/10 L. The oocysts and cysts were found to have higher rates of occurrence in August than in May. Genotyping confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum, and Giardia assemblages A and B, all of which were associated with human infections...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502018/evolutionary-processes-in-populations-of-cryptosporidium-inferred-from-gp60-sequence-data
#15
Juan C Garcia-R, David T S Hayman
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common human infectious diseases globally. The gp60 gene has been adopted as a key marker for molecular epidemiological investigations into this protozoan disease because of the capability to characterize genotypes and detect variants within Cryptosporidium species infecting humans. However, we know relatively little about the potential spatial and temporal variation in population demography that can be inferred from this gene beyond that it is recognized to be under selective pressure...
May 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497744/first-molecular-investigation-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-young-calves-in-algeria
#16
Djahida Benhouda, Ahcène Hakem, Anna Rosa Sannella, Afaf Benhouda, Simone M Cacciò
To date, no information is available on the prevalence and genetic identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in Algeria. In this study, 17 dairy farms in the province of Batna, located in the northeast of the country, were visited to collect 132 fecal samples from young calves (< 8 weeks old). Samples were examined microscopically using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining method, and at least one sample per farm was submitted for molecular analysis. Amplification of a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was positive for 24 of the 61 samples (40%), and sequence analysis identified three species, namely Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 14), C...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495122/next-generation-sequencing-uncovers-within-host-differences-in-the-genetic-diversity-of-cryptosporidium-gp60-subtypes
#17
Alireza Zahedi, Alexander William Gofton, Fuchun Jian, Andrea Paparini, Charlotte Oskam, Andrew Ball, Ian Robertson, Una Ryan
The extent of within-host genetic diversity of parasites has implications for our understanding of the epidemiology, disease severity and evolution of parasite virulence. As with many other species, our understanding of the within-host diversity of the enteric parasite Cryptosporidium is changing. The present study compared Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing of glycoprotein 60 (gp60) amplicons from Cryptosporidium hominis (n=11), Cryptosporidium parvum (n=22) and Cryptosporidium cuniculus (n=8) DNA samples from Australia and China...
May 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483729/presence-of-parasites-in-environmental-waters-in-samsun-and-its-districts
#18
Ülkü Karaman, Zeynep Kolören, Onuralp Seferoğlu, Emine Ayaz, Elif Demirel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to detect the presence of parasites in environmental waters in Samsun and its districts. METHODS: At the center of Samsun, 13 stations were determined. The research was performed between March 2012 and February 2013, and every month, water samples were collected on the dates stated. The samples were stained with Kinyoun acid-fast, modified trichrome, and trichrome dyes after examining with the direct bond. The preparations were evaluated in terms of parasitologic under a light microscope...
March 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483727/determining-the-prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-infections-with-acid-fast-staining-and-elisa-in-calves-at-the-kars-province-of-turkey
#19
Neslihan Gündüz, Mükremin Özkan Arslan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comparatively determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in calves grown at dairies under farm or village conditions at the Kars Province using modified acid-fast (mAF) staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). METHODS: Stool samples constituting the study material were collected between March and June 2011 from rectums of calves at 22 centers in the villages and farms of the Kars Province. Calves were divided into 2 groups: 3-90 days old (up to 3 months old) and 91-180 days old (older than 3 months)...
March 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482327/first-description-of-cryptosporidium-ubiquitum-xiia-subtype-family-in-farmed-fur-animals
#20
Klára Kellnerová, Nikola Holubová, Anna Jandová, Antonín Vejčík, John McEvoy, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kváč
This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in the Czech Republic and Poland. A total of 480 faecal samples were collected from fur animals, including 300 American mink (Mustela vison), 60 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 50 long-tailed chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), and 70 nutrias (Myocastor coypus), at 14 farms. Samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium using microscopy (following aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining) and sequence analysis of PCR amplified products...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
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