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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448443/two-length-scale-turbulence-model-for-self-similar-buoyancy-shock-and-shear-driven-mixing
#1
Brandon E Morgan, Oleg Schilling, Tucker A Hartland
The three-equation k-L-a turbulence model [B. Morgan and M. Wickett, Three-equation model for the self-similar growth of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, Phys. Rev. E 91, 043002 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.043002] is extended by the addition of a second length scale equation. It is shown that the separation of turbulence transport and turbulence destruction length scales is necessary for simultaneous prediction of the growth parameter and turbulence intensity of a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer when model coefficients are constrained by similarity analysis...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446165/synthetic-transient-crosslinks-program-the-mechanics-of-soft-biopolymer-based-materials
#2
Jessica S Lorenz, Jörg Schnauß, Martin Glaser, Martin Sajfutdinow, Carsten Schuldt, Josef A Käs, David M Smith
Actin networks are adaptive materials enabling dynamic and static functions of living cells. A central element for tuning their underlying structural and mechanical properties is the ability to reversibly connect, i.e., transiently crosslink, filaments within the networks. Natural crosslinkers, however, vary across many parameters. Therefore, systematically studying the impact of their fundamental properties like size and binding strength is unfeasible since their structural parameters cannot be independently tuned...
February 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433415/mechanical-protein-unfolding-and-degradation
#3
Adrian O Olivares, Tania A Baker, Robert T Sauer
AAA+ proteolytic machines use energy from ATP hydrolysis to degrade damaged, misfolded, or unneeded proteins. Protein degradation occurs within a barrel-shaped self-compartmentalized peptidase. Before protein substrates can enter this peptidase, they must be unfolded and then translocated through the axial pore of an AAA+ ring hexamer. An unstructured region of the protein substrate is initially engaged in the axial pore, and conformational changes in the ring, powered by ATP hydrolysis, generate a mechanical force that pulls on and denatures the substrate...
February 10, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423558/automated-sleep-staging-of-osas-based-on-ica-preprocessing-and-consolidation-of-temporal-correlations
#4
Somayeh Raiesdana
An automated sleep staging based on analyzing long-range time correlations in EEG is proposed. These correlations, indicating time-scale invariant property or self-similarity at different time scales, are known to be salient dynamical characteristics of stage succession for a sleeping brain even when the subject suffers a destructive disorder such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The goal is to extract a set of complementary features from cerebral sources mapped onto the scalp electrodes or from a number of denoised EEG channels...
February 8, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422681/melancholic-response-to-war-destruction-and-the-emergence-of-a-group-assumption-of-post-ness
#5
Kalina Yordanova
What psychological response does war and forced displacement evoke in victims? How do survivors of war communicate their experiences to their children? Finally, what culture does the psychological response to loss shape? Using data collected through interviews, psychological consultations, and children's drawings from two sources-the ongoing Syrian civil war and the Bosnian war of 1992-1995, this paper suggests that the experience of the war generation becomes the organizing axis of their identity and that of their children...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417652/persistence-of-self-injury-aggression-and-property-destruction-in-children-and-adults-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#6
L Wilde, K Wade, K Eden, J Moss, P J de Vries, C Oliver
BACKGROUND: Individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are at increased risk of developing self-injurious behaviour. The persistence of this deleterious behaviour over years is reported in aetiologically heterogeneous samples to be between 60% and 80% but is unknown for TSC. METHOD: In this study, we determined the 3-year persistence of self-injury in a sample (n = 52) of children (with and without ID) and adults (with ID) with TSC and examined characteristics associated with persistence...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416629/homing-of-endogenous-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-rat-infarcted-myocardium-via-ultrasound-mediated-recombinant-sdf-1%C3%AE-adenovirus-in-microbubbles
#7
Gaofeng Su, Liyun Liu, Lingjie Yang, Yuming Mu, Lina Guan
Stem cells can promote myocardial regeneration and accelerate the formation of new blood vessels. As such, transplanted stem cells represent a promising treatment modality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Stem cells spontaneously home to the infarcted myocardium using chemotaxis, in which the stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α) has been shown to be one of the most important chemokines. However, spontaneously secreted SDF-1α is short-lived, and therefore does not meet the needs of tissue repair. In this study, adenoviruses carrying SDF-1α genes were loaded on microbubble carriers and the adenoviruses were released into AMI rats by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415029/rates-and-risk-factors-for-human-cutaneous-anthrax-in-the-country-of-georgia-national-surveillance-data-2008-2015
#8
Ana Kasradze, Diana Echeverria, Khatuna Zakhashvili, Christian Bautista, Nicholas Heyer, Paata Imnadze, Veriko Mitrskhulava
INTRODUCTION: Anthrax is endemic in the country of Georgia. The most common cutaneous anthrax form accounts for 95% of anthrax cases and often is self-resolving. Humans are infected from processing contaminated animal products, contacting sick animals, or by insect bites. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the burden of human cutaneous anthrax and associated risk factors using the national surveillance data. METHODS: We extracted all human cutaneous anthrax cases from Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414240/self-standing-nanocellulose-janus-type-films-with-aldehyde-and-carboxyl-functionalities
#9
Tiina Nypelö, Hassan Amer, Johannes Konnerth, Antje Potthast, Thomas Rosenau
Nanocellulose-based self-standing films are becoming a substrate for flexible electronics, diagnostics and sensors. Strength and surface chemistry are vital variables for these film-based endeavors, the former that is one of the assets of nanocellulose. To contribute to the later, nanocellulose films are tuned with a side-specific functionalization, having an aldehyde and a carboxyl side. The functionalities were obtained combining premodification of the film components by periodate oxidation with ozone post-treatment...
