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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342401/matched-placental-and-circulating-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites-are-genetically-homologous-at-the-var2csa-id1-dbl2x-locus-by-deep-sequencing
#1
Andreea Waltmann, Jaymin C Patel, Kyaw L Thwai, Nicholas J Hathaway, Christian M Parobek, Achille Massougbodji, Nadine Fievet, Jeffery A Bailey, Philippe Deloron, Jonathan J Juliano, Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Steven R Meshnick
In pregnancy-associated malaria, infected erythrocytes accumulate in the placenta. It is unclear if in polyclonal infections this results in distinct peripheral and placental parasite populations. We used long amplicon deep sequencing of Plasmodium falciparum var2csa ID1-DBL2X from 15 matched peripheral and placental samples collected at delivery from a high transmission area to determine genetic homology. Despite substantial sequence variation and detecting 23 haplotypes, the matched pairs mostly contained the same genetic variants, with 11 pairs sharing 100% of their variants, whereas others showed some heterogeneity...
January 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342307/using-phylogenomic-data-to-explore-the-effects-of-relaxed-clocks-and-calibration-strategies-on-divergence-time-estimation-primates-as-a-test-case
#2
Mario Dos Reis, Gregg F Gunnell, José Barba-Montoya, Alex Wilkins, Ziheng Yang, Anne D Yoder
Primates have long been a test case for the development of phylogenetic methods for divergence time estimation. Despite a large number of studies, however, the timing of origination of crown Primates relative to the K-Pg boundary and the timing of diversification of the main crown groups remain controversial. Here we analysed a dataset of 372 taxa (367 Primates and 5 outgroups, 3.4 million aligned base pairs) that includes nine primate genomes. We systematically explore the effect of different interpretations of fossil calibrations and molecular clock models on primate divergence time estimates...
January 12, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342238/rhythmic-spontaneous-activity-mediates-the-age-related-decline-in-somatosensory-function
#3
Rachel K Spooner, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Sensory gating is a neurophysiological process whereby the response to a second stimulus in a pair of identical stimuli is attenuated, and it is thought to reflect the capacity of the CNS to preserve neural resources for behaviorally relevant stimuli. Such gating is observed across multiple sensory modalities and is modulated by age, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. In this study, we examined somatosensory gating in 68 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and advanced oscillatory and time-domain analysis methods...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342217/how-do-the-outcomes-of-the-deka-arm-compare-to-conventional-prostheses
#4
Linda J Resnik, Matthew L Borgia, Frantzy Acluche, Jill M Cancio, Gail Latlief, Nicole Sasson
OBJECTIVES: Objectives were to 1) compare self-reported function, dexterity, activity performance, quality of life and community integration of the DEKA Arm to conventional prostheses; and 2) examine differences in outcomes by conventional prosthesis type, terminal device type and by DEKA Arm configuration level. METHODS: This was a two-part study; Part A consisted of in-laboratory training. Part B consisted of home use. Study participants were 23 prosthesis users (mean age = 45 ± 16; 87% male) who completed Part A, and 15 (mean age = 45 ± 18; 87% male) who completed Parts A and B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342213/circulating-neutrophil-transcriptome-may-reveal-intracranial-aneurysm-signature
#5
Vincent M Tutino, Kerry E Poppenberg, Kaiyu Jiang, James N Jarvis, Yijun Sun, Ashish Sonig, Adnan H Siddiqui, Kenneth V Snyder, Elad I Levy, John Kolega, Hui Meng
BACKGROUND: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are typically asymptomatic and undetected except for incidental discovery on imaging. Blood-based diagnostic biomarkers could lead to improvements in IA management. This exploratory study examined circulating neutrophils to determine whether they carry RNA expression signatures of IAs. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from patients receiving cerebral angiography. Eleven samples were collected from patients with IAs and 11 from patients without IAs as controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342210/effects-of-theory-of-mind-performance-training-on-reducing-bullying-involvement-in-children-and-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Meng-Jung Liu, Le-Yin Ma, Wen-Jiun Chou, Yu-Min Chen, Tai-Ling Liu, Ray C Hsiao, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT) on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26) and social skills training (SST; n = 23) programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342197/molecular-discrimination-of-tall-fescue-morphotypes-in-association-with-festuca-relatives
#7
Shyamal K Talukder, Perumal Azhaguvel, Konstantin Chekhovskiy, Malay C Saha
