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Cryptosporidium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895856/genetic-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-spp-among-patients-with-gastrointestinal-complaints
#1
Reza Ranjbar, Kaveh Baghaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad
AIM: This study investigated subtypes of Cryptosporidium in patients with gastrointestinal complaints in Tehran, Iran. BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium, an intracellular protozean parasite, is among the major causative agents of gastroenteritis disorders in humans. It also causes water-borne and food-borne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1685 fecal samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal complaints who had been referred to clinical laboratories Tehran, Iran...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895021/1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-sulfur-containing-linear-bisphosphonates-against-apicomplexan-parasites
#2
Sergio H Szajnman, Tamila Galaka, Zhu-Hong Li, Catherine Li, Nathan M Howell, María N Chao, Boris Striepen, Vasant Muralidharan, Silvia N J Moreno, Juan B Rodriguez
We tested a series of sulfur-containing linear bisphosphonates against Toxoplasma gondii, the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis. The most potent compound ( 22: , 1-[(n-decylsulfonyl)ethyl]-1,1-biphosphonic acid) is a sulfone-containing compound, which had an EC50 of 0.11 ± 0.02 μM against intracellular tachyzoites. The compound showed low toxicity when tested in tissue culture with a selectivity index of >2,000. 22: also showed high activity in vivo in a toxoplasmosis mouse model. The compound inhibited the Toxoplasma farnesyl diphosphate synthase (TgFPPS) but the concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the enzymatic activity (IC50) was higher than the concentration that inhibited 50% of growth...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#3
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884435/statistical-comparison-of-excystation-methods-in-cryptosporidium-parvum-oocysts
#4
Radka Pecková, Peter D Stuart, Bohumil Sak, Dana Květoňová, Martin Kváč, Ivona Foitová
Excystation of sporozoites of Cryptosporidium parvum from oocysts is essential for successful in vitro assays. It has also been traditionally used as a measure for oocyst viability and infectivity. Laboratories use various excystation protocols so there is a need to clarify which method is the best. In this study, six different protocols for in vitro excystation of C. parvum oocysts were compared to find the most efficient excystation method (expressed as percentage excystation). Tested protocols differed in chemical pre-incubation steps, excystation media or time of incubation...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882867/subtyping-of-cryptosporidium-cuniculus-and-genotyping-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-rabbits-in-two-farms-in-heilongjiang-province-china
#5
Ziyin Yang, Wei Zhao, Yujuan Shen, Weizhe Zhang, Ying Shi, Guangxu Ren, Di Yang, Hong Ling, Fengkun Yang, Aiqin Liu, Jianping Cao
Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two prevalent opportunistic pathogens in humans and animals. Currently, few data are available on genetic characterization of both pathogens in rabbits in China. The aim of the present study was to understand prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in rabbits. We collected 215 fecal samples from 150 Rex rabbits and 65 New Zealand White rabbits on two different farms in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cryptosporidium spp...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876988/cryptosporidiosis-in-a-buffalo-calf-at-meerut-uttar-pradesh-and-its-successful-therapeutic-management
#6
P S Maurya, Shivani Sahu, N R Sudhakar, Vikas Jaiswal, D G Prashant, Shriya Rawat, Harshit Verma
Cryptosporidium spp. are recognized as one of the most important enteric pathogens causing enteritis and severe diarrhoea in calves up to 1 month of age. Although the infection may be responsible for some mortality, its impact is mainly associated with the impairment of gastrointestinal functions and lower performance of animals. A female buffalo calf of 25 days old was presented to OPD section, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, SVPUA&T, Meerut, with the symptoms of severe voluminous watery cholera like diarrhea with mucous and blood tinge since 4-5 days...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876975/detection-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-free-ranging-animals-of-tehran-iran
#7
Mehran Mirzaghavami, Javid Sadraei, Mehdi Forouzandeh
Cryptosporidium is a world widely distributed parasite which comparatively has a high prevalence in developing countries. The zoonotic potential of some Cryptosporidium species has made the cryptosporidiosis a significant concern to physicians and veterinarians. The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium species in probable reservoir hosts for man infections was determined by examining faeces of symptomatic and asymptomatic animals. The aim of this study is to screen the presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal sample of free ranging animals in Tehran using Ziehl-Neelsen staining method...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876910/low-sensitivity-of-the-immunocardstat-%C3%A2-crypto-giardia-rapid-assay-test-for-the-detection-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-in-fecal-samples-from-children-living-in-libreville-central-africa
