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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035880/immunoregulation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-by-endothelial-derived-p33-gc1q-receptor
#1
Ariane Neumann, Praveen Papareddy, Johannes Westman, Ole Hyldegaard, Johanna Snäll, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Heiko Herwald
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a host defence mechanism, known to facilitate the entrapment and growth inhibition of many bacterial pathogens. It has been implicated that the translocation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from neutrophilic granules to the nucleus is crucial to this process. Under disease conditions, however, excessive NET formation can trigger self-destructive complications by releasing pathologic levels of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs). To counteract such devastating immune reactions, the host has to rely on precautions that help circumvent these deleterious effects...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032168/ineffectiveness-of-the-tobacco-hazards-prevention-act-in-patients-with-severe-and-persistent-mental-illness
#2
B-C Shu, F-W Lung, S-E Guo, K-C Chen, S-Y Fang, A-L Wang
OBJECTIVES: The effect of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (THPA) on the reduction of tobacco use in the general population in Taiwan is understood. However, there has been little research on how these policies affect people with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Hence, the influence of the THPA on daily cigarette use by patients with SPMI was investigated in a 3-year follow-up. The risk and protective factors in smoking behavior and cessation were investigated. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational study...
October 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031381/-adolescent-vulnerabilities-and-radicalisation
#3
Adrien Lenjalley, Rahmeth Radjack, Maude Ludot, Fatima Touhami, Marie Rose Moro
Radicalisation resonates with the psychological vulnerabilities of adolescents. The ups and downs encountered as they attempt to construct their identity and their need to dominate favour the destructive nature of young people lacking a sense of filiation and belonging. An adolescent's engagement corresponds to a search for limits, with an adherence to religious values and to a group to establish self-esteem. Subjectification, authorising the adolescent to separate themselves from their parents and their values through a period of crisis must be supported...
October 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030662/oral-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-synergises-with-t-cell-targeted-immunotherapy-to-preserve-beta-cell-metabolic-function-and-induce-stable-remission-of-new-onset-autoimmune-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#4
Alix Besançon, Tania Goncalves, Fabrice Valette, Mattias S Dahllöf, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen, Lucienne Chatenoud, Sylvaine You
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Combination therapy targeting the major actors involved in the immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells appears to be an indispensable approach to treat type 1 diabetes effectively. We hypothesised that the combination of an orally active pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi: givinostat) with subtherapeutic doses of CD3 antibodies may provide ideal synergy to treat ongoing autoimmunity. METHODS: NOD mice transgenic for the human CD3ε (also known as CD3E) chain (NOD-huCD3ε) were treated for recent-onset diabetes with oral givinostat, subtherapeutic doses of humanised CD3 antibodies (otelixizumab, 50 μg/day, 5 days, i...
October 13, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028365/exploring-self-care-and-preferred-supports-for-adult-parents-in-recovery-from-substance-use-disorders-qualitative-findings-from-a-feasibility-study
#5
Phyllis A Raynor, Charlene Pope, Janet York, Gigi Smith, Martina Mueller
Very little is known about the self-care behaviors (SCB) that adult parents employ and the preferred supports they utilize to maintain their recovery from substance use disorders (SUD) while also parenting their children. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach to explore perceptions of self-care and parenting to inform future self-care interventions for parents in early recovery. Nineteen mothers and fathers of at least one child between the ages of 6-18 were interviewed by telephone about parental self-care practices while in recovery from SUD, recovery management, and preferred supports in the community...