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important cool-season perennial grass species used as forage and turf, and in conservation plantings. There are three morphotypes in hexaploid tall fescue: Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous. This study was conducted to develop morphotype-specific molecular markers to distinguish Continental and Mediterranean tall fescues, and establish their relationships with other species of the Festuca genus for genomic inference. Chloroplast sequence variation and simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism were explored in 12 genotypes of three tall fescue morphotypes and four Festuca species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342141/monitoring-t-cell-dendritic-cell-interactions-in-vivo-by-intercellular-enzymatic-labelling
#8
Giulia Pasqual, Aleksey Chudnovskiy, Jeroen M J Tas, Marianna Agudelo, Lawrence D Schweitzer, Ang Cui, Nir Hacohen, Gabriel D Victora
Interactions between different cell types are essential for multiple biological processes, including immunity, embryonic development and neuronal signalling. Although the dynamics of cell-cell interactions can be monitored in vivo by intravital microscopy, this approach does not provide any information on the receptors and ligands involved or enable the isolation of interacting cells for downstream analysis. Here we describe a complementary approach that uses bacterial sortase A-mediated cell labelling across synapses of immune cells to identify receptor-ligand interactions between cells in living mice, by generating a signal that can subsequently be detected ex vivo by flow cytometry...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#9
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342088/synthesis-and-characterization-of-wo%C3%A2-graphene-nanocomposites-for-enhanced-photocatalytic-activities-by-one-step-in-situ-hydrothermal-reaction
#10
Xiaoxiao Hu, Peiquan Xu, Hongying Gong, Guotao Yin
Tungsten trioxide (WO₃) nanorods are synthesized on the surface of graphene (GR) sheets by using a one-step in-situ hydrothermal method employing sodium tungstate (Na₂WO₄·2H₂O) and graphene oxide (GO) as precursors. The resulting WO₃/GR nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results confirm that the interface between WO₃ nanorod and graphene contains chemical bonds...
January 17, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342082/lewis-pair-catalysts-in-the-polymerization-of-lactide-and-related-cyclic-esters
#11
REVIEW
Xinlei Li, Changjuan Chen, Jincai Wu
Polyesters, especially poly(lactide) (PLA), are used widely as biodegradable and biocompatible materials, yet their controllable synthesis, especially the stereoselective synthesis of polyesters, is still a challenge. Recently some excellent Lewis pair catalysts for ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide and related cyclic esters have emerged. This review article will highlight the key advances in the ROP catalyzed by Lewis pair compounds with the aim of encouraging the wider application of Lewis pair catalysts in the polymerization of lactide and related cyclic esters...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342064/minimally-manipulated-bone-marrow-concentrate-compared-with-microfracture-treatment-of-full-thickness-chondral-defects-a-one-year-study-in-an-equine-model
#12
Constance R Chu, Lisa A Fortier, Ashley Williams, Karin A Payne, Taralyn M McCarrel, Megan E Bowers, Diego Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Microfracture is commonly performed for cartilage repair but usually results in fibrocartilage. Microfracture augmented by autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) was previously shown to yield structurally superior cartilage repairs in an equine model compared with microfracture alone. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that autologous BMC without concomitant microfracture improves cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone. METHODS: Autologous sternal bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was concentrated using a commercial system...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342018/mini-or-less-open-sublay-operation-milos-a-new-minimally-invasive-technique-for-the-extraperitoneal-mesh-repair-of-incisional-hernias
#13
Wolfgang Reinpold, Michael Schröder, Cigdem Berger, Jennifer Nehls, Alexander Schröder, Martin Hukauf, Ferdinand Köckerling, Reinhard Bittner
OBJECTIVE: Improvement of ventral hernia repair. BACKGROUND: Despite the use of mesh and other recent improvements, the currently popular techniques of ventral hernia repair have specific disadvantages and risks. METHODS: We developed the endoscopically assisted mini- or less-open sublay (MILOS) concept. The operation is performed transhernially via a small incision with light-holding laparoscopic instruments either under direct, or endoscopic visualization...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341768/novel-role-of-superfluidity-in-low-energy-nuclear-reactions
#14
Piotr Magierski, Kazuyuki Sekizawa, Gabriel Wlazłowski
We demonstrate, within symmetry unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, the existence of new effects in low-energy nuclear reactions which originate from superfluidity. The dynamics of the pairing field induces solitonic excitations in the colliding nuclear systems, leading to qualitative changes in the reaction dynamics. The solitonic excitation prevents collective energy dissipation and effectively suppresses the fusion cross section. We demonstrate how the variations of the total kinetic energy of the fragments can be traced back to the energy stored in the superfluid junction of colliding nuclei...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341713/field-induced-instability-of-a-gapless-spin-liquid-with-a-spinon-fermi-surface
