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Justin M Curley, Coleen Crouch, Joshua E Wilk
Introduction: Medical readiness for deployment is arguably the most important component of personnel readiness in the U.S. Army. Administrative documents called profiles provide individualized medical recommendations to the commander regarding how to best provide for a soldier's health and welfare, and contribute to an aggregated enumeration of a unit's overall readiness to deploy. Profiles that convey behavioral health (BH) limitations thus reflect what can be called the "behavioral health readiness" of the force...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Michael J Ingargiola, Felipe Molina Burbano, Amy Yao, Saba Motakef, Paymon Sanati-Mehrizy, Nikki M Burish, Lisa R David, Peter J Taub
Background: The recently increased minimum aesthetic surgery requirements set by the Plastic Surgery Residency Review Committee of the ACGME highlight the importance of aesthetic surgery training for plastic surgery residents. Participation in resident aesthetic surgery clinics has become an important tool to achieve this goal. Yet, there is little literature on the current structure of these clinics. Objectives: The authors sought to evaluate current practices of aesthetic resident-run clinics in the United States...
March 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Ivan Yu Chernyshov, Philip V Toukach
Motivation: Glycans and glycoconjugates are usually recorded in dedicated databases in residue-based notations. Only a few of them can be converted into chemical (atom-based) formats highly demanded in conformational and biochemical studies. In this work, we present a tool for translation from a residue-based glycan notation to SMILES. Results: The REStLESS algorithm for translation from the CSDB Linear notation to SMILES was developed. REStLESS stands for ResiduEs as Smiles and LinkagEs as SmartS, where SMARTS reaction expressions are used to merge pre-encoded residues into a molecule...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Erika Obikane, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Daisuke Takagi, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with adult suicidal behaviors, partially mediated by mental disorders. However, the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders is uncertain because the same risk factors serve as mediators and confounders of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders on suicidal behaviors using marginal structural models. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of Japanese adults in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures (The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Judy F C Chow, William S B Yeung, Vivian C Y Lee, Estella Y L Lau, Ernest H Y Ng
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the applicability of a commonly used next generation sequencing workflow in detecting unbalanced meiotic segregation products for reciprocal translocation and inversion carriers. STUDY DESIGN: All preimplantation genetic testing treatment cycles performed for reciprocal translocation or inversion carriers from 2012 to April 2017 were included. Three hundreds and forty-two archived whole genome amplified DNA, which had previously analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), were retrospectively analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS)...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Mehran Abolghasemibizaki, Robert L McMasters, Reza Mohammadi
HYPOTHESIS: Recently, it has been shown that the contact time of impacting water droplets on a superhydrophobic cylindrical surface decreases when its radius becomes comparable to that of the droplet, yet the correlation of this reduction with the impact velocity is unclear. Moreover, on a flat surface, experiments involving the addition of a single macrotexture, along with covering the surface with macroscopic cylindrical ridges (ribbed pattern), have been reported to shorten the contact time...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Nicolas Hoertel, Hadi Faiz, Guillaume Airagnes, Carlos Blanco, Rachel Pascal De Raykeer, Silvia Franco, Géraldine Ducoutumany, Cédric Lemogne, Frédéric Limosin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinkers are at high risk for suicide attempt and suicide. Multiple factors, when examined in isolation, have been implicated in the risk of suicide attempt in this population. In this report, we present a comprehensive model of the 3-year risk of suicide attempt in heavy drinkers using a longitudinal nationally representative study, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005). METHODS: We used structural equation modeling to simultaneously examine effects of four broad groups of clinical factors previously identified as potential predictors of attempted suicides: 1) alcohol use disorder severity, 2) severity of comorbidity, 3) sociodemographic characteristics and 4) help-seeking for alcohol problems...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jared T Hammill, Daniel C Scott, Jaeki Min, Michele C Connelly, Gloria Holbrook, Fangyi Zhu, Amy Matheny, Lei Yang, Bhuvanesh Singh, Brenda A Schulman, R Kiplin Guy
We previously discovered and validated a class of piperidinyl ureas that regulate defective in cullin neddylation 1 (DCN1)-dependent neddylation of cullins. Here, we report preliminary structure-activity relationship studies aimed at advancing our high-throughput screen hit into a tractable tool compound for dissecting the effects of acute DCN1-UBE2M inhibition on the NEDD8/cullin pathway. Structure-enabled optimization led to a 100-fold increase in biochemical potency and modestly increased solubility and permeability as compared to our initial hit...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jared T Hammill, Deepak Bhasin, Daniel C Scott, Jaeki Min, Yizhe Chen, Yan Lu, Lei Yang, Ho Shin Kim, Michele C Connelly, Courtney Hammill, Gloria Holbrook, Cynthia Jeffries, Bhuvanesh Singh, Brenda A Schulman, R Kiplin Guy
We previously reported the discovery, validation, and structure-activity relationships of a series of piperidinyl ureas that potently inhibit the DCN1-UBE2M interaction. We demonstrated that compound 7 inhibits both the DCN1-UBE2M protein-protein interaction and DCN1-mediated cullin neddylation in biochemical assays and reduces levels of steady-state cullin neddylation in a squamous carcinoma cell line harboring DCN1 amplification. Although compound 7 exhibits good solubility and permeability, it is rapidly metabolized in microsomal models (CLint = 170 mL/min/kg)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kiwoung Yang, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Manosh Kumar Biswas, Md Abdul Kayum, Go-Eun Yi, Jonghoon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang, Ill-Sup Nou
Plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) vary in sequence structure. We assembled the Brassica oleracea var. capitata mtDNA using a mean coverage depth of 25X whole genome sequencing (WGS) and confirmed the presence of eight contigs/fragments by BLASTZ using the previously reported KJ820683 and AP012988 mtDNA as reference. Assembly of the mtDNA sequence reads resulted in a circular structure of 219,975 bp. Our assembled mtDNA, NCBI acc. no. KU831325, contained 34 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 19 tRNA genes with similarity to the KJ820683 and AP012988 reference mtDNA...
