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Ryan B Scott, Jason Samaha, Ron Chrisley, Zoltan Dienes
While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Ryu Miura, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Shu-Li Wang, Chung-Hsing Chen, Kunio Miyake, Mayumi Ishizuka, Yusuke Iwasaki, Yoichi M Ito, Takeo Kubota, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) influences fetal development and later in life. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cord blood DNA methylation changes associated with prenatal exposure to PFASs. METHODS: We assessed DNA methylation in cord blood samples from 190 mother-child pairs from the Sapporo cohort of the Hokkaido Study (discovery cohort) and from 37 mother-child pairs from the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (replication cohort) using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip...
March 12, 2018: Environment International
O J Ginther, R R Domingues, S V Dangudubiyyam, E R Araujo
Diameter deviation or follicle selection during a follicular wave begins with continuous growth rate of F1 (dominant or selected follicle; DF) and decreasing growth rate of F2 (largest subordinate). Intraovarian patterns based on presence or absence of the DF and CL are DF-CL, DF, CL, and devoid (neither DF nor CL). The DF and CL relationships in a pair of ovaries are ipsilateral (DF-CL pattern and devoid pattern) and contralateral (DF pattern and CL pattern). The effects of patterns and relationships on F1, F2, and FSH during deviation were determined in 21 mares...
February 24, 2018: Theriogenology
Marian L Miller, Aleksey Porollo, Susan Wert
Alveolar type II cells from seven mammalian species were examined for a protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), which showed a multi-layered, repeating motif. Each motif, 100nm in width, comprised two parallel outer dense layers, a less dense central layer, and often 1-3 faint layers on either side of the latter. Outer layers showed periodicities at 3-4 densities/100nm of width, while layers on either side of the central layer showed 5-7 densities/100nm of width. RER membranes were ribosome-free when parallel to these layers, but showed 4 ribosomes per motif at the growing ends: one ribosome at each outer dense layer, and one on either side of the less dense central layer...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Stefan Ilic, Abdulaziz Alherz, Charles B Musgrave, Ksenija D Glusac
Metal-free hydrides are of increasing research interest due to their roles in recent scientific advances in catalysis, such as hydrogen activation with frustrated Lewis pairs and electrocatalytic CO2 reduction with pyridinium and other aromatic cations. The structural design of hydrides for specific applications necessitates the correct description of their thermodynamic and kinetic prowess using reliable parameters - thermodynamic hydricity (ΔGH-) and nucleophilicity (N). This review summarizes reported experimental and calculated hydricity values for more than 200 metal-free hydride donors, including carbon-, boron-, nitrogen- and silicon-based hydrides...
March 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Magdalena B Król, Michał Galicki, Peter Grešner, Edyta Wieczorek, Ewa Jabłońska, Edyta Reszka, Zbigniew Morawiec, Wojciech Wąsowicz, Jolanta Gromadzińska
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish whether the gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (encoded by ESR1) correlates with the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (encoded by GPX1) in the tumor and adjacent tumor-free breast tissue, and whether this correlation is affected by breast cancer. Such relationships may give further insights into breast cancer pathology with respect to the status of estrogen receptor. METHODS: We used the quantitative real-time PCR technique to analyze differences in the expression levels of the ESR1 and GPX1 genes in paired malignant and non-malignant tissues from breast cancer patients...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Kai Sun, Deqiang Yang, Sihao Liu, Tianming Yang
In this paper, a wide-band low cross polarization antenna with a structure of microstrip line coupling to slot line as the balun is proposed. The radiation part of the antenna is fed by two pairs of parallel transmission line via a transition from a slot line which is coupled by a microstrip line. Because it is fed by parallel transmission lines, which is balanced-fed structure, the antenna can achieve an improved low cross-polarization performance. The height of the antenna is 0.146λ0 (λ0 is the wavelength of lowest frequency)...
2018: PloS One
Mengyu Wang, Qingying Jin, Hui Wang, Neda Baniasadi, Tobias Elze
We studied the relationship between major retinal blood vessel (BV) positions and glaucoma parameters based on pairs of Cirrus optical coherence tomography scans and Humphrey visual fields of 445 eyes from 445 glaucoma patients in our cross-sectional study. A trained observer marked the major superior and inferior temporal BV (artery and vein) positions on four concentric circles around the optic disc. Analysis of variance was performed to analyze the group differences of BV positions related to the factors of radius, BV type, myopia status and glaucoma stage...
2018: PloS One
Tobias Budenz, Annette Denzinger, Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler
Bats lower the emission SPL when approaching a target. The SPL reduction has been explained by intensity compensation which implies that bats adjust the emission SPL to perceive the retuning echoes at the same level. For a better understanding of this control mechanism we recorded the echolocation signals of four Myotis myotis with an onboard microphone when foraging in the passive mode for rustling mealworms offered in two feeding dishes with different target strength, and determined the reduction rate for the emission SPL and the increase rate for the SPL of the returning echoes...