February 7, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414104/acrolein-mediated-neuronal-cell-death-and-alpha-synuclein-aggregation-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Abeje Ambaw, Lingxing Zheng, Mitali A Tambe, Katherine E Strathearn, Glen Acosta, Scott A Hubers, Fang Liu, Seth A Herr, Jonathan Tang, Alan Truong, Elwood Walls, Amber Pond, Jean-Christophe Rochet, Riyi Shi
Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a critical role in neuronal destruction characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic cell death are far from clear. In the current investigation, we tested the hypothesis that acrolein, an oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) product, is a key factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Using a combination of in vitro, in vivo, and cell free models, coupled with anatomical, functional, and behavioral examination, we found that acrolein was elevated in 6-OHDA-injected rats, and behavioral deficits associated with 6-OHDA could be mitigated by the application of the acrolein scavenger hydralazine, and mimicked by injection of acrolein in healthy rats...
January 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408658/self-assembling-toxin-based-nanoparticles-as-self-delivered-antitumoral-drugs
#11
Laura Sánchez-García, Naroa Serna, Patricia Álamo, Rita Sala, María Virtudes Céspedes, Mònica Roldan, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Ugutz Unzueta, Isolda Casanova, Ramón Mangues, Esther Vázquez, Antonio Villaverde
Loading capacity and drug leakage from vehicles during circulation in blood is a major concern when developing nanoparticle-based cell-targeted cytotoxics. To circumvent this potential issue it would be convenient the engineering of drugs as self-delivered nanoscale entities, devoid of any heterologous carriers. In this context, we have here engineered potent protein toxins, namely segments of the diphtheria toxin and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin as self-assembling, self-delivered therapeutic materials targeted to CXCR4+ cancer stem cells...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394674/-a-case-of-stage-iv-breast-cancer-with-extensive-metastasis-successfully-treated-with-s-1-plus-anastrozole-therapy
#12
Tatsuro Mugitani, Tomoya Hatakeyama, Toshinori Sakai, Atsushi Matsumura, Shiro Ogino, Toshikazu Akami, Shinji Okano
We report the case of a patient in which S-1 plus anastrozole was administered as first-line chemotherapy for Stage IV breast cancer with skin invasion, multiple lymph node metastasis, and lymphangitis carcinomatosis. A 77-year-old woman had a mass destroyed immediately outside the axilla with dry coughs. An 11mm unpalpable mass in the right breast and an axillary mass were confirmed to be scirrhous carcinoma(Luminal type B), respectively, by core needle biopsy. In one course, S- 1(100mg/day)therapy involves taking 2 courses of 14 days of administration and 7 days off the drug...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393979/breaking-self-tolerance-during-autoimmunity-and-cancer-immunity-myeloid-cells-and-type-i-ifn-response-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Kristin V Tarbell, Jackson G Egen
The generation and regulation of innate immune signals are key determinants of autoimmune pathogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that parallel processes operating in the setting of solid tumors can similarly determine the balance between tolerance and immunity and ultimately the effectiveness of the antitumor immune response. In both contexts, self-specific responses start with innate immune cell activation that leads to the initial break in self-tolerance, which can be followed by immune response amplification and maturation through innate-adaptive crosstalk, and finally immune-mediated tissue/tumor destruction that can further potentiate inflammation...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392770/the-good-the-not-so-bad-and-the-ugly-of-immune-homeostasis-in-melanoma
#14
REVIEW
Jessica da Gama Duarte, Katherine Woods, Miles C Andrews, Andreas Behren
Within the immune system multiple mechanisms balance the need for efficient pathogen recognition and destruction with the prevention of tissue damage by excessive, inappropriate or even self-targeting (auto)immune reactions. This immune homeostasis is a tightly regulated system which fails during tumor development, often due to the hijacking of its essential self-regulatory mechanisms by cancer cells. It is facilitated not only by tumor intrinsic properties, but also by the microbiome, host genetics and other factors...
