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Adrian Guthals, Yutian Gan, Laura Murray, Yongmei Chen, Jeremy Stinson, Gerald R Nakamura, Jennie R Lill, Wendy Sandoval, Nuno Bandeira
One direct route for the discovery of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) involves the isolation of peripheral B cells from survivors/sero-positive individuals after exposure to an infectious reagent or disease etiology followed by single-cell sequencing or hybridoma generation. Peripheral B cells, however, are not always easy to obtain and only represent a small percentage of the total B cell population across all bodily tissues. Although it has been demonstrated that tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques can interrogate the expressed polyclonal antibody (pAb) response to an antigen in vivo, all current approaches identify MS/MS spectra against databases derived from genetic sequencing of B cells from the same patient...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Haixia Hu, Xiaoqin Zhu, Ruhui Lin, Zuanfang Li, Lidian Chen
The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects, and underlying mechanisms, of Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction (GLGZD) in a rat model of neuroinflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with GLGZD following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neurological function and infarct volume were evaluated to confirm successful generation of the rat model. Subsequently, brain tissues and blood samples were collected for further analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated in peripheral blood samples using the Griess reagent assay and an ELISA, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rajeev K Dubey, Nick Westerveld, Stephen J Eustace, Ernst J R Sudhölter, Ferdinand C Grozema, Wolter F Jager
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions on 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic monoimide dibutylester, using phenol and pyrrolidine reagents, have been exploited to synthesize perylenes with four different substituents at the perylene core. The first substitution is always regiospecific at the imide-activated 7-position. A second substitution reaction does not always replace the bromine at C-1, but may replace a phenol substituent at the highly activated 7-position. Exploiting this reactivity pattern, a "mixed" 1,7-diphenoxy, 1,7-dipyrrolidinyl, and two 1-phenoxy-7-pyrrolidinyl derivatives have been synthesized...
October 25, 2016: Organic Letters
Akif Zeb, Xiao Xie, Ammar B Yousaf, M Imran, Tao Wen, Zhou Wang, Hong-Li Guo, Yi-Fan Jiang, Ishtiaq A Qazi, An-Wu Xu
Artificial enzyme mimetics is a current research area with much interest from scientific community. Some nanomaterials have been found to possess intrinsic enzyme-mimetic activity. In this study, VOx nanoflakes with mixed-phases are synthesized via a quick and facile one-pot synthetic process and their Fenton reaction and enzyme-mimetic activities have been studied. The results show that obtained VOx is not only highly effective Fenton reagent, completely decomposing Rhodamine B (RhB) within less than 1 min, but also exhibits excellent intrinsic peroxidase-like activity as well as H2O2 catalase-like activity...
October 25, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juan Wei, Kun-Ming Liu, Xin-Fang Duan
A highly general and selective Co-catalyzed biaryl coupling through C-F cleavage under phosphine or NHC free conditions was described. A broad range of aryl fluorides including unactivated fluorides as well as those with sensitive functionalities could couple with various Ti(OEt)4-mediated aryl Grignard reagents with high selectivity under the catalysis of CoCl2/DMPU. Importantly, selective C-F bond activation couplings between two types of fluorines (difluorinated aromatics and on two different coupling partners) and in the presence of C-Cl or C-Br bonds could also be achieved...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Seah Ling Kuan, Tao Wang, Tanja Weil
The synthetic transformation of polypeptides with molecular accuracy holds great promise for providing functional and structural diversity beyond the proteome. Consequently, the last decade has seen an exponential growth of site-directed chemistry to install additional features into peptides and proteins even inside living cells. The disulfide rebridging strategy has emerged as a powerful tool for site-selective modifications since most proteins contain disulfide bonds. In this Review, we present the chemical design, advantages and limitations of the disulfide rebridging reagents, while summarizing their relevance for synthetic customization of functional protein bioconjugates, as well as the resultant impact and advancement for biomedical applications...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sgb Furness, D L Hare, A Kourakis, A M Turnley, P J Wookey
We have discovered that the accumulation of an anti-calcitonin receptor (anti-CTR) antibody conjugated to a fluorophore (mAb2C4:AF568) provides a robust signal for cells undergoing apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is an absolute requirement for normal development of metazoan organisms. PCD is a hallmark of common diseases such as cardiovascular disease and tissue rejection in graft versus host pathologies, and chemotherapeutics work by increasing PCD. This robust signal or high fluorescent events were verified by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in several cell lines and a primary culture in which PCD had been induced...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Tatsanee Phermthai, Kittima Tungprasertpol, Suphakde Julavijitphong, Puttachart Pokathikorn, Sasiprapa Thongbopit, Suparat Wichitwiengrat
Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can effectively repair endometrial deficiencies, including infertile patients with a problem of inadequate endometrium thickness. Although, MSC derived from different organ sources have a similarity of MSC specific characteristics, endometrial stem cells (EMSC) are temporally regulated throughout the menstrual cycle in a micro-environmental niche found only in endometrial tissue. Given the micro-environment niche, developing treatments for endometrial disorders with EMSC should be a top priority...
