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Jaeyeon Choi, Ganesan Vaidyanathan, Eftychia Koumarianou, Choong Mo Kang, Michael R Zalutsky
INTRODUCTION: Derived from heavy chain only camelid antibodies, ~15-kDa single-domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) are an attractive platform for developing molecularly specific imaging probes and targeted radiotherapeutics. The rapid tumor accumulation and normal tissue clearance of sdAbs might be ideal for use with (211)At, a 7.2-h half-life α-emitter, if appropriate labeling chemistry can be devised to trap (211)At in cancer cells after sdAb binding. This study evaluated two reagents, [(211)At]SAGMB and iso-[(211)At]SAGMB, for this purpose...
September 19, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Shizong Wang, Jianlong Wang
Trimethoprim is a pollutant ubiquitous in the environment due to its extensive application, and it cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the Fenton and the Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes were employed to degrade trimethoprim in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the concentration of persulfate, H2O2 and Fe(II) a had significant influence on the degradation of trimethoprim in both processes. De-ionized water spiked with trimethoprim resulted in the complete degradation of trimethoprim (0...
October 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Zhao Yuqing, Xing Yi, Li Lihua, Ma Juanjuan
Optical sensing for cysteine (Cys) recognition is an interesting topic due to Cys biological participation. In this paper, two rhodamine-based chemosensors were designed for Cys optical sensing. For chemosensor photostability improvement, up-conversion nanocrystals were synthesized and used as excitation host. These nanocrystals were modified with a phase transfer reagent α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) to improve their compatibility with chemosensors. An efficient energy transfer from these nanocrystals to chemosensors under 980nm radiation was observed and confirmed by spectral match analysis, energy transfer radius calculation and emission decay lifetime comparison...
October 4, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Xianbo Qiu, Junhui Zhang, Shisong Gong, Dong Wang, Shan Qiao, Shengxiang Ge, Ningshao Xia, Duli Yu, Shizhi Qian
A single-bead-based, fully integrated microfluidic system has been developed for high-throughput CD4+T lymphocyte enumeration at point-of-care testing. Instead of directly counting CD4+T lymphocytes, CD4+T lymphocyte enumeration is achieved by quantitatively detecting CD4 antigen from the lysed blood sample with a functionalized polycarbonate single bead based on chemiluminescence. To implement the sandwiched chemiluminescence immunoassay with reduced nonspecific binding, a streamlined microfluidic chip with multiple reaction chambers is developed to allow each reaction step to be completed in an independent chamber where reagent is pre-stored...
October 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
Tianying Liu, Tyler M Marcinko, Patrick A Kiefer, Richard W Vachet
Amyloid aggregates are associated with several debilitating diseases, and there are numerous efforts to develop small molecule treatments against these diseases. One challenge associated with these efforts is determining protein binding site information for potential therapeutics because amyloid-forming proteins rapidly form oligomers and aggregates, making traditional protein structural analysis techniques challenging. Using β-2-microglobulin (β2m) as a model amyloid-forming protein along with two recently identified small molecule amyloid inhibitors (i...
October 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Cristina García-Ruiz, Jack L-Y Chen, Christopher Sandford, Kathryn Feeney, Paula Lorenzo, Guillaume Berionni, Herbert Mayr, Varinder K Aggarwal
Allylboronic esters react readily with carbonyls and imines (π-electrophiles), but are unreactive towards a range of other electrophiles. By addition of an aryl organolithium, the corresponding allylboronate complexes display enhanced nucleophilicity, enabling addition to a range of electrophiles (tropylium, benzodithiolylium, activated pyridines, Eschenmoser's salt, Togni's reagent, Selectfluor, DIAD, MeSX) in high regio- and stereocontrol. This protocol provides access to key new functionalities, including quaternary stereogenic centers bearing moieties such as fluorine and the trifluoromethyl group...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
E Raposio, N Bertozzi
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that show definitive stem cell characteristics such as plastic adherence in culture, ability to maintain multipotency upon in vitro expansion, and self-renewal capacity. ASCs are particularly promising for use in regenerative medicine because they can be harvested easily from adipose tissue by standard liposuction, with minimal donor site morbidity. Since ASCs do not necessitate ex vivo expansion to obtain clinically significant cell numbers, it is critical to identify a standardized method that maximizes the number of ASCs collected...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mingxuan Gao, Jingjing Guo, Yanling Song, Zhi Zhu, Chaoyong James Yang
As a vital enzyme in DNA phosphorylation and restoration, T4 polynuceotide kinase (T4 PNK) has aroused great interest in recent years. Numerous strategies have been established for highly sensitive detection of T4 PNK based on diverse signal amplification techniques. However, they often need sophisticated design, a variety of auxiliary reagents and enzymes, or cumbersome manipulations. Herein, we have designed a new kind of allosteric aptamer probe consisting of streptavidin aptamer (SA aptamer) and the complementary DNA (cDNA) for simple detection of T4 PNK without signal amplification and with minimized interference in complex biological samples...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kazuma Amaike, Tomonori Tamura, Itaru Hamachi
Endogenous protein labeling is one of the most invaluable methods for studying the bona fide functions of proteins in live cells. However, multi-molecular crowding conditions, such as those that occur in live cells, hamper the highly selective chemical labeling of a protein of interest (POI). We herein describe how the efficient coupling of molecular recognition with a chemical reaction is crucial for selective protein labeling. Recognition-driven protein labeling is carried out by a synthetic labeling reagent containing a protein (recognition) ligand, a reporter tag, and a reactive moiety...