2018: PloS One
Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
Ahmed M Megreya, Markus Bindemann
Identity comparisons of photographs of unfamiliar faces are prone to error but important for applied settings, such as person identification at passport control. Finding techniques to improve face-matching accuracy is therefore an important contemporary research topic. This study investigated whether matching accuracy can be improved by instruction to attend to specific facial features. Experiment 1 showed that instruction to attend to the eyebrows enhanced matching accuracy for optimized same-day same-race face pairs but not for other-race faces...
2018: PloS One
Chloè Bontinck, Petra Warreyn, Sara Van der Paelt, Ellen Demurie, Herbert Roeyers
Although sibling interactions play an important role in children's early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Biyun Ling, Chunrong Peng, Ren Ren, Zhaozhi Chu, Zhouwei Zhang, Hucheng Lei, Shanhong Xia
One of the major concerns in the development of three-dimensional (3D) electric field sensors (EFSs) is their susceptibility to cross-axis coupling interference. The output signal for each sensing axis of a 3D EFS is often coupled by electric field components from the two other orthogonal sensing axes. In this paper, a one-dimensional (1D) electric field sensor chip (EFSC) with low cross-axis coupling interference is presented. It is designed to be symmetrical, forming a pair of in-plane symmetrically-located sensing structures...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Lu Hu, Wuchao Zhao, Jianghua He, Yuetao Zhang
This work reveals the silyl ketene acetal (SKA)/B(C₆F₅)₃ Lewis pair-catalyzed room-temperature group transfer polymerization (GTP) of polar acrylic monomers, including methyl linear methacrylate (MMA), and the biorenewable cyclic monomers γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL) and α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) as well. The in situ NMR monitored reaction of SKA with B(C₆F₅)₃ indicated the formation of Frustrated Lewis Pairs (FLPs), although it is sluggish for MMA polymerization, such a FLP system exhibits highly activity and living GTP of MMBL and MBL...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Han Sun, Xiong Zhang, Yacong Zhao, Yu Zhang, Xuefei Zhong, Zhaowen Fan
The novel human-computer interface (HCI) using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC) and Fisher discrimination (FD) criteria...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Tongyang Li, Shaoping Wang, Enrico Zio, Jian Shi, Wei Hong
Leakage is the most important failure mode in aircraft hydraulic systems caused by wear and tear between friction pairs of components. The accurate detection of abrasive debris can reveal the wear condition and predict a system's lifespan. The radial magnetic field (RMF)-based debris detection method provides an online solution for monitoring the wear condition intuitively, which potentially enables a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis on the aviation hydraulic system's ongoing failures. To address the serious mixing of pipe abrasive debris, this paper focuses on the superimposed abrasive debris separation of an RMF abrasive sensor based on the degenerate unmixing estimation technique...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Frederic Strobl, Anita Anderl, Ernst Hk Stelzer
Diploid transgenic organisms are either hemi- or homozygous. Genetic assays are, therefore, required to identify the genotype. Our AGameOfClones vector concept uses two clearly distinguishable transformation markers embedded in interweaved, but incompatible Lox site pairs. Cre-mediated recombination leads to hemizygous individuals that carry only one marker. In the following generation, heterozygous descendants are identified by the presence of both markers and produce homozygous progeny that are selected by the lack of one marker...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Christopher John Kiely, Paul Pavli, Claire Louise O'Brien
Studies of the human intestinal microbiome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consistently show that there are differences (an abnormal or unbalanced microbiome, "dysbiosis") when compared to healthy subjects. We sought to describe changes in the microbiome in individual patients over time, and determine the clinical factors that are associated with significant alteration. Forty-two mucosal biopsies were collected from 20 patients that were spaced an average of 2.4 years apart. These were analysed using bacterial 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing methods...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Sarah P Carter, Laura J Osborne, Keith D Renshaw, Elizabeth S Allen, Benjamin A Loew, Howard J Markman, Scott M Stanley
Long-distance communication has been frequently identified as essential to military couples trying to maintain their relationship during a deployment. Little quantitative research, however, has assessed the types of topics discussed during such communication and how those topics relate to overall relationship satisfaction. The current study draws on a sample of 56 Army couples who provided data through online surveys while the service member was actively deployed. These couples provided information on current marital satisfaction, topics discussed during deployment (problem talk, friendship talk, love talk), and how they communicated via synchronous media (e...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Rumpa Pal, Madhusudana Reddy, Bhimareddy Dinesh, Manjunath A Venkatesha, Simon Grabowsky, Christian Jelsch, Tayur N Guru Row
A comparative study of syn vs. anti carboxylic acids in hybrid peptides based on experimental electron density studies and theoretical calculations shows that, in the anti form, all the three bond angles surrounding Ccarboxyl of the -COOH group are close to ~120°, as expected for a C-sp2 atom, whereas in the syn form, the <C-C(O)-Ohydroxyl angle is significantly smaller by 5-10°. The oxygen atom in the carboxyl group is more electronegative in the anti form, so the polarity of the acidic O-H bond is higher in the anti form compared to the syn form,as observed within the limitations of H atom treatment in X-ray diffraction...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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