October 13, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020636/self-organized-cerebral-organoids-with-human-specific-features-predict-effective-drugs-to-combat-zika-virus-infection
#6
Momoko Watanabe, Jessie E Buth, Neda Vishlaghi, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jiannis Taxidis, Baljit S Khakh, Giovanni Coppola, Caroline A Pearson, Ken Yamauchi, Danyang Gong, Xinghong Dai, Robert Damoiseaux, Roghiyh Aliyari, Simone Liebscher, Katja Schenke-Layland, Christine Caneda, Eric J Huang, Ye Zhang, Genhong Cheng, Daniel H Geschwind, Peyman Golshani, Ren Sun, Bennett G Novitch
The human cerebral cortex possesses distinct structural and functional features that are not found in the lower species traditionally used to model brain development and disease. Accordingly, considerable attention has been placed on the development of methods to direct pluripotent stem cells to form human brain-like structures termed organoids. However, many organoid differentiation protocols are inefficient and display marked variability in their ability to recapitulate the three-dimensional architecture and course of neurogenesis in the developing human brain...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018409/innate-viral-receptor-signaling-determines-type-1-diabetes-onset
#7
REVIEW
Zachary J Morse, Marc S Horwitz
Heritable susceptibility of the autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D), only partially equates for the incidence of the disease. Significant evidence attributes several environmental stressors, such as vitamin D deficiency, gut microbiome, dietary antigens, and most notably virus infections in triggering the onset of T1D in these genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies have provided credibility to this causal relationship. Infection by the enterovirus, coxsackievirus B, has been closely associated with onset of T1D and is considered a significant etiological agent for disease induction...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988715/self-transducible-bimodal-pdx1-foxp3-protein-lifts-insulin-secretion-and-curbs-autoimmunity-boosting-tregs-in-type-1-diabetic-mice
#8
Christina Amatya, Ilian A Radichev, Jacob Ellefson, Mark Williams, Alexei Y Savinov
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by massive destruction of insulin-producing β cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes, arising via defective immune tolerance. Therefore, effective anti-T1D therapeutics should combine autoimmunity-preventing and insulin production-restoring properties. We constructed a cell-permeable PDX1-FOXP3-TAT fusion protein (FP) composed of two transcription factors: forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), the master regulator of differentiation and functioning of self-tolerance-promoting Tregs, and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1), the crucial factor supporting β cell development and maintenance...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987172/acute-and-chronic-viral-infections
#9
Nikolaus Deigendesch, Werner Stenzel
A large number of viruses belonging to various families are able to cause central nervous system (CNS) infections and contribute significantly to burden of disease in humans globally. Most viral CNS infections are benign and self-limiting, and most remain undiagnosed. However, some viruses can cause severe inflammation, leading to morbidity and mortality, and result in severe long-term residual damage and neurologic dysfunction in patients. The potential of viruses to cause CNS inflammation greatly varies depending on host factors, such as age, sex, and genetic background, as well as viral factors...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987112/ionic-liquids-mediated-interactions-between-nanorods
#10
Zhou Yu, Fei Zhang, Jingsong Huang, Bobby G Sumpter, Rui Qiao
Surface forces mediated by room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) play an essential role in diverse applications including self-assembly, lubrication, and electrochemical energy storage. Therefore, their fundamental understanding is critical. Using molecular simulations, we study the interactions between two nanorods immersed in model RTILs at rod-rod separations where both structural and double layer forces are important. The interaction force between neutral rods oscillates as the two rods approach each other, similar to the classical structural forces...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983861/the-issues-of-freedom-and-happiness-in-moral-bioenhancement-continuing-the-debate-with-a-reply-to-harris-wiseman
#11
Vojin Rakić
During the previous years, Harris Wiseman has devoted substantial attention to my stance on voluntary moral bioenhancement. He argued that he has been influenced by that position, but nonetheless criticized it. I haven't replied to his criticisms yet and wish to do so now. One of the reasons is to avoid my position being misrepresented. By replying to Wiseman's criticisms, I also wish to clarify those issues in my standpoint that might have given rise to some of the misinterpretations. With the same purpose in mind, I will demarcate my concept of voluntary moral bioenhancement from related standpoints, in particular from Persson and Savulescu's notion of compulsory moral bioenhancement that, as I argued, diminishes our freedom (of the will)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983266/the-psychoanalytic-concept-of-jouissance-and-the-kindling-hypothesis
#12
REVIEW
Yorgos Dimitriadis
This article aims to define the conceptual field of jouissance in Lacanian theory, and put forth the hypothesis of a relationship between certain neurophysiological mechanisms and specific clinical phenomena where jouissance is "kindled" and outside the control of the symbolic process. First, the author briefly introduces Lacan's notion of jouissance and the way it draws on Freud's theorization, and describes the preliminary stages of this conceptual field in Lacan's work. Then, the jouissance related to two other concepts: repetition, with its Freudian and Lacanian nuances, as well as the-exclusively-Lacanian concept of the object petit a...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983149/characteristics-of-repetitive-thought-associated-with-borderline-personality-features-a-multimodal-investigation-of-ruminative-content-and-style
#13
Jessica R Peters, Tory A Eisenlohr-Moul, Brian T Upton, Nina A Talavera, Jacob J Folsom, Ruth A Baer
Increased ruminative style of thought has been well documented in borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, less is known about how the content of rumination relates to domains of BPD features. Relationships between forms of rumination and BPD features were examined in an undergraduate sample with a wide range of BPD features. Participants completed self-report measures of rumination and a free-writing task about their repetitive thought. Rumination on specific themes, including anger rumination, depressive brooding, rumination on interpersonal situations, anxious rumination, and stress-reactive rumination were significantly associated with most BPD features after controlling for general rumination...
