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Patrizia Ferroni, Francesca Santilli, Francesco Cavaliere, Paola Simeone, Leopoldo Costarelli, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Silvia Riondino, Mario Roselli, Giovanni Davi, Fiorella Guadagni
The hypothesis that increased oxidative stress in breast cancer (BC) patients could induce enhanced lipid peroxidation, which, in turn, would contribute to platelet activation and poor clinical outcome is attractive. To address this issue, we investigated pre-surgical urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α (marker of in vivo oxidative stress) and 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B2 (marker of in vivo platelet activation) levels in patients with primary BC (n=115) compared with control women paired for co-morbidities and their association with patients' metabolic profile and clinical prognostic factors...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Chiao-Fan Lin, Yi-Hsuan Hsieh, Hsin-Yi Liang, Kuo-You Huang, Wei-Che Chiu, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre, Hsiang-Lin Chan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly prevalent in Asia. Antidepressants have been associated with increase in hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first Asian population-based study to evaluate the association between antidepressant use and risk of HCC. Based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide population-based study. A total of 49,998 cases with HCC were identified and paired with 244,236 randomly selected controls. The data was analyzed via the conditional logistic regression model adjusting for several confounding factors...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Timothy J Ritchie, Simon J F Macdonald
The impact of replacing a mono-substituted benzene (phenyl) ring with thirty three aromatic and nine aliphatic heterocycles on nine ADME-related screens (solubility, lipophilicity, permeability, protein binding CYP450 inhibition and metabolic clearance) was assessed using matched molecular pair analysis. The results indicate that the influence on the ADME profile can differ significantly depending on the ring identity and importantly on the individual regioisomers that are possible for some rings. This information enables the medicinal chemist to make an informed choice about which rings and regioisomers to employ as mono-substituted benzene replacements, based upon the knowledge of how such replacements are likely to influence ADME-related parameters, for example to target higher solubility whilst avoiding CYP450 liabilities...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Wedad Matar Almutairi, Susan M Ludington-Hoe
BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of the 996 NICUs in the United States routinely practice kangaroo care, due in part to the inadequate knowledge and skills confidence of nurses. Continuing education improves knowledge and skills acquisition, but the effects of a kangaroo care certification course on nurses' knowledge and skills confidence are unknown. METHOD: A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was conducted. The Kangaroo Care Knowledge and Skills Confidence Tool was administered to 68 RNs at a 2...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Lauren S Mogil, Nicole A Becker, L James Maher
DNA-protein loops can be essential for gene regulation. The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon is controlled by DNA-protein loops that have been studied for decades. Here we adapt this model to test the hypothesis that negative superhelical strain facilitates the formation of short-range (6-8 DNA turns) repression loops in E. coli. The natural negative superhelicity of E. coli DNA is regulated by the interplay of gyrase and topoisomerase enzymes, adding or removing negative supercoils, respectively. Here, we measured quantitatively DNA looping in three different E...
2016: PloS One
Akira Minami, Masakazu Saito, Shou Mamada, Daisuke Ieno, Tomoya Hikita, Tadanobu Takahashi, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Takashi Suzuki
Sialic acid bound to glycans in glycolipids and glycoproteins is essential for synaptic plasticity and memory. Sialidase (EC, which has 4 isozymes including Neu1, Neu2, Neu3 and Neu4, regulates the sialylation level of glycans by removing sialic acid from sialylglycoconjugate. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of sialidase activity in rat hippocampus and the role of sialidase in hippocampal memory processing. We previously developed a highly sensitive histochemical imaging probe for sialidase activity, BTP3-Neu5Ac...
2016: PloS One
Lee Ling Tan, Shawn S Hoon, Fong T Wong
Over the last few years, a number of different protein assembly strategies have been developed, greatly expanding the toolbox for controlling macromolecular assembly. One of the most promising developments is a rapid protein ligation approach using a short polypeptide SpyTag and its partner, SpyCatcher derived from Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding protein, FbaB. To extend this technology, we have engineered and characterized a new Tag-Catcher pair from a related fibronectin-binding protein in Streptococcus dysgalactiae...
2016: PloS One
Michael J Dunn, Jennifer A Jackson, Stacey Adlard, Amanda S Lynnes, Dirk R Briggs, Derren Fox, Claire M Waluda
We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3...
2016: PloS One
Brian Dodge, Debby Herbenick, M Reuel Friedman, Vanessa Schick, Tsung-Chieh Jane Fu, Wendy Bostwick, Elizabeth Bartelt, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, David Pletta, Michael Reece, Theo G M Sandfort
: As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U...
2016: PloS One
Frank M J Sommerlandt, Johannes Spaethe, Wolfgang Rössler, Adrian G Dyer
Honeybees learn color information of rewarding flowers and recall these memories in future decisions. For fine color discrimination, bees require differential conditioning with a concurrent presentation of target and distractor stimuli to form a long-term memory. Here we investigated whether the long-term storage of color information shapes the neural network of microglomeruli in the mushroom body calyces and if this depends on the type of conditioning. Free-flying honeybees were individually trained to a pair of perceptually similar colors in either absolute conditioning towards one of the colors or in differential conditioning with both colors...
2016: PloS One
Renzo Sebastián Adilardi, Andrés Alejandro Ojanguren-Affilastro, Liliana María Mola
Scorpions of the genus Tityus show holokinetic chromosomes, achiasmatic male meiosis and an absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, like all Buthidae. In this work, we analysed the meiotic behaviour and chromosome rearrangements of a population of the scorpion Tityus confluens, characterising the cytotypes of males, females and embryos with different cytogenetic techniques. This revealed that all the females were structural homozygotes, while all the males were structural heterozygotes for different chromosome rearrangements...