#8
M K Bouyou-Akotet, M Owono-Medang, M N Moussavou-Boussougou, M Mabika Mamfoumbi, R Mintsa-Nguema, D P Mawili-Mboumba, M Kombila
Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are now recognized as neglected tropical parasitic diseases. The risk of their dissemination  in developing countries, such as Gabon, is increasing, due to urban crowding and poor sanitation. Accurate, simple and rapid diagnosis tools are thus necessary for the estimation of their real burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of the ImmunocardSTAT(®)Crypto/Giardia Rapid Assay test for the detection of Cryptosporidium (C.) spp. and Giardia (G.) duodenalis in children living in Libreville, Gabon...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876909/prevalence-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-bovines-in-and-around-junagadh-gujarat
#9
B R Maharana, Binod Kumar, N R Sudhakar, S K Behera, T K Patbandha
Coprological examination of 416 bovine faecal samples revealed the presence of parasitic stages of Toxocara vitulorum, strongyles, Strongyloides spp., Fasciola spp., amphistomes, coccidia (Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) and Buxtonella sulcata. About 42 % (n = 302) faecal samples from cattle and 36 % (n = 114) samples from buffaloes were positive for gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infections. Both cattle (14.57 %) and buffalo (15.79 %) had the highest incidence of Buxtonella sulcata, respectively...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876907/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-ruminants-of-lorestan-province-iran
#10
Haddad Shafieyan, Alireza Alborzi, Hossein Hamidinejat, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Mohammad Rahim Haji Hajikolaei
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the important zoonotic diseases caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite called Cryptosporidium. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection on 1,115 ruminants, cattle, sheep and goats, in Lorestan province, Iran. Using formol-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method afterwards, the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in ruminants of Lorestan province was 7.17 %. Prevalence of infection was 9...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871871/paleoparasitological-analysis-of-the-extinct-myotragus-balearicus-bate-1909-artiodactyla-caprinae-from-mallorca-balearic-islands-western-mediterranean
#11
Victor Hugo Borba Nunes, Josep Antoni Alcover, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Paula Borba Cruz, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Adauto José Gonçalves de Araújo
Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867026/artemisinin-and-its-derivatives-in-treating-protozoan-infections-beyond-malaria
#12
REVIEW
Cecilia Shi Ni Loo, Nelson Siu Kei Lam, Deying Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
Many parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. Currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. However, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, ART and its derivatives also possess activities against other parasitic protozoa...
November 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861635/multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-targeting-eight-parasites-customized-to-the-korean-population-potential-use-for-detection-in-diarrheal-stool-samples-from-gastroenteritis-patients
#13
Eun Jeong Won, Soo Hyun Kim, Seung Jung Kee, Jong Hee Shin, Soon Pal Suh, Jong Yil Chai, Dong Wook Ryang, Myung Geun Shin
Intestinal parasitic diseases occur worldwide and can cause diarrhea or gastroenteritis; however, their diagnosis is quite difficult, especially in low-endemism countries. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of eight intestinal parasites and prospectively evaluated it for patients with gastroenteritis. The assay targeted Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Gymnophalloides seoi...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853120/multiplex-touchdown-pcr-to-simultaneously-detect-cryptosporidium-parvum-giardia-lamblia-and-cyclospora-cayetanensis-the-major-causes-of-traveler-s-diarrhea
#14
Ji-Hun Shin, Sang-Eun Lee, Tong Soo Kim, Da-Won Ma, Jong-Yil Chai, Eun-Hee Shin
This study aimed to develop a multiplex-touchdown PCR method to simultaneously detect 3 species of protozoan parasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis, the major causes of traveler's diarrhea and are resistant to standard antimicrobial treatments. The target genes included the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein for C. parvum, Glutamate dehydrogenase for G. lamblia, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) for C. cayetanensis. The sizes of the amplified fragments were 555, 188, and 400 bps, respectively...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837222/diarrhea-risks-by-exposure-to-livestock-waste-in-vietnam-using-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment
#15
Thu Le-Thi, Phuc Pham-Duc, Christian Zurbrügg, Toan Luu-Quoc, Huong Nguyen-Mai, Tu Vu-Van, Hung Nguyen-Viet
