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Seung Jae Lee, Eun-Mi Jeong, Ah Young Ki, Kyung-Seo Oh, Joseph Kwon, Jae-Hyuk Jeong, Nam-Jin Chung
High salinity is a major abiotic stress that affects the growth and development of plants. This type of stress can influence flowering, the production of crops, defense mechanisms and other physiological processes. Previous studies have attempted to elucidate salt-tolerance mechanisms to improve plant growth and productivity in the presence of sodium chloride. One such plant that has been studied in detail is Salicornia, a well-known halophyte, which has adapted to grow in the presence of high salt. To further the understanding of how Salicornia grows and develops under high saline conditions, Salicornia herbacea (S...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Sunil Nath
As the chief energy source of eukaryotic cells, it is important to determine the thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS). Previous estimates of the thermodynamic efficiency of this vital process have ranged from Lehninger's original back-of-the-envelope calculation of 38% to the often quoted value of 55-60% in current textbooks of biochemistry, to high values of 90% from recent information theoretic considerations, and reports of realizations of close to ideal 100% efficiencies by single molecule experiments...
October 15, 2016: Biophysical Chemistry
Hiroko Fujisato, Masaya Ito, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Hiroki Hosogoshi, Noriko Kato, Shun Nakajima, Mitsuhiro Miyamae, Yuki Oe, Satoshi Usami, Ayako Kanie, Masaru Horikoshi, Matthias Berking
BACKGROUND: The Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire (ERSQ) comprehensively assesses nine aspects of emotion regulation skills: awareness, clarity, sensation, understanding, compassionate self-support, modification, acceptance, tolerance, and readiness to confront. However, it is unknown about the levels of emotion regulation skills in various mental disorders, and its cross-cultural validity. We developed a Japanese version of the ERSQ, then examined its validity and reliability in clinical and non-clinical populations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Makoto Yoshimoto
Phospholipid vesicle (liposome) offers an aqueous compartment surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes. Various enzyme molecules have been reported to be encapsulated in liposomes. The liposomal enzyme shows peculiar catalytic activity and selectivity to the substrate in the bulk liquid, which are predominantly derived from the substrate permeation resistance through the membrane. We reported that the quaternary structure of bovine liver catalase and alcohol dehydrogenase was stabilized in liposomes through their interaction with lipid membranes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lance H Rodan, Christelle Moufawad El Achkar, Gerard T Berry, Annapurna Poduri, Sanjay P Prabhu, Edward Yang, Irina Anselm
TUBB2A is a gene that has recently been reported in association with structural brain abnormalities. Only 3 cases have been reported to date with disparate brain morphologic abnormalities, although all patients have presented with developmental delay and infantile-onset epilepsy. We report a fourth patient with a de novo variant in TUBB2A that is predicted to be pathogenic, presenting with developmental delay, spastic diplegia, exaggerated startle, and anterior temporal pachygyria in the absence of epilepsy...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Yasuhiko Hayashi, Masahiro Oishi, Issei Fukui, Yasuo Sasagawa, Yasuhiro Aida, Mitsutoshi Nakada
BACKGROUND: In Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs), inflammation by the cyst contents infrequently spreads to the surrounding structures. Calcification, which is regarded as a consequence of chronic inflammation of the cyst wall, can rarely be found in RCCs, and moreover, ossification is extremely rare. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman presented with headaches, fatigue and weight loss due to panhypopituitarism. Magnetic Resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion in the sellar region, which was comprised of two different parts, with hypointensity anteriorly and hyperintensity posteriorly on T1-weighted image (WI), and the rim with significant hypointensity entirely on T2-WI...
October 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Chanakan Tongsook, Johannes Niederhauser, Elena Kronegger, Grit Straganz, Peter Macheroux
The degradation of histamine catalyzed by the SAM-dependent histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is critically important for the maintenance of neurological processes. Recently, two mutations in the encoding human gene were reported to give rise to dysfunctional protein variants (G60D and L208P) leading to intellectual disability. In the present study, we have expressed eight L208 variants with either apolar (L208F and L208V), polar (L208N and L208T) or charged (L208D, L208H, L208K and L208R) amino acids to define the impact of side chain variations on protein structure and function...