#15
M Gomilšek, M Klanjšek, R Žitko, M Pregelj, F Bert, P Mendels, Y Li, Q M Zhang, A Zorko
The ground state of the quantum kagome antiferromagnet Zn-brochantite, ZnCu_{3}(OH)_{6}SO_{4}, which is one of only a few known spin-liquid (SL) realizations in two or three dimensions, has been described as a gapless SL with a spinon Fermi surface. Employing nuclear magnetic resonance in a broad magnetic-field range down to millikelvin temperatures, we show that in applied magnetic fields this enigmatic state is intrinsically unstable against a SL with a full or a partial gap. A similar instability of the gapless Fermi-surface SL was previously encountered in an organic triangular-lattice antiferromagnet, suggesting a common destabilization mechanism that most likely arises from spinon pairing...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341712/spatial-multiplexing-of-atom-photon-entanglement-sources-using-feedforward-control-and-switching-networks
#16
Long Tian, Zhongxiao Xu, Lirong Chen, Wei Ge, Haoxiang Yuan, Yafei Wen, Shengzhi Wang, Shujing Li, Hai Wang
The light-matter quantum interface that can create quantum correlations or entanglement between a photon and one atomic collective excitation is a fundamental building block for a quantum repeater. The intrinsic limit is that the probability of preparing such nonclassical atom-photon correlations has to be kept low in order to suppress multiexcitation. To enhance this probability without introducing multiexcitation errors, a promising scheme is to apply multimode memories to the interface. Significant progress has been made in temporal, spectral, and spatial multiplexing memories, but the enhanced probability for generating the entangled atom-photon pair has not been experimentally realized...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341699/emission-of-nonclassical-radiation-by-inelastic-cooper-pair-tunneling
#17
M Westig, B Kubala, O Parlavecchio, Y Mukharsky, C Altimiras, P Joyez, D Vion, P Roche, D Esteve, M Hofheinz, M Trif, P Simon, J Ankerhold, F Portier
We show that a properly dc-biased Josephson junction in series with two microwave resonators of different frequencies emits photon pairs in the resonators. By measuring auto- and intercorrelations of the power leaking out of the resonators, we demonstrate two-mode amplitude squeezing below the classical limit. This nonclassical microwave light emission is found to be in quantitative agreement with our theoretical predictions, up to an emission rate of 2 billion photon pairs per second.
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341672/helicase-stepping-investigated-with-one-nucleotide-resolution-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer
#18
Wenxia Lin, Jianbing Ma, Daguan Nong, Chunhua Xu, Bo Zhang, Jinghua Li, Qi Jia, Shuoxing Dou, Fangfu Ye, Xuguang Xi, Ying Lu, Ming Li
Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer is widely applied to study helicases by detecting distance changes between a pair of dyes anchored to overhangs of a forked DNA. However, it has been lacking single-base pair (1-bp) resolution required for revealing stepping kinetics of helicases. We designed a nanotensioner in which a short DNA is bent to exert force on the overhangs, just as in optical or magnetic tweezers. The strategy improved the resolution of Förster resonance energy transfer to 0.5 bp, high enough to uncover differences in DNA unwinding by yeast Pif1 and E...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341642/magnetic-proximity-effects-in-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-converting-excitons
#19
Benedikt Scharf, Gaofeng Xu, Alex Matos-Abiague, Igor Žutić
The two-dimensional character and reduced screening in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) lead to the ubiquitous formation of robust excitons with binding energies orders of magnitude larger than in bulk semiconductors. Focusing on neutral excitons, bound electron-hole pairs that dominate the optical response in TMDs, it is shown that they can provide fingerprints for magnetic proximity effects in magnetic heterostructures. These proximity effects cannot be described by the widely used single-particle description but instead reveal the possibility of a conversion between optically inactive and active excitons by rotating the magnetization of the magnetic substrate...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341636/pair-potential-with-submillikelvin-uncertainties-and-nonadiabatic-treatment-of-the-halo-state-of-the-helium-dimer
#20
Michał Przybytek, Wojciech Cencek, Bogumił Jeziorski, Krzysztof Szalewicz
The pair potential for helium is computed with accuracy improved by an order of magnitude relative to the best previous determination. For the well region, its uncertainties are now below 1 millikelvin. The main improvement is due to the use of explicitly correlated wave functions at the nonrelativistic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) level of theory. The diagonal BO and the relativistic corrections are obtained from large full configuration interaction calculations. Nonadiabatic perturbation theory is used to predict the properties of the halo state of the helium dimer...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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