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to assess the diarrhea risks caused by various pathogens among those exposed to biogas wastewater through different activities. METHODS: Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of biogas wastewater was conducted in Hanam Province, Vietnam. A total of 451 representatives from households that use biogas were interviewed about their practices of handling biogas plant and reuse of biogas effluent for irrigation...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836030/validation-of-a-new-technique-to-detect-cryptosporidium-spp-oocysts-in-bovine-feces
#16
Sandra Valéria Inácio, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes, Bruno César Miranda Oliveira, Alexandre Xavier Falcão, Celso Tetsuo Nagase Suzuki, Bianca Martins Dos Santos, Monally Conceição Costa de Aquino, Rafaela Silva de Paula Ribeiro, Danilla Mendes de Assunção, Pamella Almeida Freire Casemiro, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
Due to its important zoonotic potential, cryptosporidiosis arouses strong interest in the scientific community, because, it was initially considered a rare and opportunistic disease. The parasitological diagnosis of the causative agent of this disease, the protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., requires the use of specific techniques of concentration and permanent staining, which are laborious and costly, and are difficult to use in routine laboratory tests. In view of the above, we conducted the feasibility, development, evaluation and intralaboratory validation of a new parasitological technique for analysis in optical microscopy of Cryptosporidium spp...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834438/drinking-water-system-treatment-and-contamination-in-shatila-refugee-camp-in-beirut-lebanon
#17
S Khoury, T Graczyk, G Burnham, M Jurdi, L Goldman
Drinking water at Shatila Palestinian Refugee Camp in Beirut, Lebanon is of poor quality and unpredictably intermittent quantity. We aimed to characterize drinking water sources and contamination at Shatila and determine how drinking water can be managed to reduce community health burdens. We interviewed the Popular Committee, well owners, water vendors, water shopkeepers and preschool administrators about drinking water sources, treatment methods and the population served. Water samples from the sources and intermediaries were analysed for thermotolerant faecal coliforms (FCs), Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, using immunofluorescent antibody detection for G...
November 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827334/cryptosporidium-testudinis-sp-n-cryptosporidium-ducismarci-traversa-2010-and-cryptosporidium-tortoise-genotype-iii-apicomplexa-cryptosporidiidae-in-tortoises
#18
Jana Jezkova, Michaela Horcickova, Lenka Hlaskova, Bohumil Sak, Dana Kvetonova, Jan Novak, Lada Hofmannova, John McEvoy, Martin Kvac
Understanding of the diversity of species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 in tortoises remains incomplete due to the limited number of studies on these hosts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the genetic diversity and biology of cryptosporidia in tortoises of the family Testudinidae Batsch. Faecal samples were individually collected immediately after defecation and were screened for presence of cryptosporidia by microscopy using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining, and by PCR amplification and sequence analysis targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes...
October 14, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825310/prevalence-characteristics-and-correlates-of-enteric-pathogenic-protozoa-in-drinking-water-sources-in-molyko-and-bomaka-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Fuh Anold Nsoh, Buh Amos Wung, Julius Atashili, Pokam Thumamo Benjamin, Eba Marvlyn, Keumami Katte Ivo, Assob Jules Clément Nguedia
BACKGROUND: Access to potable water remains a major challenge particularly in resource-limited settings. Although the potential contaminants of water are varied, enteric pathogenic protozoa are known to cause waterborne diseases greatly. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Buea, Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 155 water samples collected from various drinking sources (boreholes, springs, taps and wells)...
November 8, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816246/clinical-trial-on-the-effects-of-a-free-access-acidified-milk-replacer-feeding-program-on-the-health-and-growth-of-dairy-replacement-heifers-and-veal-calves
#20
C G Todd, K E Leslie, S T Millman, V Bielmann, N G Anderson, J M Sargeant, T J DeVries
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of free-access acidified milk replacer feeding on the pre- and postweaning health of dairy and veal calves. Individually housed calves were systematically assigned at birth to 1 of 2 feeding programs: free-access feeding (ad libitum) of acidified milk replacer (ACD, n = 249) or traditional restricted feeding (3 L fed twice daily) of milk replacer (RES, n = 249). Calves were fed milk replacer containing 24% crude protein and 18% fat. Acidified milk replacer was prepared to a target pH between 4...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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