October 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dennis Toddenroth, Janakan Sivagnanasundaram, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Thomas Ganslandt
BACKGROUND: The difficulty of managing patient recruitment and documentation for clinical trials prompts a demand for instruments for closely monitoring these critical but unpredictable processes. Increasingly adopted Electronic Data Capture (EDC) applications provide novel opportunities to reutilize stored information for an efficient management of traceable trial workflows. In related clinical and administrative settings, so-called digital dashboards that continuously visualize time-dependent parameters have recently met a growing acceptance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Morteza Behnam, Hossein Pourghassem
BACKGROUND: EEG signal analysis of pediatric patients plays vital role for making a decision to intervene in presurgical stages. NEW METHOD: In this paper, an offline seizure detection algorithm based on definition of a seizure-specific wavelet (Seizlet) is presented. After designing the Seizlet, by forming cone of influence map of the EEG signal, four types of layouts are analytically designed that are called Seizure Modulus Maximas Patterns (SMMP). By mapping CorrEntropy Induced Metric (CIM) series, four structural features based on least square estimation of fitted non-tilt conic ellipse are extracted that are called CorrEntropy Ellipse Features (CEF)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Florian Graef, Branko Vukosavljevic, Jean-Philippe Michel, Marius Wirth, Oliver Ries, Chiara De Rossi, Maike Windbergs, Véronique Rosilio, Christian Ducho, Sarah Gordon, Claus-Michael Lehr
Gram-negative bacteria possess a unique and complex cell envelope, composed of an inner and outer membrane separated by an intermediate cell wall-containing periplasm. This tripartite structure acts intrinsically as a significant biological barrier, often limiting the permeation of anti-infectives, and so preventing such drugs from reaching their target. Furthermore, identification of the specific permeation-limiting envelope component proves difficult in the case of many anti-infectives, due to the challenges associated with isolation of individual cell envelope structures in bacterial culture...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Sally Lindsay, Laura McAdam, Tania Mahendiran
BACKGROUND: Young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) live into adulthood and need specialized care. However, services for adults are fragmented. We know little about young men's experiences, their parents, and clinicians who support them as they transition to adult care. OBJECTIVE: To explore the enablers and barriers of clinicians, young men, and parents as they transition from an adult DMD clinic within a pediatric hospital to an adult health facility...
October 11, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Juho Suojanen, Junnu Leikola, Patricia Stoor
The use of virtual surgery, patient-specific saw and drill guides, and custom-made osteosynthesis plates is rapidly spreading from deformity surgery to orthognathic surgery. Most of the commercially available systems are using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) wafers to produce patient-specific saw guides. However, most plate systems provided are still the conventional "in stock" mini plates that can be individually designed by pre-bending according to the stereolithographic model of the patient...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Jacqueline Francis-Coad, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Caroline Bulsara, Debbie Nobre, Anne-Marie Hill
The aims of this study were to evaluate establishing and operating a web-based community of practice (CoP) to lead falls prevention in a residential aged care (RAC) setting. A mixed methods evaluation was conducted in two phases using a survey and transcripts from interactive electronic sources. Nurses and allied health staff (n = 20) with an interest in falls prevention representing 13 sites of an RAC organization participated. In Phase 1, the CoP was developed, and the establishment of its structure and composition was evaluated using determinants of success reported in the literature...
October 18, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
Iacopo Bertocci, Francisco Arenas, Eva Cacabelos, Gustavo M Martins, Maria I Seabra, Nuno V Álvaro, Joana N Fernandes, Raquel Gaião, Nuno Mamede, Martina Mulas, Ana I Neto
Differences in the structure and functioning of intensively urbanized vs. less human-affected systems are reported, but such evidence is available for a much larger extent in terrestrial than in marine systems. We examined the hypotheses that (i) urbanization was associated to different patterns of variation of intertidal assemblages between urban and extra-urban environments; (ii) such patterns were consistent across mainland and insular systems, spatial scales from 10scm to 100skm, and a three months period...