October 13, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Peipei Xu, Dan Guo, Xiaoyan Shao, Miaoxin Peng, Bing Chen
BACKGROUND: TKIs are the first-line treatment for patients with Ph-positive (Ph+) leukemia. However, drug resistance is frequently observed, mainly due to mutations within the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus (BCR-ABL) kinase domain. The T315I substitution confers complete resistance to TKIs. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of 17 patients with T315I mutation after TKI treatment and provide a basis for prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 17 TKI-resistant Ph+ leukemia patients who were found to have a ABL kinase domain mutation from September 2008 to January 2017 were collected...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
Xavier Charest-Morin, Patrice E Poubelle, François Marceau
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) can be C-terminally extended without significant affinity loss for the PTH1 receptor (PTHR1). We developed fusion protein ligands with enzymatic activity to probe PTHR1s at the cell surface. Two fusion proteins were generated by linking PTH to the N-terminus of either horseradish peroxidase (PTH-HRP) or the genetically modified soybean peroxidase APEX2 (PTH-APEX2). Alternatively, myc-tagged PTH (PTH-myc) was combined with antibodies, some of which HRP-conjugated, in the extracellular fluid...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaolong Zhang, Linhua Lan, Lili Niu, Juping Lu, Changxi Li, Miaomiao Guo, Shouyong Mo, Jing Lu, Yongzhang Liu, Bin Lu
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of oxidative stress induced by CoCl2 and H2O2 on the regulation of bioenergetics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line TE-1 and analyze its underlying mechanism. Western blot results showed that CoCl2 and H2O2 treatment of TE-1 cells led to significantly reduction of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex subunits expression and increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.  We further found that TE-1 cells treated with CoCl2, a hypoxia-mimicking reagent, dramatically reduced the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and increased the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR)...
October 12, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Eleonora Napoli, Siming Liu, Ilaria Marsilio, Konstantinos Zarbalis, Cecilia Giulivi
A multitude of natural and artificial compounds have been recognized to modulate autophagy, providing direct or, through associated pathways, indirect entry points to activation and inhibition. While these pharmacological tools are extremely useful in the study of autophagy, their abundance also suggests the potential presence of unidentified autophagic modulators that may interfere with experimental designs if applied unknowingly. Here, we report unanticipated effects on autophagy and bioenergetics in neuronal progenitor cells (NPC) incubated with widely used lipid-based-transfection reagent lipofectamine (LF), which induced mitochondria depolarization followed by disruption of electron transport...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Zhongya Ni, Chao Yao, Xiaowen Zhu, Chenyuan Gong, Zihang Xu, Lixin Wang, Suyun Li, Chunpu Zou, Shiguo Zhu
BACKGROUND: The identification of bioactive compounds from Chinese medicine plays a crucial role in the development of novel reagents against non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: High throughput screening assay and analyses of cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, cDNA microarray, BrdU incorporation and gene expression were performed. RESULTS: Ailanthone (Aila) suppressed NSCLC cell growth and colony formation in vitro and inhibited NSCLC tumour growth in subcutaneously xenografted and orthotopic lung tumour models, leading to prolonged survival of tumour-bearing mice...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Ekaterina D Sormacheva, Peter S Sherin, Yuri P Tsentalovich
Photoinduced generation of radicals in the eye lens may play an important role in the modification of proteins, leading to their coloration, aggregation, and insolubilization. The radicals can be formed via the reactions of photoexcited endogenous chromophores of the human lens with lens proteins, in particular with tryptophan residues. In the present work we studied the reactions induced by UV-A (315-400nm) light between kynurenic acid (KNA), an effective photosensitizer present in the lens, and N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (NTrpH) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
October 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Fanny Lazo, Dan E Vivas-Ruiz, Gustavo A Sandoval, Edith F Rodríguez, Edgar E G Kozlova, F Costal-Oliveira, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Ruperto Severino, Armando Yarlequé, Eladio F Sanchez
An L-amino acid oxidase from Peruvian Bothrops pictus (Bpic-LAAO) snake venom was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Bpic-LAAO is an homodimeric glycosylated flavoprotein with molecular mass of ∼65 kDa under reducing conditions and ∼132 kDa in its native form as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed highly conserved residues in a glutamine-rich motif related to binding substrate. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity towards L-Leu at pH 8...