2016: PloS One
Sarah E Goglin, Ramin Farzaneh-Far, Elissa S Epel, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H Blackburn, Mary A Whooley
BACKGROUND: Short telomere length independently predicts mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Whether 5-year change in telomere length predicts subsequent mortality in patients with coronary heart disease has not been evaluated. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of 608 individuals with stable coronary artery disease, we measured leukocyte telomere length at baseline and after five years of follow-up. We divided the sample into tertiles of telomere change: shortened, maintained or lengthened...
2016: PloS One
Quintin Sheridan, Seungmin Oh, Oscar Morales-Collazo, Edward W Castner, Joan Frances Brennecke, Edward J Maginn
A combination of X-ray scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the structure of ionic liquids (ILs) which chemically bind CO2. The structure functions were measured and computed for four different ILs consisting of two different phosphonium cations, triethyloctylphosphonium ([P2228](+)) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium ([P66614](+)), paired with two different aprotic heterocyclic anions which chemically react with CO2, 2-cyanopyrrolide and 1,2,4-triazolide. Simulations were able to reproduce to a reasonable degree the experimental structure functions, and by deconstructing the simulated structure functions, further information on the liquid structure was obtained...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Aaron C W Lin, Wendy Strugnell, Robyn Riley, Benjamin Schmitt, Michael Zenge, Michaela Schmidt, Norman R Morris, Christian Hamilton-Craig
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical feasibility of a compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence of both high temporal and spatial resolution (CS_bSSFP) in comparison to a balanced steady-state free precession cine (bSSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Segmented MRI cine images were acquired on a 1.5T scanner in 50 patients in the LV short-axis stack orientation using a retrospectively gated conventional bSSFP sequence (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition [GRAPPA] acceleration factor 2), followed by a prospectively triggered CS_bSSFP sequence with net acceleration factor of 8...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Andriy Shevchenko, Maksym Barabash
It was established that at low temperatures, quantum oscillations of a pair of interacting nanoscale structural inhomogeneities (vertical Bloch lines) occur in a domain wall of stripe domain in uniaxial ferromagnetic film. The effective mass of vertical Bloch line and conditions for this effect were determined. The effect can be used in the hybrid storage devices bit + q-bit.
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Kalliopi Tournikioti, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Ioannis Michopoulos, Maria Alevizaki, Constantin R Soldatos, Dimitris Dikeos, Athanasios Douzenis
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impairment in cognitive domains such as verbal memory and executive functions. However, visual paired associative learning (PAL) has been far less researched. Neurocognitive dysfunction in BD patients has been related to several clinical factors, but data on the effect of medication are relatively scarce and inconsistent. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of clinical and treatment-related parameters on executive functions and visual memory/learning, including PAL, in BD...
October 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Tobias Baumann, Matthias Exner, Nediljko Budisa
To date, the two systems most extensively used for noncanonical amino acid (ncAA) incorporation via orthogonal translation are based on the Methanococcus jannaschii TyrRS/tRNA CUA(Tyr) and the Methanosarcina barkeri/Methanosarcina mazei PylRS/tRNA CUA(Pyl) pairs. Here, we summarize the development and usage of the pyrrolysine-based system for orthogonal translation, a process that allows for the recombinant production of site-specifically labeled proteins and peptides. Via stop codon suppression in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells, genetically encoded biomolecules can be equipped with a great diversity of chemical functionalities including click chemistry handles, post-translational modifications, and photocaged sidechains...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Mansoureh Tajaddod, Andrea Tanzer, Konstantin Licht, Michael T Wolfinger, Stefan Badelt, Florian Huber, Oliver Pusch, Sandy Schopoff, Michael Janisiw, Ivo Hofacker, Michael F Jantsch
BACKGROUND: Short interspersed elements (SINEs) represent the most abundant group of non-long-terminal repeat transposable elements in mammalian genomes. In primates, Alu elements are the most prominent and homogenous representatives of SINEs. Due to their frequent insertion within or close to coding regions, SINEs have been suggested to play a crucial role during genome evolution. Moreover, Alu elements within mRNAs have also been reported to control gene expression at different levels...
October 25, 2016: Genome Biology
Andrea Schmitt, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Schahram Akbarian, Juliana S Cassoli, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Andre Fischer, Alfred Fonteh, Wagner F Gattaz, Michael Gawlik, Manfred Gerlach, Edna Grünblatt, Tobias Halene, Alkomiet Hasan, Kenij Hashimoto, Yong-Ku Kim, Sophie-Kathrin Kirchner, Johannes Kornhuber, Theo F J Kraus, Berend Malchow, Juliana M Nascimento, Moritz Rossner, Markus Schwarz, Johann Steiner, Leda Talib, Florence Thibaut, Peter Riederer, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite progress in identifying molecular pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia, valid biomarkers are lacking for both the disease and treatment response. METHODS: This comprehensive review summarises recent efforts to identify molecular mechanisms on the level of protein and gene expression and epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and micro RNA expression. Furthermore, it summarises recent findings of alterations in lipid mediators and highlights inflammatory processes...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Dinah Chen, Elena Fuell Wysong, Hong Li, Lisa Perriera, Lydia Furman
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between postpartum predischarge depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (ppDMPA) and in-hospital breastfeeding initiation, and the secondary exploratory aim was to determine if any racial disparities are associated with ppDMPA receipt or its relationship to breastfeeding initiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective chart review of maternal and newborn records at a large urban academic medical center...
October 26, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
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