October 21, 2016: Reproductive Biology
Li-Zhi Huang, Hans Christian B Hansen, Kim Daasbjerg
Graphene-based nanomaterials can mediate environmentally relevant abiotic redox reactions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. In this study as low amounts as ∼0.007 % of graphene oxide (GO) was found to catalyze the reduction of carbon tetrachloride by layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxide (Green Rust, GR) in aqueous solutions with chloroform being the reduction product. On the basis of sorption studies of carbon tetrachloride onto the GO surface it is suggested that it is the amphiphilicity of GO, which initiates the reaction by providing a suitable reaction platform for the reagents...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jing Xu, Yuyang Long, Dongsheng Shen, Huajun Feng, Ting Chen
Untreated leachate membrane concentrates are a threat to the environment. In our study, effective removal of contaminants in pre-coagulated leachate membrane concentrates was achieved using the Fenton process. The Fenton process was optimized using the response surface method, and the maximum total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and chromaticity reduction efficiencies reached 68.9%, 69.6%, and 100% under the conditions pH 2, H2O2 concentration 1mol/L, and Fe(2+) concentration 17.5mmol/L...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yue Zhang, Shiaw-Lin Wu, Yinyin Li
Capture reagents are critical to affinity-based bioanalytical methods. The potential bias of capture reagents, for or against certain subpopulations of the target of interest, may lead to inaccurate quantitation. This issue is more profound for sensitive measurements, such as post-translational modification (PTM) profiling of therapeutic proteins from complex matrix. Here, a recently developed affinity purification coupled mass spectrometric method was utilized to assess the full sequence of a circulating therapeutic aglycosylated IgG1 (MAB3) in human subject, using two different capture reagents...
October 21, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Mercedes Zurro, Olga García Mancheño
1,2,3-Triazoles are unique heterocycles with intriguing physical properties that allow not only the coordination to metals, but also the establishment of supramolecular interactions based on their polarized C-H bonds. In this account, an extensive work of our group on the design and application of 1,2,3-triazole catalysts is covered. Initially, a family of BINOL triazoles (Click-BINOLs) was synthesized and employed in model test reactions in asymmetric metal catalysis such as the Ti-catalyzed addition of alkylzinc reagents to aldehydes...
October 24, 2016: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Julia L Monteiro, Paula F Carneiro, Petteri Elsner, Dominique Roberge, Peter G M Wuts, Kathrin Kurjan, Bernhard Gutmann, C Oliver Kappe
Herein, we report an operationally simple and rapid continuous flow radical C─C bond formation under Minisci-type reaction conditions. The transformations are performed at or below room temperature employing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as reagents in the presence of an Fe(II) catalyst. For electron rich aromatic and heteroaromatic substrates C─C bond formation proceeds satisfactorily with electrophilic radicals including ∙CF3, ∙C4F9, ∙CH2CN and ∙CH2CO2Et. In contrast, electron poor substrates exhibit minimal reactivity...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Lu Liu, Georg Pohnert, Dong Wei
Industrial microalgae, as a big family of promising producers of renewable biomass feedstock, have been commercially exploited for functional food, living feed and feed additives, high-value chemicals in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and chemical reagents. Recently, microalgae have also been considered as a group that might play an important role in biofuel development and environmental protection. Almost all current products of industrial microalgae are derived from their biomass; however, large amounts of spent cell-free media are available from mass cultivation that is mostly unexploited...
October 20, 2016: Marine Drugs
Aaron D Bailey, Bryan P Murphy, Hairong Guan
An efficient synthesis of a green dye from oxidative coupling of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and resorcinol (in a 2:1 ratio) has been developed. Reactivity studies of this dye molecule with a variety of reagents (PPD, resorcinol, the oxidized form of the green dye itself, and a dinuclear indo dye) demonstrate that it cannot be the key reactive intermediate in reported oxidative oligomerization of PPD and resorcinol. However, the trinuclear species does form large aggregates. At least one viable pathway of oligomerization has been demonstrated with the dinuclear indo dye...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Maura Marinozzi, Fabrizio Pertusati, Michaela Serpi
The compounds characterized by the presence of a λ(5)-phosphorus functionality at the α-position with respect to the diazo moiety, here referred to as λ(5)-phosphorus-containing α-diazo compounds (PCDCs), represent a vast class of extremely versatile reagents in organic chemistry and are particularly useful in the preparation of phosphonate- and phosphinoxide-functionalized molecules. Indeed, thanks to the high reactivity of the diazo moiety, PCDCs can be induced to undergo a wide variety of chemical transformations...
October 24, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Jie Chen, Hong Liang, Lin Lin, Zhaopei Guo, Pingjie Sun, Meiwan Chen, Huayu Tian, MingXiao Deng, Xuesi Chen
Multifunctional nanoparticles with high gene transfection activity, low cytotoxicity, photoacoustic imaging ability, and photothermal therapeutic properties were prepared by conjugating low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine onto the surfaces of gold nanorods through the formation of stable S-Au bonded conjugates. Results revealed that the gene transfection efficiency of the prepared polyethylenimine-modified gold nanorods (GNRs-PEI1.8k) was higher and their cytotoxicity was less than those of the commercial reagent PEI25k...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lode De Munck, Carlos Vila, M Carmen Muñoz, José R Pedro
A catalytic highly enantioselective aza-Reformatsky reaction with cyclic aldimines and ketimines for the synthesis of chiral β-amino esters with good yields and excellent enantioselectivities is reported. A readily available diaryl prolinol is used as a chiral ligand, ZnMe2 as a zinc source and ethyl iodoacetate as reagent in the presence of air atmosphere. The reaction with cyclic ketimines generates a quaternary stereocenter with excellent levels of enantioselectivity. Furthermore, five-membered N-sulfonyl ketimines were used as electrophiles with good enantiomeric excesses, under the optimized reaction conditions...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Wonmok Lee, Yukyung Kim, Soonhee Chang, A-Jin Lee, Chang-Ho Jeon
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C may interfere with the results of urine dipstick tests. We investigated the incidence of urinary vitamin C and its interference with urine dipstick reagents using a vitamin C dipstick. METHODS: The incidence of urinary vitamin C was determined in patients and healthy individuals undergoing routine medical check-ups. Interference tests were performed using samples with various amounts of added vitamin C. For clinical samples, we identified false-negative dipstick glucose, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase results based on the urine sediment and serum glucose results...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
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