October 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Andy C Rawstron, Karl-Anton Kreuzer, Asha Soosapilla, Martin Spacek, Olga Stehlikova, Peter Gambell, Neil McIver-Brown, Neus Villamor, Katherina Psarra, Maria Arroz, Raffaella Milani, Javier de la Serna, M Teresa Cedena, Ozren Jaksic, Josep Nomdedeu, Carol Moreno, Gian Matteo Rigolin, Antonio Cuneo, Preben Johansen, Hans E Johnsen, Richard Rosenquist, Carsten Utoft Niemann, Wolfgang Kern, David Westerman, Marek Trneny, Stephen Mulligan, Michael Doubek, Sarka Pospisilova, Peter Hillmen, David Oscier, Michael Hallek, Paolo Ghia, Emili Montserrat
The diagnostic criteria for CLL rely on morphology and immunophenotype. Current approaches have limitations affecting reproducibility and there is no consensus on the role of new markers. The aim of this project was to identify reproducible criteria and consensus on markers recommended for the diagnosis of CLL. ERIC/ESCCA members classified 14 of 35 potential markers as "required" or "recommended" for CLL diagnosis, consensus being defined as >75% and >50% agreement, respectively. An approach to validate "required" markers using normal peripheral blood was developed...
October 10, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
He Chen, Zhonglin Liu, Ying Lv, Xinqiang Tan, Haigen Shen, Hai-Zhu Yu, Chaozhong Li
Direct fluorination of tertiary alkyl bromides and iodides with Selectfluor reagent is described. The halogen-exchange fluorination proceeds efficiently in acetonitrile at room temperature under metal-free conditions and exhibits a wide range of functional group compatibility. Furthermore, the reactions are highly selective in that alkyl chlorides and primary and secondary alkyl bromides remain intact. A radical mechanism is proposed for this selective fluorination.
October 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Robert A Flowers, Shmaryahu Hoz, Sandeepan Maity
Ligands that coordinate to SmI2 through oxygen are prevalent in the literature and make up a significant portion of additives employed with the reagent to perform reactions of great synthetic importance. In the present work a series of spectroscopic, calorimetric and kinetic studies demonstrate that nitrogen-based analogs of many common additives have a significantly higher affinity for Sm than the oxygen-based counterparts. In addition, electrochemical experiments show that nitrogen-based ligands significantly enhance the reducing power of SmI2...
October 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Derek R Boyd, Narain D Sharma, Peter A Goodrich, John F Malone, Gareth McConville, John S Harrison, Paul J Stevenson, Christopher C R Allen
The relative merits of the methods employed to determine enantiomeric excess (ee) values and absolute configurations of chiral arene and alkene cis-1,2-diol metabolites, including boronate formation, using racemic or enantiopure (+) and (-)-2-(1-methoxyethyl)phenylboronic acid (MEPBA), are discussed. Further applications of: 1) MEPBA derived boronates of chiral mono- and poly-cyclic arene cis-dihydrodiol, cyclohex-2-en-1-one cis-diol, heteroarene cis/trans-2,3-diol, and catechol metabolites in estimating their ee values, and 2) new chiral phenylboronic acids, 2-[1-methoxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl]phenyl boronic acid (MDPBA) and 2-[1-methoxy-1-phenylmethyl]phenyl boronic acid (MPPBA) and their advantages over MEPBA, as reagents for stereochemical analysis of arene and alkene cis-diol metabolites, are presented...
October 11, 2017: Chirality
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