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Self destructive

Tapasi Rana, Pravallika Kotla, Roderick Fullard, Marina Gorbatyuk
Expression of T17M rhodopsin (T17M) in rods activates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and leads to the development of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The rod death occurs in adRP retinas prior to cone photoreceptor death, so the mechanism by which cone photoreceptors die remains unclear. Therefore, the goal of the study was to verify whether UPR in rods induces TNFa-mediated signaling to the cones and to determine whether the TNFa deficit could prevent adRP cone cell death. Primary rod photoreceptors and cone-derived 661W cells transfected with siRNA against TNFa were treated with tunicamycin to mimic activation of UPR in T17M retinas expressing normal and reduced TNFa levels...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yan Zhang, Richard G Weiss
The structural and dynamic properties of molecular gels, made from 9 structurally-related mono-, di, and tri-hydroxymethylated alkanamide gelators, have been examined at different distance scales. The subtle changes in the gelator structures, in terms of the number of hydroxymethyl groups and the length of the alkanamide chain, have been correlated with the type of the self-assembled fibrillar networks and the viscoelasticity of the gels as well as the characteristics of the liquid as indicated by Hansen solubility parameters...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Menghao Wu, Shuai Dong, Kailun Yao, Jun-Ming Liu, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Realization of ferroelectric semiconductors by conjoining ferroelectricity with semiconductors remain a challenging task because most present-day ferroelectric materials are unsuitable for such a combination due to their wide bandgaps. Herein we show first-principles evidence towards the realization of a new class of 2D ferroelectric semiconductors through covalent functionalization of many prevailing 2D materials. Members in this new class of 2D ferroelectric semiconductors include covalently functionalized germanene, and stanene (Nat...
October 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Hidetsugu Sakaguchi, E Ya Sherman, Boris A Malomed
We present an analysis of two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons, governed by the pseudospinor system of Gross-Pitaevskii equations with self- and cross attraction, which includes the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the general Rashba-Dresselhaus form, and, separately, the Rashba coupling and the Zeeman splitting. Families of semivortex (SV) and mixed-mode (MM) solitons are constructed, which exist and are stable in free space, as the SOC terms prevent the onset of the critical collapse and create the otherwise missing ground states in the form of the solitons...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Self-inflicted injury (SII) is a continuum of intentionally self-destructive behaviors, including nonsuicidal self-injuries, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. These behaviors are among the most pressing yet perplexing clinical problems, affecting males and females of every race, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic status, and nearly every age. The complexity of these behaviors has spurred an immense literature documenting risk and vulnerability factors ranging from individual to societal levels of analysis...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Ganiyu Oladunjoye Oyetibo, Keisuke Miyauchi, Hitoshi Suzuki, Ginro Endo
Ecotoxicological implications of mercury (Hg) pollution of hydrosphere require effective Hg-removal strategies as antidote to the environmental problems. Mercury-tolerant yeasts, Yarrowia spp. Idd1 and Idd2 strains, were studied for intracellular accumulation and extracellular micro-precipitation of Hg during growth stage of the yeast strains. In a liquid medium containing 870 (±23.6) µg of bioavailable Hg(2+), 419.0 µg Hg(2+) (approx.) was taken up by the wet biomasses of the yeast strains after 48 h post-inoculation...
December 2016: AMB Express
Stefanie Z Demetriades, Nathan Walter
This study explores whether self-affirmation has the capacity not merely to reduce the perceived threat associated with health-related information but also to facilitate interpersonal discussion and affect health information-seeking behavior. The context for the study is the ongoing California drought, which serves as suitable context to examine the intersection of self-affirmation and information-seeking behavior because it involves a threatening message (the destructive consequences of the drought) and highlights discrepancies between actual (water waste) and prosocial (water conservation) behavior...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Health Communication
Yuya Yamagishi, Marc Tessier-Lavigne
Axon degeneration is a tightly regulated, self-destructive program that is a critical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this program remain poorly understood. Here, we identify S-phase kinase-associated protein 1A (Skp1a), a core component of a Skp/Cullin/F-box (SCF)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, as a critical regulator of axon degeneration after injury in mammalian neurons. Depletion of Skp1a prolongs survival of injured axons in vitro and in the optic nerve in vivo...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
S S Hall, R P Barnett, K M Hustyi
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common known inherited form of intellectual disability (ID), exhibit problem behaviours (e.g. aggression, self-injury, property destruction and stereotypy) that can negatively impact the health and safety of others as well as the individual concerned. However, data are limited concerning the relative prevalence, frequency and severity of problem behaviours exhibited by boys with FXS compared with those by boys with mixed-aetiology ID who also exhibit problem behaviours...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
María-Victoria Alvarez-Sánchez, Bertrand Napoléon
Most pancreatic cancers and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are unresectable at the time of diagnosis, and even in case of a resectable cancer, for elderly or patients with coexistent comorbidities, surgery is not an option. Current treatment alternatives in these scenarios are very limited. Biliary stenting with self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is the mainstay palliative treatment of biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer or cholangiocarcinoma. Nevertheless, more than 50% of SEMS become occluded after 6 mo due to tumour over- and ingrowth, leading to hospital readmissions and reinterventions that significantly impair quality of life...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
(no author information available yet)
Challenging behaviour is any culturally abnormal behaviour that places people in jeopardy. It is prevalent in people with cognitive impairments, and can present as self-injury, aggression, destructive behaviours and wandering.