October 18, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Daisuke Maki, Taisuke Mori, Masanori Teshima, Kenya Kobayashi, Fumihiko Matsumoto, Akihiro Sakai, Kenji Okami, Seiichi Yoshimoto
Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor occurring in the trunk and long bones. We present an extremely rare case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone with clinical and pathological correlation and a literature review. We searched all cases of the hyoid chondrosarcoma in PubMed (MEDLINE) between 1990 and 2015. Eighteen cases were analyzed, including the present case. Most of them were low grade type. In 12 cases where intraoperative findings were recorded, no adhesion to the surrounding tissue was observed. Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone is usually low grade type, and there may be no invasion to the adjacent structures even if invasion is suspected by imaging findings...
October 18, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Xiuli Chen, Hao Chen, Chunyan Lu, Chao Yang, Xiaoqi Yu, Kun Li, Yongmei Xie
In this report, the design of two novel nitrogen mustard-based DNA cross-linking agents with fluorophores incorporated into the structure (TN-A and TN-B) is disclosed. The results indicate that TN-A and TN-B can serve directly as both reporting and imaging agents for flow cytometry and gel electrophoresis without the necessity of another fluorescent tagging agents. TN-A and TN-B both selectively locate in the mitochondria and exhibit good antitumor activity. Notably, TN-A is the first DNA crosslinking agent with near infrared fluorescence emission properties...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Fanyu Meng, Peng Miao, Bidou Wang, Yuguo Tang, Jian Yin
Glutathione (GSH), a common tripeptide, plays an essential role in a variety of cellular functions. GSH level is reported to be closely related to human health. In this study, we fabricate an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for GSH quantification. DNA probes are firstly modified on the electrode surface and thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine is formed. Since GSH is able to chelate Hg(2+) from the DNA mismatched sites effectively, which leads to DNA structural switching from hairpin to linear strand, rolling circle amplification (RCA) could be initiated with the released linear primer probe...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Hong-Xin Jiang, Zhen-Zhen Liang, Yan-Hong Ma, De-Ming Kong, Zhang-Yong Hong
Real-time PCR has revolutionized PCR from qualitative to quantitative. As an isothermal DNA amplification technique, rolling circular amplification (RCA) has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool in many fields. Development of a simple, highly sensitive, and specific strategy for real-time monitoring of RCA will increase its usefulness in many fields. The strategy reported here utilized the specific fluorescence response of thioflavin T (ThT) to G-quadruplexes formed by RCA products. Such a real-time monitoring strategy works well in both traditional RCA with linear amplification efficiency and modified RCA proceeded in an exponential manner, and can be readily performed in commercially available real-time PCR instruments, thereby achieving high-throughput detection and making the proposed technique more suitable for biosensing applications...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mohsen Asadnia, Matthew Myers, N D Akhavan, Kane O'Donnell, Gilberto A Umana-Membreno, U K Mishra, Brett Nener, Murray Baker, Giacinta Parish
This work presents the first polymer approach to detect metal ions using AlGaN/GaN transistor-based sensor. The sensor utilised an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor-type structure by functionalising the gate area with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based ion selective membrane. Sensors based on this technology are portable, robust and typically highly sensitive to the target analyte; in this case Hg(2+). This sensor showed a rapid and stable response when it was introduced to solutions of varying Hg(2+) concentrations...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yeshwondm Mamuye, Balkachew Nigatu, Delayehu Bekele, Mekonen Getahun
BACKGROUND: Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Rubella infections result in adverse neonatal outcomes. Both CMV and Rubella are more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine IgM specific to CMV and Rubella among newborns and Maternal CMV-seroprevalence and to identify risk factors. METHOD AND FINDING: Using cross sectional study design a total of 312 (156 newborns and 156 mothers) study participants were recruited by simple random sampling technique from gynecology outpatient department (OPD) and ward, starting from April 1, 2015 to June 30, 2015...
October 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
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