September 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982814/emotion-regulation-group-therapy-for-deliberate-self-harm-a-multi-site-evaluation-in-routine-care-using-an-uncontrolled-open-trial-design
#14
Hanna Sahlin, Johan Bjureberg, Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull, Erik Hedman, Jonas Bjärehed, Jussi Jokinen, Lars-Gunnar Lundh, Brjánn Ljótsson, Clara Hellner
OBJECTIVE: Emotion regulation group therapy (ERGT) has shown promising results in several efficacy trials. However, it has not been evaluated outside a research setting. In order to increase the availability of empirically supported treatments for individuals with borderline personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, an evaluation of ERGT in routine clinical care was conducted with therapists of different professional backgrounds who had received brief intensive training in ERGT prior to trial onset...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979823/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-the-central-nervous-system-potential-biomarkers-in-identifying-suicide-risk
#15
REVIEW
Atmaram Yarlagadda, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Anita H Clayton
The rate of completed suicides continues to rise across nations, cultures, socioeconomic classes, age groups, sexes, military personnel, veterans, and civilians from different backgrounds. Most concerning is the absence of diagnosed mental health disorders in the majority of these cases, per current literature reports. Efforts in the identification and possible prevention of this ultimate, tragic act of self-destruction have been minimally successful. In this article, the authors discuss the possible biological mechanisms including the role for potential markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and their association with suicidal behaviors...
May 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974821/formulation-characterization-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-black-cumin-essential-oil-nanoemulsions-stabilized-by-osa-starch
#16
Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Shabbar Abbas, Hamid Majeed, Waseem Safdar, Muhammad Shamoon, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Muhammad Shoaib, Husnain Raza, Junaid Haider
Preparation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions has emerged as a subject of interest for the encapsulation of lipophilic functional ingredients to increase their stability and activity. In this study, black cumin essential oil nanoemulsions (BCO-NE) using different ratios of essential oil with canola and flax seed oils (ripening inhibitors) were formulated and stabilized with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified waxy maize starch. The nanoemulsions exhibited monomodal size distributions with mean droplet diameter below 200 nm and zeta potential above -30, indicating a strong electrostatic repulsion between the dispersed oil droplets...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970486/contribution-of-reactive-oxygen-species-to-thymineless-death-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Yuzhi Hong, Liping Li, Gan Luan, Karl Drlica, Xilin Zhao
Nutrient starvation usually halts cell growth rather than causing death. Thymine starvation is exceptional, because it kills cells rapidly. This phenomenon, called thymineless death (TLD), underlies the action of several antibacterial, antimalarial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory agents. Many explanations for TLD have been advanced, with recent efforts focused on recombination proteins and replication origin (oriC) degradation. Because current proposals account for only part of TLD and because reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in bacterial death due to other forms of harsh stress, we investigated the possible involvement of ROS in TLD...
October 2, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949679/benchmark-experiment-for-photoionized-plasma-emission-from-accretion-powered-x-ray-sources
#18
G P Loisel, J E Bailey, D A Liedahl, C J Fontes, T R Kallman, T Nagayama, S B Hansen, G A Rochau, R C Mancini, R W Lee
The interpretation of x-ray spectra emerging from x-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei accreted plasmas relies on complex physical models for radiation generation and transport in photoionized plasmas. These models have not been sufficiently experimentally validated. We have developed a highly reproducible benchmark experiment to study spectrum formation from a photoionized silicon plasma in a regime comparable to astrophysical plasmas. Ionization predictions are higher than inferred from measured absorption spectra...
August 18, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947544/treg-depletion-licenses-t-cell-driven-hev-neogenesis-and-promotes-tumor-destruction
#19
Emily J Colbeck, Emma Jones, James P Hindley, Kathryn Smart, Ralph Schulz, Molly Browne, Scott Cutting, Anwen Williams, Lee Parry, Andrew Godkin, Carl F Ware, Ann Ager, Awen Gallimore
T-cell infiltration into tumors represents a critical bottleneck for immune-mediated control of cancer. We previously showed that this bottleneck can be overcome by depleting immunosuppressive Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), a process which can increase frequencies of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) through promoting development of specialized portals for lymphocyte entry, namely high endothelial venules (HEVs). In this paper, we used a carcinogen-induced tumor model, that allows for co-evolution of the tumor microenvironment and the immune response, to demonstrate that Treg depletion not only results in widespread disruption to HEV networks in lymph nodes (LNs) but activates CD8+ T cells, which then drive intratumoral HEV development...
September 25, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946895/an-unusual-foreign-object-mimicking-an-odontoma-in-a-patient-with-cleft-alveolus-a-case-report
#20
Nadeena Sri Swarnagupta Jayasuriya, Pallege Ralalage Chandana Lakmal Karunathilaka, Parakrama Wijekoon
BACKGROUND: The habit of inserting foreign objects into body cavities is seen in children and in adults with intellectual disability. Usually, the foreign objects cause chronic inflammation and local tissue destruction, which give rise to symptoms. Diagnosis at an asymptomatic stage is uncommon when the history is not suggestive. We describe a rare case where a foreign object was misdiagnosed as an odontoma in a patient with an alveolar cleft. CASE PRESENTATION: A radiopaque round mass was noted on the radiograph of a 12-year-old Sinhalese boy who was awaiting an alveolar bone graft...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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