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Jingjing Deng, Guoyue Shi, Tianshu Zhou
This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric detection of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on dual-responsive lanthanide infinite coordination polymer (Ln-ICP) particles with ratiometric fluorescence. The ICP used in this study are composed of two components: one is the supramolecular Ln-ICP network formed by the coordination between the ligand 2,2'-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and central metal ion Eu(3+); and the other is a fluorescent dye, i.e., coumarin 343 (C343), both as the cofactor ligand and as the sensitizer, doped into the Ln-ICP network through self-adaptive chemistry...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Felipe A Court, Jaime Alvarez
Here we propose a model of a peripheral axon with a great deal of autonomy from its cell body-the autonomous axon-but with a substantial dependence on its ensheathing Schwann cell (SC), the axon-SC unit. We review evidence in several fields and show that (i) axons can extend sprouts and grow without the concurrence of the cell body, but regulated by SCs; (ii) axons synthesize their proteins assisted by SCs that supply them with ribosomes and, probably, with mRNAs by way of exosomes; (iii) the molecular organization of the axoplasm, i...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
William Simkulet
Recently philosophers have proposed a wide variety of interventions referred to as 'moral enhancements'. Some of these interventions are concerned with helping individuals make more informed decisions; others, however, are designed to compel people to act as the intervener sees fit. Somewhere between these two extremes lie interventions designed to direct an agent's attention either towards morally relevant issues - hat-hanging - or away from temptations to do wrong - hat-hiding. I argue that these interventions fail to constitute genuine moral enhancement because, although they may result in more desirable outcomes - more altruism, more law-following, and/or less self-destructive behavior, they ignore a person's intentions, and often what makes an action right or wrong is the intent behind it...
September 30, 2016: Bioethics
Jianqiong Yang, Haiqing Liu, Linfu Li, Hai Liu, Weimei Shi, Xiaoliang Yuan, Longhuo Wu
IRE1 signaling is the most evolutionarily conserved branch in the UPR. IRE1 is an ER stress sensor and provides a structure-based platform for the unfolded proteins docking, which causes the luminal domain conformational change and oligomerization. This self-association of IRE1 facilitates the phosphorylation of activation loop, which unlocks the auto-inhibition in the kinase domain. The activating mechanistic cascade is thus initiated to induce DFG-in conformational change and movement of αC-helix to the active site...
September 27, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Andrew G Hughson, Brent Race, Allison Kraus, Laura R Sangaré, Lori Robins, Bradley R Groveman, Eri Saijo, Katie Phillips, Luis Contreras, Virkamal Dhaliwal, Matteo Manca, Gianluigi Zanusso, Daniel Terry, Jeffrey F Williams, Byron Caughey
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is produced naturally by neutrophils and other cells to kill conventional microbes in vivo. Synthetic preparations containing HOCl can also be effective as microbial disinfectants. Here we have tested whether HOCl can also inactivate prions and other self-propagating protein amyloid seeds. Prions are deadly pathogens that are notoriously difficult to inactivate, and standard microbial disinfection protocols are often inadequate. Recommended treatments for prion decontamination include strongly basic (pH ≥~12) sodium hypochlorite bleach, ≥1 N sodium hydroxide, and/or prolonged autoclaving...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Daniel W Summers, Daniel A Gibson, Aaron DiAntonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt
Axon injury in response to trauma or disease stimulates a self-destruction program that promotes the localized clearance of damaged axon segments. Sterile alpha and Toll/interleukin receptor (TIR) motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) is an evolutionarily conserved executioner of this degeneration cascade, also known as Wallerian degeneration; however, the mechanism of SARM1-dependent neuronal destruction is still obscure. SARM1 possesses a TIR domain that is necessary for SARM1 activity. In other proteins, dimerized TIR domains serve as scaffolds for innate immune signaling...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tuo Li, Zhenwen Zhao, Quan Wang, Pengfei Xie, Jiahai Ma
Quinone-hydroquinone analogues have been proven to be efficient promoters of Fenton reactions by accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle along with self-destruction. However, so far there is little information on non-quinone-hydroquinone cocatalyst for Fenton reactions. This study found that cysteine, a common aliphatic amino acid, can strongly enhance Fenton degradation of organic pollutants by accelerating Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle, as quinone-hydroquinone analogues do. Further, cysteine is superior to quinone-hydroquinone analogues in catalytic activity, H2O2 utilization and atmospheric limits...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Darya Safavian, Jennifer Doucet, Daphne R Goring
In the Brassicaceae, the dry stigma is an initial barrier to pollen acceptance as the stigmatic papillae lack surface secretions, and consequently rapid cellular responses are required to accept compatible pollen. Regulated secretion with secretory vesicles or multivesicular bodies is initiated in the stigmatic papillae towards the compatible pollen grain. In self-incompatible species, this basal compatible pollen response is superseded by the self-incompatibility signaling pathway where the secretory organelles are found in autophagosomes and vacuole for destruction...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Glenn D Guest, David F Scott, Joao P Xavier, Nelson Martins, Eric Vreede, Antony Chennal, Daliah Moss, David A Watters
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste suffered a destructive withdrawal by the Indonesian military in 1999, leaving only 20 Timorese-based doctors and no practising specialists for a population of 700 000 that has now grown to 1.2 million. METHODS: This article assesses the outcomes and impact of Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) specialist medical support from 2001 to 2015. Three programmes were designed collaboratively with the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and Australian Aid...
September 20, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
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