2018: PloS One
Sofía I Deperi, Martín E Tagliotti, M Cecilia Bedogni, Norma C Manrique-Carpintero, Joseph Coombs, Ruofang Zhang, David Douches, Marcelo A Huarte
The reported narrow genetic base of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) can be expanded by the introgression of many related species with large genetic diversity. The analysis of the genetic structure of a potato population is important to broaden the genetic base of breeding programs by the identification of different genetic pools. A panel composed by 231 diverse genotypes was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of the Illumina Infinium Potato SNP Array V2 to identify population structure and assess genetic diversity using discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and pedigree analysis...
2018: PloS One
Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
Mitchell R White, Ruth Kandel, I-Ni Hsieh, Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein (βA) can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses. We reported that the 42 amino acid βA protein inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and modulates activation of neutrophils and monocytes exposed IAV. We here show that fragments composed of the N and C terminal domain of βA42, including βA22-42 and the 8 amino acid βA35-42, retain viral neutralizing and viral aggregating activity, whereas fragments lacking the C-terminal amino acids 41 and 42 (e...
2018: PloS One
Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla, Daniel Oves-Costales, Mercedes de la Cruz, Maria Kokkini, Jesús Martín, Francisca Vicente, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes
Phocoenamicins B and C ( 1 and 2 ), together with the known spirotetronate phocoenamicin ( 3 ), were isolated from cultures of Micromonospora sp. The acetone extract from a culture of this strain, isolated from marine sediments collected in the Canary Islands, displayed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis . Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using SP207ss column chromatography and preparative reversed-phased HPLC led to the isolation of the new compounds 1 and 2 belonging to the spirotetronate class of polyketides...
March 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Isabel Aparici-Espert, Miguel A Miranda, Virginie Lhiaubet-Vallet
Photosensitization by drugs is a problem of increasing importance in modern life. This phenomenon occurs when a chemical substance in the skin is exposed to sunlight. Photosensitizing drugs are reported to cause severe skin dermatitis, and indeed, it is generally advised to avoid sunbathing and to apply sunscreen. In this context, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac is a photosensitive drug, especially when administered in topical form. In this work, efforts have been made to design and study an innovative pro-drug/pro-filter system containing diclofenac and the UVA filter avobenzone in order to develop a safer use of this topical drug...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jan Endrikat, Susan Dohanish, Nicolas Schleyer, Susanne Schwenke, Sheela Agarwal, Thomas Balzer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to critically assess the evaluation and categorization process for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) based on reports received by Bayer from 2006 to 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 779 NSF reports received by Bayer globally from 2006 to 2016 were included in the analysis. Arlington Medical Resources provided gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) market share. Reports were conservatively categorized based on the Cowper/Girardi criteria...
March 16, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Dimitar Popmintchev, Benjamin R Galloway, Ming-Chang Chen, Franklin Dollar, Christopher A Mancuso, Amelia Hankla, Luis Miaja-Avila, Galen O'Neil, Justin M Shaw, Guangyu Fan, Skirmantas Ališauskas, Giedrius Andriukaitis, Tadas Balčiunas, Oliver D Mücke, Audrius Pugzlys, Andrius Baltuška, Henry C Kapteyn, Tenio Popmintchev, Margaret M Murnane
Recent advances in high-order harmonic generation have made it possible to use a tabletop-scale setup to produce spatially and temporally coherent beams of light with bandwidth spanning 12 octaves, from the ultraviolet up to x-ray photon energies >1.6  keV. Here we demonstrate the use of this light for x-ray-absorption spectroscopy at the K- and L-absorption edges of solids at photon energies near 1 keV. We also report x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in the water window spectral region (284-543 eV) using a high flux high-order harmonic generation x-ray supercontinuum with 10^{9}  photons/s in 1% bandwidth, 3 orders of magnitude larger than has previously been possible using tabletop sources...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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