February 2, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387524/evidence-of-progressive-tissue-loss-in-the-core-of-chronic-ms-lesions-a-longitudinal-dti-study
#15
Alexander Klistorner, Chenyu Wang, Con Yiannikas, John Parratt, Michael Dwyer, Joshua Barton, Stuart L Graham, Yuyi You, Sidong Liu, Michael H Barnett
Objective: Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we examined chronic stable MS lesions, peri-lesional white matter (PLWM) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) for evidence of progressive tissue destruction and evaluated whether diffusivity change is associated with conventional MRI parameters and clinical findings. Method: Pre- and post-gadolinium T1, T2 and DTI images were acquired from 55 consecutive RRMS patients at baseline and 42...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360643/tumor-infiltrating-brafv600e-specific-cd4-t-cells-correlated-with-complete-clinical-response-in-melanoma
#16
Joshua R Veatch, Sylvia M Lee, Matthew Fitzgibbon, I-Ting Chow, Brenda Jesernig, Thomas Schmitt, Ying Ying Kong, Julia Kargl, A McGarry Houghton, John A Thompson, Martin McIntosh, William W Kwok, Stanley R Riddell
T cells specific for neoantigens encoded by mutated genes in cancers are increasingly recognized as mediators of tumor destruction after immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy or adoptive cell transfer. Unfortunately, most neoantigens result from random mutations and are patient specific, and some cancers contain few mutations to serve as potential antigens. We describe a patient with stage IV acral melanoma who obtained a complete response following adoptive transfer of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Tumor exome sequencing surprisingly revealed less than 30 somatic mutations, including oncogenic BRAF V600E...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356584/self-reactive-b-cells-in-the-germinal-center-reaction
#17
Robert Brink, Tri Giang Phan
Maintenance of immunological self-tolerance requires lymphocytes carrying self-reactive antigen receptors to be selectively prevented from mounting destructive or inflammatory effector responses. Classically, self-tolerance is viewed in terms of the removal, editing, or silencing of B and T cells that have formed self-reactive antigen receptors during their early development. However, B cells activated by foreign antigen can enter germinal centers (GCs), where they further modify their antigen receptor by somatic hypermutation (SHM) of their immunoglobulin genes...
January 22, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347299/self-similarity-in-explosive-synchronization-of-complex-networks
#18
Alexey A Koronovskii, Maria K Kurovskaya, Olga I Moskalenko, Alexander Hramov, Stefano Boccaletti
We report that explosive synchronization of networked oscillators (a process through which the transition to coherence occurs without intermediate stages but is rather characterized by a sudden and abrupt jump from the network's asynchronous to synchronous motion) is related to self-similarity of synchronous clusters of different size. Self-similarity is revealed by destructing the network synchronous state during the backward transition and observed with the decrease of the coupling strength between the nodes of the network...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343774/an-improved-method-of-crafting-a-multi-electrode-spiral-cuff-for-the-selective
#19
Janez Rozman, Polona Pečlin, Samo Ribarič, Matjaž Godec, Jaka Burja
This article reviews an improved methodology and technology for crafting a multi-electrode spiral cuff for the selective activation of nerve fibres in particular superficial regions of a peripheral nerve. The analysis, structural and mechanical properties of the spot welds used for the interconnections between the stimulating electrodes and stainless-steel lead wires are presented. The cuff consisted of 33 platinum electrodes embedded within a self-curling 17-mm-long silicone spiral sheet with a nominal internal diameter of 2...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336775/neural-correlates-of-emotional-action-control-in-anger-prone-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#20
Katja Bertsch, Karin Roelofs, Paul Jonathan Roch, Bo Ma, Saskia Hensel, Sabine C Herpertz, Inge Volman
BACKGROUND: Difficulty in controlling emotional impulses is a crucial component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often leads to destructive, impulsive behaviours against others. In line with recent findings in aggressive individuals, deficits in prefrontal amygdala coupling during emotional action control may account for these symptoms. METHODS: To study the neurobiological correlates of altered emotional action control in individuals with BPD, we asked medication-free, anger-prone, female patients with BPD and age- and intelligence-matched healthy women to take part in an approach-avoidance task while lying in an MRI scanner...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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